Why did the Portuguese Empire collapse?

Why did the Portuguese Empire collapse?

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages
(or medieval period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman
Empire and merged into the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery. The Middle Ages is the middle period of the
three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval , and the
modern period. The Medieval one is itself subdivided into
the Early, High, and Late phases. Since the fall of Rome, there has been no
empire based in Europe which extends outside the continent. This situation changes abruptly in the 16th
century, when Spain and Portugal become the pioneers in a new era of colonization. But before was the Middle Ages. In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages
(or medieval period) lasted from the 5th to In that period The Ibearian Peninsula was a principal area In Europe which was marked by wars, famine and invasion. Muslim conquest of Hispania was the initial
expansion of the Umayyad Caliphate over Hispania, largely extending from 711 to 788. The conquest resulted in the destruction of
the Visigothic Kingdom The ‘Reconquista’, describe the period in the history of the
Iberian Peninsula of about 780 years between the Umayyad conquest of Hispania in 711 and
the fall of the Nasrid kingdom of Granada to the expanding Christian kingdoms in 1491. One of these Christian Kingdoms which reconquered
the peninsula was Portugal. This period is so important because it is
in fact the transition between the post roman Iberia and the exploration era. The simple idea of fighting the Muslims on
their own soil was linked with more-complicated motives: the desire to explore in a scientific
sense, the hope of finding a way to the rich spice trade of the Indies, and the impulse
to spread the Christian faith. So even before the Columbus’s Voyages, Portugal
being at the end of Europe on the Atlantic coast, started some expeditions reaching some
islands in the ocean and The West African Coast. A huge trade network was a goal for the Portuguese. The Oriental land and sea routes terminated
along the Mediterranean sea for them. The word spices then had a loose application
and extended to many Oriental luxuries. Later Vasco da Gama, adventured south and
east for Portugal, reached India in 1498 establishing a new route to the Asian Goods. Portugal gained possessions in India, the
East Indies, and Brazil. Besides the footholds in some parts of the
world, Portugal was a country that discovered other places and establish trade routes to
China and Japan. And their empire will start to exist as scarcely
empire. It was a commercial operation based on possession
of fortifications and posts strategically situated for trade. Portugal didn’t focus on attacking and gaining
tons of land from Oriental Kingdoms due to the probably the lack of necessary manpower
and the huge distance to do so. the Portuguese also relied on alliances with
native states and didn’t dominate the Indian Ocean due to it’s vastness, but managed to
establish strongholds to assure a trade network. The first parts of the portuguese empire to
be lost were the eastern colonies in Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Nagasaki, Taiwan).This lose began
in 1580, when the spanish king became the first of three consequitive spanish kings
of Portugal due to family ties between the two crowns. In 1580 Philip II of Spain seized the Portuguese
throne, which had fallen vacant and to which he had some blood claim. Portugal remained theoretically independent,
bound only by a personal union to its neighbour; but succeeding Spanish monarchs steadily encroached
on its liberties until the small kingdom became, in effect, a conquered province. Spain’s European enemies meanwhile descended
on the Portuguese Empire and ended its Eastern supremacy before the restoration of Portugal’s
independence in 1640. Spain was a power at that time but, However,
this union meant that Spain dragged Portugal into its conflicts with other European powers
countries. This ones weakened The Spanish and the Portugues
and marked their slow decline. The spanish wars became portuguese wars (for
instance, several portuguese ships were integrated in the Spanish Armada that attacked England
in 1588). One of those inherited wars was with the Dutch,
fighting for their freedom against spanish rule. They began attacking portuguese colonies throughout
the world in 1602. The Dutch conquered most of the eastern portuguese. The eastern portuguese empire ended except
