Why Are There SO Many Confederate Monuments?

Why Are There SO Many Confederate Monuments?

This is the Appomattox statue in Alexandria
Virginia, a monument constructed in 1889 to honor Alexandria’s Confederate dead in the
US Civil War. Since then, it has been at the center of debates
about the use of public space. People wrestle with the decision to honor
the history of those who supported the Southern Confederacy’s secession from the Union,
which was largely in order to continue racialized slavery. Opponents have argued that the statue stands
as a testament to intolerance and racism, and that although the statue is still privately
owned by the United Daughters of the Confederacy, the fact that it’s situated on public land
means that it should be torn down because it represents a racist and harmful viewpoint. Those in favor of keeping the statue where
it is remark that the Confederacy, no matter how outdated and incorrect its stances, was
a part of US history and that this history shouldn’t be forgotten. So today I’ll open up the conversation to
look at how monuments like this one represent the US’s struggle to accurately describe
its more painful histories. I’ll discuss why so many Confederate and
other Civil War monuments were built between the late 19th century and the first half of
the 20th century, and what impulses drove their construction during those crucial years
after the war. Appomattox notably doesn’t show an image
of an army general or Confederate politician. Rather it’s a simple rank and file soldier
with his hat in his hand and his head bowed in defeat. On the base are the names of Alexandrians
who died fighting for the Confederacy. This gesture isn’t uncommon in monuments
of fallen soldiers, but its subject has made it cause for public concern. Claims that Confederate iconography are synonymous
with “Southern Heritage” has raised well founded questions about “whose heritage”
and “who does this history support or vilify?” And that’s in large part because in erecting
monuments after a conflict, it’s highly unusual for the side that definitively lost
to be honored, let alone to occupy public space. Which is why the image of Appomattox, with
a visibly defeated Confederate soldier standing in commemoration of his lost cause and fallen
comrades is quite unusual. Rather than raising the now infamous call
that “the South shall rise again” both his posture and the inscription of the plaque
below his feet indicate otherwise. Around 2015 and 2016 the US increased the
attention it paid to the civil war monuments scattered across the country honoring Confederate
generals and soldiers. Arguments raged on both sides of the debate,
with proponents of tearing down these statues noting the inflammatory and racist politics
of the men that they were meant to honor. They also called for the immediate removal
of Confederate flags from state symbols. Those in favor of keeping the symbols and
statues argued that these signs were indicative of US history and even if they were abhorrent,
they should not be hidden or forgotten. As headlines circulated around protesters
on both sides of the debate, questions started to arise about why the US had so much Confederate
iconography to begin with. When were the statues built and who funded
their construction before they occupied public land? And how do monuments turn individuals into
heroes and shape the discourse around our shared national identity? Well it comes as no surprise that the lion’s
share of these symbols sprung into prominence as monuments and memorials after the war’s
conclusion. From the moment the Civil War ended the US
has struggled with how to narrate its slave holding past. But the construction of these monuments and
memorials came in two primary waves that weren’t directly tied to the official cease fire. In fact most came at two key moments within
a hundred year span: The Post-Reconstruction Period from the 1880s
until the 1920s And… the eve of the US Civil Rights Movement in
the 1960s. It wasn’t a random coincidence that the
statues went up during those time periods. As Professor Sanford Levinson notes in his
book on monuments, quote, “those with political power within a given society organize public
space to convey (and thus to teach the public) desired political lessons.” But part of the stickiness of the discussion
around monuments, as Levinson also notes, is that they aren’t just ideological symbols,
they also bear the weight of being public art. And as he writes about monuments as art: “Art is, among other things, both the terrain
of and often a weapon in, the culture wars that course through societies. This is, of course, especially true of public
art–the art chosen self-consciously by public institutions to symbolize the public order
and to inculcate in its viewers appropriate attitudes toward that order.” First, we have the end of Reconstruction. New Confederate monuments in the 1880s and
1890s were promoting a return to white supremacy and institutional slavery. Reconstruction had spanned from roughly the
end of the war until the late 1870s. The period did see brief strides for newly
emancipated black citizens. But the end of the era was also marked by
an incredibly swift reversal of the tides with the rise of the Ku Klux Klan, resurgent
white nationalism, increased violence (such as organized lynchings) and reduced rights. During Reconstruction, when Northern officials
remained in temporary control of the war-ravaged Southern states, the symbols and ideology
of the Confederacy were removed from public view. But as the period came to a close, Northern
and Southern officials looked to make political concessions, most often at the expense of
black citizens. This included most notably the passing of
Jim Crow Laws. Jim Crow Laws were designed to extend the
horrors of institutional slavery in Southern states under a different name. This meant stopping black citizens from voting,
organizing the convict leasing system in order to force black citizens to work without pay,
and manipulating the legal system to strip them of Constitutional rights. For more on convict leasing, be sure to check
out our episode on the origins of Private Prisons. So Confederate monuments were working to promote
the (at that time) contemporary ideologies of the state. Namely, a return to white supremacy and institutional
slavery. It also marked an important moment in the
history of men who died and fought for the Confederacy and their families. Because also around this time the surviving
soldiers and their families were aging. Many had infiltrated public office to continue
promoting the official agenda of the Confederacy. Others turned their eye to establishing private
organizations that celebrated a glorified version of the Confederate past. Enter: the “Cult of the Lost Cause.” In the aftermath of the economic devastation
of the war, the so called “Cult of the Lost Cause” became an outlet for white Confederate
supporting Southerners to express cultural pride in institutional slavery and their “lost
way of life.” A 1999 application made to the National Register
of Historic Places notes: “The Cult of the Lost Cause had its roots
in the Southern search for justification and the need to find a substitute for victory
in the Civil War. In attempting to deal with defeat, Southerners
created an image of the war as a great heroic epic. A major theme of the Cult of the Lost Cause
was the clash of two civilizations, one inferior to the other….Like tragic heroes, Southerners
had waged a noble but doomed struggle to preserve their superior civilization. There was an element of chivalry in the way
the South had fought, achieving noteworthy victories against staggering odds. This was the “Lost Cause” as the late
nineteenth century saw it, and a whole generation of Southerners set about glorifying and celebrating
it.” But glorification and commemoration of soldiers
at the conclusion of wartime wasn’t unique to Southern states. In fact it was ubiquitous throughout the United
States on either side of the Mason Dixon. In her research on monuments of Civil War
soldiers, art historian Sarah Beetham of the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, notes
that many of the monuments were sold by New England manufacturers (like the Monumental
Bronze Co. in Bridgeport, CT) at the end of the 19th century. In an article for the Washington Post she’s
quoted saying how many of the statues are identical in structure, and that companies
were selling cheap pre-fab designs to towns all over the country without altering the
appearance of the soldiers at all. It wasn’t until some Southern towns noticed
the replication that small alterations were made, including adding slouched Confederate
caps. Another distinguishing feature is the engraving
on their belt buckles: with “C.S.” for Confederate Soldier and “U.S.” for Union
Soldier. As mythologies of the Civil War occurred in
the public sphere, monuments became particularly fertile ground for advancing individual political
agendas. The second wave of Confederate monuments built
came in the 1950s and 1960s, both to mark the hundred year anniversary of Southern defeat
and also as a sign of opposition to the 20th century’s Civil Rights movement that saw
a number of legal victories for black citizens. In fact the South Carolina state grounds became
the center of heated public debate in 2015, when under the weight of public outrage state
officials agreed to lower the Confederate Flag. But the flag had only been implemented in
the capitol since 1961, as a stinging rebuke of the Civil Rights movement. But although the amount of news coverage of
these monuments has begun to fade, statues like Appomattox and others still remain in
place around the country. And in recent counting, the Southern Poverty
Law Center notes that there are: 780 monuments, more than 300 of which are
in Georgia, Virginia and North Carolina; 103 public K-12 schools and three colleges
named for Robert E. Lee, Jefferson Davis or other Confederate icons;
80 counties and cities named for Confederates; 9 observed state holidays in five states;
and 10 U.S. military bases. But at the heart of this debate over monuments
is a larger question about how and when we decide to commemorate history and whose stories
are told. Monuments, although they often fade to the
background as we zip by them during our busy days, still carry tremendous historical and
contemporary weight. But despite their often forgettable (or in
the case of the Citizen Soldier statues, generic) appearances, monuments shape the public narrative
of nations. They exemplify how we create the stories we
tell ourselves and each other about our collective past. This also brings to light who history belongs
to, by highlighting and heroising some while others are maligned, harmed, or all together
ignored. And that’s largely because those symbols
don’t just mark a particular event or moment. Rather they elevate something by occupying
public space, celebrating or denigrating the narratives of individual historical actors,
and bringing into view exactly who history is supposed to be for.

