Veneto | Wikipedia audio article

Veneto | Wikipedia audio article


Veneto ( or ; Italian: Veneto [ˈvɛːneto];
Venetian: Vèneto [ˈvɛneto]) is one of the 20 regions of Italy. Its population is about
five million, ranking fifth in Italy. The region’s capital and most populous city is
Venice. Veneto was part of the Roman Empire until
the 5th century AD. Later, after a feudal period, it was part of the Republic of Venice
until 1797. Venice ruled for centuries over one of the largest and richest maritime republics
and trade empires in the world. After the Napoleonic Wars and the Congress of Vienna,
the Republic was annexed by the Austrian Empire, until it was merged with the Kingdom of Italy
in 1866, as a result of the Third Italian War of Independence.
Besides Italian, most inhabitants also speak Venetian, which is divided into five varieties.
Since 1971 the Statute of Veneto has referred to the region’s citizens as “the Venetian
people”. Article 1 defines Veneto as an “autonomous Region”, “constituted by the Venetian people
and the lands of the provinces of Belluno, Padua, Rovigo, Treviso, Venice, Verona and
Vicenza”, while maintaining “bonds with Venetians in the world”. Article 2 sets forth the principle
of the “self-government of the Venetian people” and mandates the Region to “promote the historical
identity of the Venetian people and civilisation”. Despite this affirmations, approved by the
Italian Parliament, Veneto is not among the autonomous regions with special statute, differently
from its north-eastern and north-western neighbours, Friuli-Venezia Giulia and Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol
respectively. Veneto is home to a notable nationalist movement,
known as Venetian nationalism or Venetism. The region’s largest party is the Liga Veneta,
a founding component of the Lega Nord. The current President of Veneto is Luca Zaia (Liga
Veneta–Lega Nord), re-elected in 2015 with 50.1% of the vote. Zaia II Government includes
also Forza Italia and is externally supported by Independence We Veneto and the Brothers
of Italy. An autonomy referendum took place in 2017: 57.2% of Venetians turned out, 98.1%
voting “yes” to “further forms and special conditions of autonomy”.
Having been for a long period in history a land of mass emigration, Veneto is today one
of the greatest immigrant-receiving regions in the country, with 487,493 foreigners (9.9%
of the regional population; January 2018), notably including Romanians (25.2%), Moroccans
(9.3%), Chinese (7.1%), Moldovans (7.0%) and Albanians (6.9%).==Geography=====Geomorphology===
Veneto is the 8th largest region in Italy, with a total area of 18,398.9 km2 (7,103.9
sq mi). It is located in the north-eastern part of Italy and is bordered to the east
by Friuli-Venezia Giulia, to the south by Emilia-Romagna, to the west by Lombardy and
to the north by Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol. At its northernmost corner it borders also
on Austria. The north-south extension of Veneto is 210
km (130 mi) from the Austrian border to the mouth of the River Po. By area, 29% of its
surface is mountainous (Carnic Alps, eastern Dolomites and Venetian Prealps). The highest
massif in the Dolomites is the Marmolada-massif at 3,342 m (10,965 ft). Other dolomitic peaks
are the Tre Cime di Lavaredo and the Pale di San Martino. The Venetian Prealps are not
as high and range between 700 m (2,300 ft) and 2,200 m (7,200 ft). A distinctive characteristic
of the Pre-alps are the cave formations, including chasms and sink holes; the Spluga della Preta,
situated in the Monte Lessini chain in the province of Verona, has an explored depth
of 985 m (3,232 ft), being the deepest cave in Italy. Fossil deposits are also abundant
there. The Po Valley, covering 57% of Veneto, extends
from the mountains to the Adriatic sea, broken only by some low hills: Euganean Hills, Berici
Hills Colli Asolani and Montello, which constitute the remaining 14% of the territory. The plain
itself is subdivided into the higher plain (gravel-strewn and not very fertile) and the
lower plain (rich in water sources and arable terrain). The lower plain is both a mainstay
of agricultural production and the most populated part of the region. Several rivers flow through the region: the
Po, Adige, Brenta, Bacchiglione, Livenza, Piave, and Tagliamento. The eastern shore
of the largest lake in Italy, Lake Garda, belongs to Veneto. The coastline covers approximately
200 km (120 mi), of which 100 km (62 mi) are beaches.