some stronholds like Timor in Indonesia, Macau in China and Goa in India. Also in the Arab Peninsula the Portuguese
will lose small possessions. The loss of colonies was one of the reasons
that contributed to the end of the personal union with Spain.The crown established the
Overseas Council, in 1643. In the the next hundred years the English
started to became the dominant power in India. The Portuguese were defeated by the some Indian
Kingdoms and after all this they were only able to maintain Goa and other minor bases
in India. The gold rush and the plantation industry
in Brazil, which was the main Portuguese colony, considerably increased the gains of the crown
in the 18th Century. But in the same century, In 1755, Lisbon,
the Capital, was hit by a catastrophic huge earthquake, followed by a tsunami created
huge destruction. Probably this event was influenced in a pretty
bad way the Portuguese colonial and internal ambitions. After the American Independence it was fear
that some other colonies in the New World might do the same. But Brazil wasn’t under a serious threat at
that time. The situation will change after 1808, when
Napoleon changed the history of Europe and the World by invading some countries, creating
instability, new coalitions and his actions. A were followed by other actions. In 1808, Napoleon Bonaparte invaded Portugal
and the royal court was moved to Brazil. By 1815 Brazil was elevated to the status
of Kingdom, the Portuguese state officially becoming the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil
and the Algarves with the capital transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro in Brazil. The royal family came back in the Portuguese
mainland in 1821, but after all this changes with Brazil having the equal status with Portugal
a growing desire for independence started to exist.When the king tried to turn Brazil
back into a colony, the crown-prince declared the Independence of Brazil and became the
first brazilian emperor. The western portuguese empire ended. John was still the King of this United Kingdom
and his son, the prince Pedro, proclaimed the independence of Brazil one year later
in 1822, and was crowned Emperor of the new Empire of Brazil. Portuguese colonialism focused on expanding
its outposts in Africa into nation-sized territories to compete with other European powers there. Portugal pushed into the heartland of Angola
and Mozambique. In 1890, the British crown made an ultimatum
to the portuguese king: all portuguese efforts to conquer african territory between Angola
and Mozambique to unite both portuguese colonies had come to a halt (the english wanted to
connect by rail South Africa and Egypt through exclusive english colonies). This 1890 British Ultimatum later caused the
fall of the portuguese monarchy and the chances of an existing Colonial Empire. In the 20th Century after the 2 conflicts,
Portugal wasn’t called an Empire and it was more like a nation with overseas territories. They still held lands in Africa and Asia. Decolonization movements began to gain momentum
in the empires of the European powers. The ensuing Cold War also created instabilities
among Portuguese overseas populations. Following the granting of independence to
India by Britain in 1947, and the decision by France to allow its enclaves in India. Requests of the Indian Government were made
to return the enclaves. In 1961, shortly after an uprising against
the Portuguese in Angola, Nehru ordered the Indian Army into Goa, Daman and Diu, which
were quickly captured and formally annexed the following year. After 1961 pan-African pressures grew, and
Portugal found itself mired in a series of colonial wars. The Portuguese Colonial War was fought between
Portugal and the emerging nationalist movements in Portugal’s African colonies backed by by
other countries, between 1961 and 1974. The Portuguese regime was overthrown by a
1974, and the change in government brought the conflict to an end .After this The african
colonies gained full independence. East Timor also declared independence in 1975. Portugal signed a declaration with China to
establish the process and conditions for the transfer of Macau, its last remaining colony. The transfer of this last colony in 1999 marked
the end of Portuguese colonialism. ->Thanks so much for watching. Don’t forget to SUBSCRIBE to our channel And hit the BELL BUTTON to be notified when a video is uploaded And please tell us in the comments what would you like to see next We are opened to any ideas, and we would love to see your proposals for the next videos.