100 thoughts on “Why Are There SO Many Confederate Monuments?

  1. I know it's a little late, but can't the South (and other latent theocracies) [be permitted to] secede now? Historically, it's not easy — witness India in 1947. Two-state solutions are always sad and expensive, like divorce, but they can be necessary. It doesn't have to apply only to unstable places like the middle-east or Sudan. Ireland had to break up into two states. Ditto for Sweden and Norway. There's even tension in modern Belgium.

    Yes, it will take a few years for those who wish to live in their own ethno states to make the transition, and we'd end up with the kind of international tensions that plague South Asia, but at least we'd know where we are. We of NY, NJ and CT (perhaps with the western states) can form our own national entities and even pitch in EU style to create regional defenses. We can arrange for the proper exchange of money and border control.

    Frankly, I'm embarrassed to think of many of the southern leaders as my "relatives", especially when they can be seen on TV by a world of people who prefer empirical truths to stories of guns, God, guts and glory. If one of the former countries gets too far out of hand for the other, there's always and option for BDS or, if necessary, building a wall. If nothing else, the current POTUS (alas!, a New Yorker) will find peace and stability in living with his people. (Theoretically, he can afford to move, though the moving companies might want to be paid up front.) Slavery, incest, "biblical science", hookworm — bring 'em on!, just on the other side of the border, please. Given the superiority of today's communication and transportation over what we had in 1865, I think it may be worth a try.

    As an aside, I'm afraid that some of my favorite friends live in NC. Insofar as our common interest is in music, we are careful never to talk about hot-button issues, so it works. But the musically inclined are inherently superior to other members of the species, so awareness of [what might be] their private perversions is cast in a small light, compared to the overwhelming brilliance of singing together. Maybe there's a lesson in that.

  2. There needs to be a museum where the monuments can be moved to, and placards with detailed historical info about them.

    Keeping them in public makes USA out to be viewed as supporting those racist views, even though a lot of Americans are racist.

  3. I’ve been to Germany. They contend with Nazi history very well by having museums and making it so you’re able to visit concentration camps (I recommend this but I warn you: if you’re an empathetic person, it will be an incredibly challenging day) but they don’t have random statues of Hitler and Goebbels up all over Berlin. There’s a way to learn from history that doesn’t involve glorifying oppressors and they do that pretty well.

  4. It has been my long held view that the "lost cause" is an insidious poison that continues to hold back the US.

    Too many people in the US have been led and continue to believe in this myth of a "noble" confederacy and deny that it had anything to do with slavery.

    It has been my vain crusade to correct this by attacking them on this issue of monuments, about the "real" confederate flag, and what actual Confederates said about the institution of slavery.

    From their declarations of secession to Alexander Stephens' cornerstone speech, they make it very clear.

  5. You don’t feel like a losers if you build a monument, but you’re still a loser. Until this country does right by its Blacks and Natives it will never be a proud country. It’s like a festering wound you can try to put a bandage on it but it’s rotten underneath, to the point where we are now in full blown septicemia.

  6. All these statues represented racism, bigotry and oppression! The signers of the Declaration of Independence intentionally started all of this division between the races! Sadly it continues even to present time! We can talk till we’re blue in the face! The Prophecy in Genesis 15:13-14 tells what will become of this hatred! That 400yrs is at hand! So which side will you stand on? The side of the oppressors and the unrighteous or the side of the Righteous! ENOUGH SAID FOR NOW!

  7. It is time to follow the adage have you now or have you ever been a member of an organization that advacated the violent overthrow of the US government is the only basis for the placement of public monuments the ones that are removed and placed in a museum explaining the futility of the civil war

  8. Slavery should not be forgotten, pretending it never existed just means that it will happen again. However, it should also not be celebrated. These statues celebrate and represent a racist and toxic culture and should be torn down

  9. Is it true that the Civil War is sometimes referred to as "the War of Northern Aggression" in the south? I am from Pennsylvania and I have heard this story for years. I was told that this is what some southern history textbooks use instead of calling it the Civil War. I also love your works cited list, particularly the books. I love reading non-fiction and your works cited lists give me plenty of books to add to my to-read list.

  10. The cause of the Confederacy was terrible, but most Confederate soldiers didn't see themselves as fighting for the continuation of slavery, since most of them didn't hold slaves and they often didn't have much of a choice to join the CSA army and fight. If we're going to tear down monuments dedicated to them, why should we leave monuments to slave owners like George Washington and Thomas Jefferson, and tyrannical dictators like Abraham Lincoln standing?

  11. It isn’t a random coincidence that they went up during those time periods because they also correlate with the 50th and 100th anniversary of the war and they, coincidentally, declined after the 50th and 100th anniversary of the war.

    The problem here is the strong implication that it was racism that led to their construction while (either deliberately or unintentionally) leaving out other key factors that were just as important for their construction.

    Let’s start with the first wave. The first wave of monument construction wouldn’t really kick off until 1898, which was also the same year that William McKinley began the trend of confederate recognition with his policy proposal of recognizing confederate war dead on the same level as Union war dead. This was prompted as a means of trying to help heal race relations as well as the Spanish-American War effectively uniting the country once again. This trend of recognition continued on into the 1900’s and 1910’s with Theodore Roosevelt, Howard Taft, and Woodrow Wilson all contributing to trying to reintegrate the south properly into the Union by this form of recognition. This, for the most part, was what spun the confederate monument push of the 1900’s and would culminate in its peak in 1913 (coincidently the 50th anniversary of major battles such as Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, and Chickamaga). After 1913, monument construction began to decline severely and, by the late 1920’s, had been completely stopped.

    You won’t see any new “monuments” until the 1950’s and 1960’s, but this monument “boom” was relatively small and mostly involved naming schools after confederate leaders with only a few monuments actually being built and only during the 100th anniversary years (1961-1965).

    So, simply put, it’s not a simple matter at all about coincidences because what a person focusing on race would ascribe to “racism” could also be ascribed to what I’ve described above when looking at them from a different angle. Race isn’t the main reason for most of the monuments. It has to do mostly with the fact an entire people suffered for four years during a horrible, bloody civil war that most did not want nor ask for. Racism in the Us was a result of that war and the subsequent oppression of those same people out of a need to “defeat” the rebellion in its entirety, which backfired and only made the south worse off than it was. If anything, the monuments were an attempt to alleviate racial tension in the south and finally put an end to the violent race riots in the south and heal the south more than the other way around.

  12. We should never forget the treason perpetrated by the South, nor should we forget the evil they fought for.

    When the South stops being racist, forgiveness will be given.

    Thank God that the demographic changes happening right now mean that the racist devils will lose power.

  13. Yeah guess what if it weren’t for the Civil War slavery and segregation would’ve lasted longer and southern rebellion as well as union victory led to the end of slavery which led to a much stronger union. We would be more divided as a people than we are today. So it’s the same argument that most of these monuments were directed to support a Jim Crow. Guess what I say read dedicated all the monuments to why the south fought. Yes slavery was the central cause of the Civil War. But it was the Democrats that fought for slavery it was the Democrats who started the Civil War. The Democrats in the south start of the war. The Northern Democrats supported slavery. The rest of the south was not fighting for slavery they were fighting with the north of the issue of secession. The Civil War determined if the nation was going to be and indivisible nation with a strong national government (which is what the union fought for) or would it be a dissolvable confederation of sovereign states (which is what the South Fought for) and Southerners were worried that their culture was going to be overtaken by Republicans and free blacks an abolitionist Yankees. They were then going to become economic slaves. Not everyone in the south was fighting for slavery. it was the Democrats that were fighting for slavery. The Republicans won the war on slavery where is the north won the war on secession. I get all this information from Dinesh D’Souza. The north thought if the self formed it’s own nation it would have the potential to ally with their enemies versus overtake the remainder of the United States. And if one state seceded all states could secede. There I’ve given you both perspectives of north and south. As well as Republicans vs Democrats. Lincoln said that these people were Americans. We need to read dedicate these statues to buy these men thought like I said before and we need to read dedicate the statues that these men we’re reunited as American citizens. These men were trying to fight to defend their culture Chrisley to throw culture was at stake. And I’m not giving you no money lost cause nonsense. As a southerner myself in this supporter of the confederate flag and even as a loyal Citizen I am very much aware of the myth of the lost cause which was formed by not the south put by the Democrats. In the Democrats formed the second law of the Civil War saying that the world was all about slavery and that every southern soldier was a treasonous traitor just so they can control the South…. they are trying to subjugate us. This is reconstruction all over again. To tear down these monuments or get rid of any confederate symbol is to get rid of American symbols in to spit in the face of people who were Americans they were trying to defend their American way of life. In the constitution it says nowhere that’s the secession is illegal. I hear there are hints to it but it’s not illegal. At least it wasn’t at the time yet the founding fathers did really mean for the United States to stay together. We need to be forgiving of these people our nation is redeemed our nation is much stronger than it was because sorry the South started the war which led to northern victory which led to a strong United States… all this would be possible if the Southern Democrats had not started the Civil War. Nor none of this would be possible if the South didn’t fight for what it Fought for which was to defend its culture. Look it up it’s the truth this is No lost cause myth

  14. Take them ALL down and place them in a museum next to swastikas and Nazi memorabilia. No "covering up history", rather never honoring those who supported slavery and rebelled against the United States.

  15. There's a difference between remembering our history and celebrating its villains. That's the key point here. The white supremacists succeed for quite a long time in their rehabilitation efforts vis a vi the reputations of the Civil War's worst villains, while denigrating its heroes. It's only today that people like Ulysses S Grant have been appropriately honored.

  16. I’d just like to say you can’t rewrite history and they died to you can’t say we where bad the south only had about 10%-4% where slave owners the rest couldn’t afford or want. they fought because they where being pushed around and Sure I’ll say they treated the blacks wrong but you know the expression to not speak Ill if the dead

  17. Bless some of y'all's clogged hearts. I'd like to encourage everyone to read the declaration of secessions of every single state that tried to LEAVE our great country. Southern states betrayed the United States of America over the RIGHTS TO OWN SLAVES. They were bold enough to proudly proclaim this in their individual declarations of secession. 