100 thoughts on “Why did the Portuguese Empire collapse?

  1. Im Filipino..

    Spanish discovered Philippines in 1521..

    Almost 10.000 languages here in Philippine's are from SPANISH!!!

  2. Umayyad caliphate didn't conquest Spain , but the truth is the people of Spain asked for help
    You can look up about what I said

  3. The Dutch was a real surprise here when they began attacking portuguese colonies throughout the world. I was like where the hell they come.

  4. Nowadays China buys Portugal lol. R.I.P. but on the other hand, without the Chinese fundings, Portugal would not function correctly.

  5. Is he saying Liberian peninsula? Hhahahahaha… Dude you are idiot. Please, please delete this channel and stop making these videos.

  6. Many of these former Portuguese colonies nowadays have the natural resources exploited by the countries that pressured Portugal to abandon the former colonies. For example, USA; England, France, Russia, China, etc., nowadays carry almost all the natural resources of the former Portuguese colonies. Research the number of companies that the countries mentioned have hosted in these former Portuguese colonies, now these former colonies live a false independence and many of them are in misery and did not even realize why. Finally, you can thank the false help of the countries I have mentioned.

  7. The Muslims were in the Iberian peninsula, off and on, for almost 800 years, contributing tremendously to the world civilization as we know it. From 711 to 1492. Stop whitewashing history.

  8. My country in Asia was colonized by Spain but the actual Colonizer was a Portugese named Magellan.
    Check the song Philippine History by Yoyoy Villame.
    What happened to the Portugese named Magellan.

  9. Stupid,video,it's with out accuracy, not mention the names of the African Portuguese colonys, Cabo Verde, Guiné Bissau, Angola and Moçambique

  10. If I wasn't born an Englishman I would like to have been born Portuguese …. Great country fantastic friend to the UK … Nicest people around…. Portugal thank you!

  11. Here in Finland we learn in school that Portugal were the masters of the sea followed by England much later. They were the first to fly across the Atlantic, Lisbon to Rio and back o Lisbon, five years before the Americans.

  12. Why are some people here deliberately putting down Portugal ? Jealousy ? Obviously. They were the greats of the Middle Ages. Leave it a that, FFS

  13. The Portuguese people have a fairly large proportion of Flemish genes (Belgium). You didn't know that, did yoiu ? I'm from Belgium.

  14. The USA now has withheld Colonies for over 121 years.
    Maybe it's time now for hose colonies to be freed also.

  15. The Christians of Portugal and Spain only got an empire due to the Knowledge they attained from the Muslims. Or else they would have remained in the dark ages.

  16. I like to see if you can cover the time that Persia changed it’s name to Iran and what was the reason for it? Thanks 🙏

  17. Парни, у меня на канале есть перевод этого видео, можете посмотреть)

  18. They killed lacs of hindus in india than build there church in india.know this europian nation are very rich because of india.

  19. It´s very likely that Columbus was a Portuguese secret agent deployed to lead the Spaniards astray in order to avoid them getting to interfere with the Portuguese along the route around Africa. In this manner they were conducted westward to Central America and insistingly made to believe they´d reached India on a westerly direction.
    (See "Unmasking Columbus – Spies, Lies, Royal Cover Up and Conspiracy" by Manuel da Silva Rosa and Eric James Steele)

    P.S.: The Portuguese knew already since 1474 through the navigator Joao Vaz Corte Real of the existence of that continent, but kept it secretely. The noble Corte Real family originates from the Algarve (South Portugal) and their land posessions are denominated "Canada".

  20. How did Russia expand from the Baltic to the Bearing Strait and manage to hold onto this large tract of territory.
    I enjoyed this program about how Portugal came to lose its colonies, thank you.

  21. Portugal was not an "colonial" empire, colonial empire is england. Portugal is a CULTURAL empire, it took Christianity to the whole world, mission accomplished.

  22. Greeting to my university english teacher, american english native married a portuguese here. Greeting to Brasil

  23. Thank you for your valuble historical info.
    Pls. If could publish a film about Occupation of The Gulf by Portugese

  24. I didn't know how smart and strategic portugal went into this colonization thing. They were all about trade and negotiations, not so much in to war, power, and land grabbing as others did. They had some bad luck with that tsunami/earthquake hitting them, and big dicks spain and muslims neighbors, but still manage it through.I like their plan, and they almost pulled it off. Portugal have a low population of 10 mil ( only 3 mil in 1500 ad ), but still had a major impact on the world stage. Even today, their language is spoken by many people, mainly south america and some other pockets of the world.