    "Texas abandoned her separate national existence and consented to become one of the Confederated States to promote her welfare, insure domestic tranquility [sic] and secure more substantially the blessings of peace and liberty to her people. She was received into the confederacy with her own constitution, under the guarantee of the federal constitution and the compact of annexation, that she should enjoy these blessings. She was received as a commonwealth holding, maintaining and protecting the institution known as negro slavery–the servitude of the African to the white race within her limits–a relation that had existed from the first settlement of her wilderness by the white race, and which her people intended should exist in all future time. Her institutions and geographical position established the strongest ties between her and other slave-holding States of the confederacy.  "

    "In the momentous step, which our State has taken of dissolving its connection with the government of which we so long formed a part, it is but just that we should declare the prominent reasons which have induced our course.
    Our position is thoroughly identified with the institution of slavery – the greatest material interest of the world. Its labor supplies the product, which constitutes by far the largest and most important portions of commerce of the earth."

    "The people of Georgia having dissolved their political connection with the Government of the United States of America, present to their confederates and the world the causes which have led to the separation. For the last ten years we have had numerous and serious causes of complaint against our non-slaveholding confederate States with reference to the subject of African slavery. They have endeavored to weaken our security, to disturb our domestic peace and tranquility, and persistently refused to comply with their express constitutional obligations to us in reference to that property, and by the use of their power in the Federal Government have striven to deprive us of an equal enjoyment of the common Territories of the Republic."

    South Carolina:
    "The General Government, as the common agent, passed laws to carry into effect these stipulations of the States. For many years these laws were executed. But an increasing hostility on the part of the non-slaveholding States to the institution of slavery, has led to a disregard of their obligations, and the laws of the General Government have ceased to effect the objects of the Constitution."

    I'll let you research the rest. Confederate flags and every other symbol of Southern secession are simply pathetic "participation trophies". The South fought for their right to own other human beings and they lost. How ironic to call oneself a "patriot" while proudly flying a treasonous flag. However, based on obesity rates and education rankings, I don't think anyone who isn't already married to their cousin is too concerned about them "rising again".

  18. The monuments are meant to remember the Confederate dead! No more, no less. After the war of northern aggression the south lay in ruins it took decades for the families of the fallen to save up enough money for the monuments so they're loved ones will not be forgotten.

  19. IMHO Monuments for commemorating and mourning fallen soldiers are fine (even if the soldiers were fighting on the wrong side). This is because common soldiers are often just regular people who are forced into doing their duty to defend a place that they call home (regardless of the ideology of the rulers of that place). However I do not support monuments that celebrate and honor the the leaders and "heros" in a conflict that is based on an defeated abhorrent ideology.

  20. Interesting to consider the largest monument in the cemetery where my family is from in Northeast Ohio is commemorating those who served in the Civil War. Coming of age in the 60's I did obtain a vivid negative disdain for the South. In a secular WASP home. The whole thing now seems backward and primitive North and South monuments. Crazy you have people in Europe remembering battles and atrocities from 500 or 1000 years ago.

  21. I don't think you can gain historical knowledge from looking at a monument, but if you can, confederate monuments are revisionary propaganda and only stand to fill people's heads of a glorified and skewed past.

  22. Now I'm British so take what I say with a pinch of salt:

    First Flags are banners the Salitre of the Confederate Flag is taken from Scottish flag, a symbol of the strong Libertairian values of the migrated Scots and the birth place of Liberterianism and the adopted politics the fore fathers that founded America. The fact that the Southern states wished to remain independent Nations in their own right, have slaves or not wrong or right. Has I understand that the unionists WAS to start a Federal government bring ineffect sovreign independent nations to be submissive states. The sad thing is the southern states population not having the Labour and that the American slave port in New York who distributed slave for the use of cheap unpaid Labour. Something the modern day Democrates are doing NOW under the disguse of open borders with Mexico, and an issue of the same thing today, that was also fought over in the American Civil War ( the union, a fedral entity who wanted open borders throughout states [ states once sovreign nations of the new colonies] )

    Second after the defeat and losing their sovregin nation status and to make the defeat easier they honoured the dead for their sacrifices.
    Later in the 1920's you have a the south a once proud free states now subservient to the federdal union imposing their will. You could say YES they took it out on the blacks and tried to reverse it by the Jim Crow Laws.

    Third the very fact that the KKK were set up by the political and influencial of these states who happen to be DEMOCRATES, and the DEMOCRATES are the FAR LEFT. Who are well known throughout the WORLD to play the racial card when they need to breakdown a society, val;ues of a community, morals of a religion, laws of a nation, all to bring about their utophia. See anything that is not Socialit is oppostion and a threat. Breaking down all of these will remove that oppostion.

    And the ignorant people Black and White will follow them due to ill-eduacation of real history and listening to the socialist poisonous identity politics.

    This to me is the Far Left Blacks who have a racial chip on their shoulders and want to carry on blaming white people for their misifortunes of today on events of the past. The whites who are Far Right and wish also blame the Blacks for their misfortunes. Either side are SOCIALIST IN NATURE. (these idiots come togethjer under the new banner ANTIFA a leftist organisation of socialists stiring up bigoty and hatred.

    These socialist who keep this hatred alive to divide, Like a said to breakdown values, morals, communities, nations, faith., The only way racism never goes away is because people keep bring it up.

    The staues are apart of the areas history and should be their as a reminder of that nhistory and to never repeat it again. But the Left want to get rid of the history that hgelkps thjeir cause and agenda. And for that reason a lone I SAY KEEP THEM UP !

  23. History is in BOOKS. Monuments should only be erected for national icons & heroes that helped move America forward not to those that tried to hold America back. #DONE

    America allowing the south to continue to fly their treasonous flags after the Civil War was the 1st step of many in the undoing of America that got us HERE in 2019. America should have, like Germany did after WWII, made it illegal to own, display, sale treasonous paraphernalia and ideological structures. America and their bastardized version of “freedom” has lost its collective mind. We, as a nation, LITERALLY, went to war w/ the ConfederateSouth and we WON. We, LITERALLY, went to war w/ Nazis and we WON. yet we then turn around and allow our citizens to fly the flags of our enemies?! What the…?!🤷🏽‍♀️🤦🏽‍♀️

    #SoUnamerican #SoUnpatriotic

  24. If you don’t want the history to be forgotten then fuckin feature it in books and documentaries, not fuckin raise a monument praising the fuckers. That argument never makes sense to me.

  25. Let me start of by saying thank you for handling the video and topic gingerly and professionally. Most videos like this today are usually extremely politically motivated and are not trying to expand the conversation, yet shut it down by only saying their point of view has any merit. It seems the main stem of the backlash on these monuments pertains to the time periods to when they were put up. And although it does happen to be around the same time periods and Jim Crow and the Civil Rights movements, we also have to remember what else was happening during these times. First during the late 1800’s to the 1920’s, we are seeing the southern states being accepted back into the union (because this did not happen until almost 2 decades after the war ended in 1865), and like most countries do, they erected statues to the fallen after a war which they couldn’t do immediately due to being under military occupation and economically destitute. With all that being said, not to mention the years around the 1910’s would have been spent celebrating or commemorating the 50 year anniversary. Moving on to the civil rights movement, we have to remember the big elephant in the room as to why these statues were being put up, the Centennial (100 year anniversary)! And granted the time isn't spectacular being that it happens to fall around the time the civil rights movement. Another thing we need to remember, is that these statues widely represent the common soldier and simply the loss of life and nothing else. These were erected by UDC or SCV purely on fundraisers and had little to no political backing.

    Now whatever anyone thinks, the question always comes down to their removal, which I believe is unjust for more than just their artistic value. Let's be sure to understand that confederates are recognized by the government as American Veterans. That's why there is a confederate statue and graves in Arlington National Cemetery. Although they were men of their time, meaning they were racist, just like Lincoln and almost everyone else. We cannot condemning those in the past with the laws and understanding of the present, that's just ignorance. However I am for new context being added to the past so people can understand through a transparent lens, the type of people they were. On the topic of removing the past to make room for the present, I firmly disagree. Hiding the past and pretending that it isn't important or as relevant as today is again ignorance, and saying those of the past have absolutely no redeeming values as american or not, is also ignorance. I don't believe that the destruction of halls, memorial buildings, and statues is progressive, but regressive. We should build upon the old, not the ruins of them.

  26. There is nothing honorable about slavery or the Confederate Army or what it stood for or the Confederate flag I do not care if those people went to battle and fought honorably for the wrong thing does not count remember slavery in its Essence is buying people slaving them to death raping them and killing them and selling them as you see fit let's not put a light touch to the topic I would also like to put my own personal spin on this my great-uncle my grandmother's brother before World War II was higher than the German military when Hitler took over he became a high-ranking Nazi officer he went to the Russian front and he died did not kill Jews I'm sure he fought honorably but I don't bring it up proudly because he fought for a disgusting regime understand why I don't bring up my Uncle Kurt and a prideful way let alone put up a statue or monument that would be ridiculous and an insult to every Jew who died during that conflict and every soldier who fought against them

  27. I understand where people are coming from when they say they want those monuments removed. What I’m not ok with is those same people taking it too far by searching for monuments and tributes to the founders of our country. I keep hearing in the news how many are calling for the erasing and renaming of monuments, colleges, hospitals, and other societies relating to the founders. I find that this has been a tactic to remove the understanding of the Constitution and the founding of this country so we can embrace a way of governing that is completely controlled by the federal government and making our freedoms less and less. It hurts to see this happening. I’m a millennial so I worry about the world that others my age are pushing to usher in.

  28. Stupid Americans. The same idiots who use the excuse about those statues being allowed, no matter how bad the history behind them is, would have no problems if Germany erected statues of Hitler to remember his struggle – which is why I'm glad I live in Germany and not the so-called "good ol' USA".

  29. You won't find a single statue or memorial or "holocaust" museum in the southern states remembering those enslaved. That should speak volumes on the mentality of southerners.

  30. You are a dumbass…..the statues were erected during those time periods…..wait for it…..because it was the 25, 50, 75, and 100 year anniversary of the war…..1890, 1915, 1940, 1965….

  31. NOTICE no one had a issue UNTIL 2015-16.?? HUMM? Sounds like it was getting close to election time and certain folks like race baiters & opportunistic politicitians had a agenda to push. As a Biracial American I don't have any problem with keeping them up and honoring the dead soldiers Regardless of their beliefs…but furthermore I WANT THEM TO STAND as a reminder of how my people were treated and enslaved and how FAR we have come…we can't whitewash the Evils of slavery away by removing them..as the saying goes Those that forget the past…I do take offense to the lady in the video who keeps respeating it's on public land. Yes it is on Public land!!!. And a lot of the folks like me and others we are the Public and paid taxes..We who love History want all statues and monuments to stand where they have over time… Why for all this time there's never been much anything said ? so obviously the people that's been alive never had a problem with it..I venture to say thousands go past it every year and don't even really know who it is.. so who's these people popping up out of nowhere??? The answer is politicians who use identity politics and want to stir up trouble over things where there has been none… I will say it seems people in the last few years are too babyfied with their emotions and they need to get thicker skin and quit letting things upset them so bad….

  32. C O R W I N Amendment.
    Read it.
    Lincoln’s FIRST Inaugural address, read it.

    Be honest, you think racist men from the north went south to save blacks and possibly die from racist men in the south??
    You honestly think that southern men without slaves, NOT from families who had slaves, would fight and die to protect OTHER Mens slaves???
    Or do you think it was about patriotism for both North and South??
    It was about who could set the prices of exports and controlling taxes.
    Were they racist??
    But only a very small portion fought for or against slavery.

  33. To remember the 600,000 Americans that died. There are Union monuments and Confederate monuments to pay respects to those who died.

  34. List of causes of the Civil War-

    Harpers Ferry

    On the night of October 16, 1859, Brown and a band of followers seized the federal arsenal at Harper’s Ferry, Virginia (now West Virginia), in what is believed to have been an attempt to arm a slave insurrection. (Brown denied this at his trial, but evidence indicated otherwise.) They were dislodged by a force of U.S. Marines led by Army lieutenant colonel Robert E. Lee.

    Brown was swiftly tried for treason against Virginia and hanged. Southern reaction initially was that his acts were those of a mad fanatic, of little consequence. But when Northern abolitionists made a martyr of him, Southerners came to believe this was proof the North intended to wage a war of extermination against white Southerners. Brown’s raid thus became a step on the road to war between the sections.

    States' Rights

    The idea of states' rights was not new to the Civil War. Since the Constitution was first written there had been arguments about how much power the states should have versus how much power the federal government should have. The southern states felt that the federal government was taking away their rights and powers.

    Political power

    That was not enough to calm the fears of delegates to an 1860 secession convention in South Carolina. To the surprise of other Southern states—and even to many South Carolinians—the convention voted to dissolve the state’s contract with the United States and strike off on its own.