  25. The Portuguese Empire felt because Portugal decided to be the oldest allie of England and with that to defend "the old friend" had kept his ports open, against Napoleon instructions and to avoid England from isolationism. In consequence Portugal was invaded 3 times by Napoleon armies and even never been defeated, the true was that the French robbed everything in the country. Worst the English armies also robbed Portugal, but much worst, to save the country independence the Portuguese king sailed to Brasil, with that the English took over the government of Portugal, they vampirized their colonies and won the rights to free trade, making Portugal and Brasil hostages and doomed to be dominated and explored by the English untill short time ago! Portugal must destroy the Windsor Treaty or die and Brasil will have to prepare for much tough actions! The Oldest Enemy will be no longer a False Friend!

  26. The rise and fall of the USSR and how American dollars bailed it out.
    The rise and of China and how American dollars brought it up from a 3rd world communist power.

  27. The Spanish empire lasted from 1493 to 1898. The empire where the sun never sets was the Spanish empire.

  28. Why are Christians so proud of the death and destruction of the invasions of the Americas, Africa and Australia. Was this about spreading the faith of Jesus or about stealing resources?

  29. Were the Portuguese fair to have killed so many Brazilian tribal people and then replaced them with African slaves – 8 million in total? Was the church aware of the hundreds of years of Portuguese slavery and their cruel treatment? Is the the way Christian were taught to behave? Were these events a reflection of the Christian religion?

  30. So proud to be luso descendant. Such small country with a massive history.
    Héroes del mar…!! 🇵🇹🇵🇹🇵🇹🇵🇹🇻🇪


  32. All nation wants to be independent why? I'm sure if Portugal stayed in Africa the African will get better lives than now honestly

  33. Eu desde 2004 a pensar "Dar a volta à África para ir buscar pimenta!? Mas em linha recta era mais fácil e o caminho era mais rápido!".

  34. Thanks for clearing up the confusion between the status of Portugal and Spain, although it would have been good to mention the treaty of Trujillo in the 1300's, divvying up the "spoils" of the new world, and that's why Portugal got Brazil.
    Also, you said the Portuguese made alliances, with conquered outposts, but there was still much cruelty. Arms being chopped off in goa, India, and probably massacres to natives in Brazil.
    Also, the Muslim presence in the Iberian peninsula was very progressive time and place, a shining gem in human history, still in Europe and medieval times.
    Let us not forget the horrors and tortures of the Catholic inquisition with the reconquest of Spain. Anyone could have been accused of being a witch, tortured and burned.

  35. Great video, short and didactic! It should be also relevant to mention that the Portuguese were the last ex-empires to lose colonies in Africa. By 1974 all the other major European powers had already conceded independence to the African colonies. In the sense, Portugal was the "last European great empire".

  36. Actually it wasn't the King who tried to reduce Brazil to colonial status, it was the parlament. Nowadays we know that the king had intentions of keeping Brazil not only as a kingdom but as the center of the empire. However, if they remained in Brazil, the Portuguese parlament would have it's independence sooner or later. John VI tried to tie everything together, and he had some success. Brazil did not shatter in several Portuguese speaking countries. 😉

  37. Portugal is indeed a very interesting country. If not for Spain, Portugal would have conquered a lot more lands. Was unlucky to have a such strong neighbor. Among the first explorers of the world despite being a small country. The Iberians are fascinating people.

  38. Orgulho por Portugal ter nos formado!!! Saudações a Portugal,especialmente a sua grande história,vindo de um Brasileiro filho de Portugal,Da África e dos Índios,com grande influência de outros povos.

  39. About The part of Brazil, John goes back to Portugal because he was threatened to it, not because he wanted it, He loved Brazil, and wanted a Big Empire, the same thing his son, The Emperor Dom Pedro II of Brazil, John supported that Pedro II did the independence of Brazil, Pedro II wanted Portugal and Brazil United, but his Brother wanted to be King in Portugal, and the Throne belonged to Pedro, he goes back to Portugal to fight with his brother, exile him, put the Crown in his Daughter, who was born in Brazil, the unique European Monarch who was born in America. the plan was reunite the countries with cousins.

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