    South Carolina had threatened this before in the 1830s during the presidency of Andrew Jackson, over a tariff that benefited Northern manufacturers but increased the cost of goods in the South. Jackson had vowed to send an army to force the state to stay in the Union, and Congress authorized him to raise such an army (all Southern senators walked out in protest before the vote was taken), but a compromise prevented the confrontation from occurring.

    Perhaps learning from that experience the danger of going it alone, in 1860 and early 1861 South Carolina sent emissaries to other slave holding states urging their legislatures to follow its lead, nullify their contract with the United States and form a new Southern Confederacy. Six more states heeded the siren call: Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas. Others voted down secession—temporarily. When President Lincoln called for Volunteers to invade the south, six southern states voted to join the Confederacy.

    The issue of slavery

    The burning issue that led to the disruption of the union was the debate over the future of slavery. Secession brought about a war in which the Northern and Western states and territories fought to preserve the Union, and the South fought to establish Southern independence as a new confederation of states under its own constitution.

    Most of the states of the North, meanwhile, one by one had gradually abolished slavery. A steady flow of immigrants, especially from Ireland and Germany during the potato famine of the 1840s and 1850s, insured the North a ready pool of laborers, many of whom could be hired at low wages, diminishing the need to cling to the institution of slavery. Child labor was also a growing trend in the North.

    The agrarian South utilized slaves to tend its large plantations and perform other duties. On the eve of the Civil War, some 4 million Africans and their descendants toiled as slave laborers in the South. Slavery was interwoven into the Southern economy although only a relatively small portion of the population actually owned slaves.

    – History . net

  35. 10,000 Jews fought for the confederacy. 10,000 Native Americans fought for the Confederacy. 13,000 Latinos fought for the confederacy. Several hundred Asians fought for the Confederacy. Over a thousand free African Americans fought for the confederacy.

    I’m done with haters.

  36. As someone who strongly thinks that all of these monuments need to come down from "the public square", I do understand the trickiness of the issue since the side that was defeated in the Civil War were previously American citizens, and once again American citizens following their defeat.

    I completely concur with the narrative in this video regarding the intent of erecting these monuments in the first place, but I also think that an enormous number of Americans today don't even know that the statues that they see regularly in their cities are confederate monuments. I'd suppose that this is especially true in the South's larger and faster growing cities. Many of these statues are neither revered nor despised by a significant number of local citizens; they are simply part of a familiar backdrop to their cities. The video even says it too; the statues are often generic. To many Americans they are just that: statues. Many, if not most, Americans LOVE statues. I dare say that, in this context, their removal becomes a delicate surgery because people have gotten used to them being there in a prominent place that makes their city "Instagramable". Now, I'm not saying that they can't or shouldn't be removed, I'm only trying to paint a picture of where I think the change process needs to begin. I don't think that it's enough to use outrage today as the reason to take them down. I think this entire story about how they came to be in the first place needs to be told and understood. Outrage without context or reason is often dismissed as hysteria.

    Conversely, the battle flag of the confederacy is a much more easily recognized symbol that all Americans know is different from the American Flag, immediately upon viewing. There are less steps in ones mind to come to come to a conclusion about whether or not it should stay or go.

  37. I don't agree with the Confederacy, but I have mixed feelings about whether we should take the monuments down or not; erasing the embarrassing parts of our history sounds really good, but if we forget those parts of our history, we're in danger of repeating them

  38. Because most White People in America are racists that hearken for the " good ole days" when there was no CONSEQUENCE for harming, brutalizing or murdering Black People! Plus, Conservatives do love their hate symbols!!!

  39. It could also be that people wanted simply to honor their dead, to give higher meaning to such a tragedy. Over 600,000 American dead. White, Black, North, South, rich, poor, men, women, children forever scarred. To this day the nation feels it more than any other conflict other than the Revolution.

    The Acient Egyptians held slaves, but no one suggests we destroy or hide the detritus of their civilization. The Romans, and Greeks, who gave us ideas like democracy and republics, held slaves, conquered in war, knew defeats, but we do not destroy their monuments, or assassinate their legacy and character in an attempt to make a contemporary political point, or prove our higher morality.

    We know what those who fought the American Civil War were like, what they were about, their aspirations, intentions, and objectives for better and for worse.

    What's troubling is how there is this need today to eradicate them, the history, the memories with cold, contemptuous, calculated censorship.

    I cannot imagine going to an 18th century monument anywhere that commemorates HM George III or the British Army and destroying it, because they were once our enemies in war, whose mission was to prevent our pursuit of Independence.

    I wouldn't deliberately destroy a bust of Stalin, Mao, or Hitler despite my conviction that these men were as close to monsters and tyrants as humans can be, because that would testify to my character and condemn me to be little better.

    If the Union could be restored, if North and South could make peace, if all Americans can now live free, then perhaps it's time to put this past to rest, learn from it, so as not to repeat it, and let the dead be. What can be gained by fighting this war over and over? Are we so petty, feeble minded, and weak that the mere sight of a stone or statue can drive us into an emotional rage?

    What's next? Shall we desecrate graves, disinter all Confederates, smash their head stones, scatter their bones, and dance on the plots? It wouldn't hurt them, they wouldn't know, but it would hurt us, and we would know that America has lost its mind, it's decency, and that we enthusiastically admit to being unworthy of human dignity, beneath magnanimity, and openly invite future generations to defile our memory, because we said it was OK.

  40. Slavery was not being threatened by the north. Lincoln and the Republicans had zero interest in abolishing slavery, just collecting tariff revenue and using it to enrich the north at the cost of the rest of the country.

  41. To scare foundational black Americans during Jim Crow and Civil Rights Era when most of the monuments were erected 🤷🏾‍♂️
    Who gives statues to losers and terrorist?

  42. Its quite funny how the same people who call us traitors are the same people who also see it fit to strip every amendment they disagree with from the founding document of this country.

  43. the Left would like to remove
    the statues of generals,
    because they HATE the south

    the Left would like to remove
    the statues of G. Washington
    and Founding Fathers, because
    they HATE USA
    the left would like to remove
    the statues of Ronald Reagan
    because they HATE capitalism
    the Left would like to erect
    the statues of Stalin and
    Bernie Sanders 💋
    because the left LOVE
    communism and socialism

    the Left in USA is much more
    hateful and divisive than the
    Left in Mexico, my country.

  44. Because they are monuments to the 2nd american revolution that's was lost and the 1st successful propaganda campaign that worked to indoctrinate the people that the banks and corporations are the good guys and the people are the enemy , and it worked

  45. It's interesting that there's a defense by modern confederate sympathizers that the war of northern agression wasn't about slavery/white supremacy but the documents from the confederates state otherwise.

    As I understand things, the "state rights" argument is an attempt to obscure the truth.

  46. You don't seem to understand why most monuments were built after 1880: the South was devastated economically. People were trying to survive. Monuments are not required for daily existence. Tennessee did not have the GDP she had in 1860 until 1900. It was not the rise of white supremacy that caused monuments to be constructed, it was economics. White supremacy was baked into the cake in April, 1865. If you doubt it, ask why there was no large exodus of blacks from the South until WW1.

  47. Dear Origin of everything!

    I love your series, but could you please speak a little slower in the videos?!
    Im sure I am speaking for many students who is non native English speakers.
    I speak English on a daily basis, but its still challenging for me to follow your videos.


  48. So if you have the moral authority
    To tear down Confederate monuments, I claim the moral authority to tear down the Lincoln Memorial, monuments to union soldiers and any monuments to MLK or Malcom X.

    What makes your “offense” morally superior to mine?

    Why is it with all these monument tear downs, and renaming of schools, black people only seem angrier and angrier?

    What makes you any better than the Taliban who blew up centuries old statues of Buddha?

  49. Just became a Patron! Thank you and keep up the great work. The work that you and your team are producing is so important and valuable. Thank you so much!

  50. They put up Confederate statues to honor the soldiers. The soldiers did not fight for slavery. They fought for many different reasons. Same for the north

  51. Lincoln led Republicans controlled both houses of the 37th Congress. One of their select committees was the “Committee on Emancipation and Colonization.” The following resolution from that committee explains exactly what motivated Northern “anti-slavery.” Anti-slavery meant nothing more than “anti-black;” and to rid the country of an “inferior race” to prevent amalgamation. It was this kind of immoral racism that led to Southern secession in the first place. Is it any wonder that the MISSISSIPPI Declaration of Secession laments that the North “seeks not to elevate or to support the slave, but to destroy his present condition without providing a better.” If this is why the South was “pro-slavery,” in order to protect their black neighbors from Northern racism, what else are we not being told about the cause of secession and war?

    37th Congess.
    No. 148. REPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE ON EMANCIPATION AND COLONIZATION,In the House of Resentatives, July 16, 1862:

    “It is useless, now, to enter upon any philosophical inquiry whether nature has or has not made the negro inferior to the Caucasian. The belief is indelibly fixed upon the public mind that such inequality does exist. There are irreconcilable differences between the two races which separate them,
    as with a wall of fire. The home for the African must not be within the limits of the present territory of the Union. The Anglo- American looks upon every acre of our present domain as intended for him, and not for the negro. A home, therefore, must be sought for the African beyond our own limits and in those warmer regions to which his constitution is better adapted than to our own climate,and which doubtless the Almighty intended the colored races should inhabit and cultivate.

    Much of the objection to emancipation arises from the opposition of a large portion of our people to the intermixture of the races, and from the association of white and black labor. The committee would do nothing to favor such a policy; apart from the antipathy which nature has ordained, the presence of a race among us who cannot, and ought not to be admitted to our social and political privileges, will be a perpetual source of injury and inquietude to both. This is a question of color, and is unaffected by the relation of master and slave.

    The introduction of the negro, whether bond or free, into the same field of labor with the white man, is the opprobrium of the latter… We wish to disabuse our laboring countrymen, and the whole Caucasian race who may seek a home here, of this error… The committee conclude that the highest interests of the white race, whether Anglo-Saxon, Celt, or Scandinavian, require that the whole country should be held and occupied by those races.”

    General Lee exclaimed:"The best men in the South have long desired to do away with the institution of slavery, and are quite willing to see it abolished. UNLESS SOME HUMANE COURSE, BASED ON WISDOM AND CHRISTIAN PRINCIPLES IS ADOPTED, you do them great injustice in setting them free.”
    CSA Governor Henry W Allen Jan 1865

    "To the English philanthropist who professes to feel so much for the slave, I would say, come and see the sad and cruel workings the scheme.–Come and see the negro in the hands of his Yankee liberators. See the utter degradation–the ragged want–the squalid poverty. These false, pretended friends treat him with criminal neglect. William H. Wilder, He says the negroes have died like sheep with the rot. In the Parish of Iberville, out of six hundred and ten slaves, three hundred and ten have perished. Tiger Island, at Berwicks Bay, is one solid grave yard. At New Orleans, Thibodaux, Donaldsonville, Plaquemine, Baton Rouge, Port Hudson, Morganza, Vidalia, Young's Point and Goodrich's Landing, the acres of the silent dead will ever be the monuments of Yankee cruelty to these unhappy wretches. Under published orders from General Banks, The men on plantations were to be paid from six to eight dollars per month, In these orders the poor creatures after being promised this miserable pittance, were bound by every catch and saving clause that a lawyer could invent. For every disobedience their wages were docked. For every absence from labor they were again docked. In the hands of the grasping Yankee overseer, the oppressed slave has been forced to toil free of cost to his new master. I saw a half-starved slave who had escaped from one of the Yankee plantations, he said "that he had worked hard for the Yankees for six long months–that they had 'dockered' him all the time, and had never paid him one cent!" The negro has only changed masters, and very much for the worse! And now, without present reward or hope for the future, he is dying in misery and want. Look at this picture ye negro worshippers, and weep, if you have tears to shed over the poor down-trodden murdered children of Africa."

  52. When one travels to Italy or Egypt, or many other countries in which ancient cultures and civilizations were located, you find statues and monuments honoring kings and emperors and pagan gods, all of which are largely irrelevant to modern society. In my opinion, these Confederate monuments represent a culture and society that no longer exists.  As a historic preservationist, I would advocate that all monuments to past cultures inside the US should be preserved. Including Native American monuments such as the Ocmulgee Indian Mounds in Georgia, monuments to King George III, Spanish and Russian monuments and churches in California and Alaska, etc.  In Mexico and Central and South America, they preserve monuments erected by the Aztec, Mayan and Inca cultures, even though they engaged in slavery, wars, and even human sacrifice.  Rather than trying to tear down and destroy monuments from past cultures, enlightened and progressive modern cultures see the benefits of historic preservation.  These Confederate Monuments are works of art which should be preserved in their present locations. "Danielle" does a very good job at trying to psychoanalyze the intentions of people she never met, who a century ago erected monuments to honor the sacrifices of their fathers, brothers, sons, etc.  There is nothing wrong or devious or evil in their intentions. The American Civil War was just like every other war that has been fought in the history of mankind over the past 5,000 years, in that the young men who do the majority of the fighting and suffering and dying, are the ones who have the least say so in the politics and economics that controls their fate. Many of us today have doubts as to how the US government conducted the war in Southeast Asia in the 1960's and 70's, but we still respect and admire the suffering of the young men who served there. Leave the monuments alone and stop destroying things.

  53. 'A View of the Constitution' by William Rawle – used as a textbook at West Point in the 1820's and later. The author, a Founding Father, allows for secession. The book is still in print and is available on Amazon. In 1869 a justice of the Federal Supreme Court stated that no Confederate would be found guilty of treason in court.

  54. 1961? 'a stinging rebuke of the Civil Rights Movement'. Hmm. More likely a 100 year remembrance of the commencement of Lincoln's War. BTW, what say you about the 'Only Black' dormitories now on hundreds of campuses now – and the all black graduations and after-parties?

  55. Lincoln proposed his 'American System': tax-payer funds for 'internal improvements' i.e. canal and rail-road building. Such funding had been dis-allowed in many states North and South because it was graft and corruption: in today's parlance it was 'corporate welfare'. The 1861 Republicans in the FEDERAL government raised tariffs enormously – they were paid largely by the 25% of the population in the SOUTH – as such tariffs only applied to imported goods. BTW, the South provided 70% of our country's exports. The Republican Party – the first sectional party in our history – waged war economically on the South. States seceded. Lincoln lied to the governor of South Carolina about provisioning Ft. Sumter. Firing commenced. Lincoln asked states to raise troops to invade the Deep South. Four more states seceded. For more details: 'the Real Lincoln' by Dr. Thomas J Di Lorenzo.

  56. Before our Right of Association was taken from us, the majority of people in the South, honoured their ancestors struggle to preserve the government as handed to them by the Founders. The socialist coup under the Lincoln regime and "reconstruction" of our entire country set the stage for political correctness, and other bolshevik planks to be nailed down as the lid on the casket of the American Republic. Now that several brainwashed generations have come into politics and local government they would tear down such monuments. And, like most self-righteous, virtue-signaling, self-hating, ignorami, they saw-off the limb upon which they sit, expecting the tree to fall. What a stupid spineless generation.

  57. listen to the terms used here… 1 struggle to narrate american history
    ( meaning how to spin it so it fits a political agenda) 2. teach the public the DESIRED political lessons (again meaning the facts take a back seat to the political ideology being pushed)
    3. inculcate in its viewers the appropriate attitudes . who gets to decide what attitude is appropriate and what is not when it comes to the way a person perceives an art work ?
    not much mention of the fact that families in the south were destroyed hardly a one did not suffer the loss of a father,husband,brother or son the monuments were mostly put up to help heal the wounds of a war torn nation and allow the side that lost to have places to mourn losses something to help widows and orphans make sense out of such horrific events the plan was to help the nation come back together and get on track for the good of both sides.. this helped the nation avoid years of terrorist attacks after the war ended which would be counterproductive to ending the conflict for good and help reconstruction efforts

  58. I think the kkk was used to villianize the south… As there was still intent of rebellion.

    So it's not the flag im worried about
    The flag had been destroyed yet can be saved by changing its image from "slavery white supremacy" to "southern land of Dixie"

    As i see people wanting the flag to represent the south not to advance a racist past.

    I'm sorry to those effected by these occurrences … But I have made my choice….
    Be it as it may I wish to see a south not seeing themselves above blacks …. But as receiving equal …. Not pay but change of life.

    No one to be charged by color….
    But if you use words like they black or white , that's just saying we see you are a diffrent color than us ,also we are scared just the same as you.

    I am scared to say this but the more I advance the more the word will engrave itself.

  59. The lower south seceded over slavery, yest. However the North invaded the South not to end slavery, but restore the Union and impose the collection of revenues. Lincoln's Proclamations of War and Blockade 181 -180 do not mention slavery, but collection of revenues. Lincoln supported the Corwin Amendment, which would have made it illegal for the federal government to interfere with slavery where it existed in the South. When slaves began entering Union army lines, the Yankees didn't know what to do with them, so they often returned them to their owns. Until Butler dehumanized them by declaring contraband. The Emancipation Proclamation did not free slaves in loyal states or Union occupied areas of the south. So the Confederate soldier was not fighting for slavery, but to defend his home.

    Your argument that the statues were build and the schools named as rebuttals of African-American civil rights not only has a shred of evidence, but also contains the logical fallacy Post hoc ergo propter hoc. The statues were built to mark the 50th and 100th anniversaries of the war. Statues were going up in THE NORTH AT THE SAME TIME. The Lincoln Monument wasn't built until 1923.

    See more of my thoughts in this video about Booker T. Washington's response to someone asking for a private donation to a Confederate monument

  60. Just because someone loses a war. Doesn't mean you can't be proud of your history and heritage. My ancestors fought for the south in Tennessee And I'm proud of it. I fly my star's And bar's daily. It's own my property And you can see it from the public road. And if you don't like it. You have the right to take another road.PROBLEMS SOLVED.

  61. I do want to point that I was taught the south did not fight for slavery, not mentioning letters and statements from people of the time. That being said, we cannot trust non-monument history and like how people are trying to deny the holocaust. So do we put people's feelings above truth or do hide or past from our children like we did with the Japanese Americans detained in America during the second world war? That is why I love this channel, keep history true.

  62. Then explain to my if it were about slavery them how come northern states had slaves as well up until three months after the war. Funny how fools preach lies. They never talk about the brave Confederate black free men who served, Indian, Asians as well oh, how that narrative of hate and slavery just went out the window. The monument and memorials were erected because mothers of the south did not have a grave to honor their sons. See all the lies people tell to divide us. Look up HK Edgerton a black man who will tell you the truth.

  63. While the Old South lost the Civil War, it's Spirit still remains. Even if you took all of them down, it's spirit will still grow.

  64. This is a great series of videos that answer a lot of head scratching questions! Where are the Monuments to the Quakers and Underground Railroad. My great great uncle was O.O. Howard the Christian General and founder of Howard University.

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