The coasts of the Adriatic Sea are characterised by the Venetian Lagoon, a flat terrain with
ponds, marshes and islands. The Po Delta to the south features sandbars and dunes along
the coastline. The inland portion contains cultivable land recently reclaimed by a system
of canals and dykes. Fish ponds have been created there as well. The delta and the lagoon
are a stopping-point for migratory birds. Veneto’s morphology is characterised by its:
mountains (montagna): 5,359.1 km2 (2,069.2 sq mi), (117 comuni being classified as mountainous);
hills (collina): 2,663.9 km2 (1,028.5 sq mi), (120 hilly comuni);
and plains (pianura): 10,375.9 km2 (4,006.2 sq
mi), (344 comuni mostly situated in the Po Valley).===Climate===
The climate changes significantly from one area to another: while it is continental on
the plains, it is milder along the Adriatic coast; around the Lake Garda and in the hilly
areas. The lowlands are often covered by thick fog; precipitations that are scarce – 750
mm per year – next to the river Po, are more abundant – from 750 to 1100 mm per year – at
higher altitudes; the highest values – up to 3200 mm per year – are recorded in the
Bellunese Prealps, near Mount Pasubio and on the Asiago plateau.==History=====Venetic period===
Between the 2nd and 1st millennium BC, the region was inhabited by the Euganei. According
to ancient historians, who perhaps wanted to link Venetic origins to legend of Roman
origins in Troy, the Veneti (often called the Palaeoveneti) came from Paphlagonia in
Anatolia at the time of the Fall of Troy (12th century BC), led by prince Antenor, a comrade
of Aeneas. Other historians links Venetic origins with Celts.
In the 7th–6th centuries BC the local populations of Veneto entered into contact with the Etruscans
and the Greeks. Venetic culture reached a high point during the 4th century BC. These
ancient Veneti spoke Venetic, an Indo-European language akin to, but distinct from Latin
and the other Italic languages. Meanwhile, the Veneti prospered through their trade in
amber and breeding of horses. Este, Padua, Oderzo, Adria, Vicenza, Verona, and Altino
became centres of Venetic culture. Over time, the Veneti began to adopt the dress and certain
other customs of their Celtic neighbours.===Roman period===
During the 3rd century BC, the Veneti, together with the Cenomani Celts on their western border,
sided with the Romans, as Rome expanded and struggled against the Insubres and Boii (Celts).
During the Second Punic War (218 – 202 BC), the Veneti even sent a contingent of soldiers
to fight alongside the Romans against Hannibal and the invading Carthaginians. These Venetians
were among those slaughtered at the Battle of Cannae (216 BC).
In 181 BC a Roman triumvirate of Publius Cornelius Scipio Nasica, Caius Flaminius, and Lucius
Manlius Acidinus founded a Latin colony at Aquileia as a base to protect the territory
of the Veneti from incursions of the hostile Carni and Histri. From then on, Roman influence
over the area increased. In 169 BC 1,500 more colonising families were sent by Rome to Aquileia.
In 148 BC the Via Postumia was completed connecting Aquileia to Genoa. In 131 BC, the Via Annia
joined Adria to Patavium (modern Padua) to Altinum to Concordia to Aquileia.
The Roman Republic gradually transformed its alliance with the Veneti into a relationship
of dominance. After the 91 BC Italic rebellion, the cities of the Veneti, together with the
rest of Transpadania, were granted partial rights of Roman citizenship according to the
Lex Pompeia de Transpadanis. Later in 49 BC, by the Lex Roscia granted full Roman citizenship
to the Veneti. The Via Claudia would be completed in AD 46 to connected Altinum, Tarvisium (modern
Treviso), Feltria (modern Feltre), and Tridentum (modern Trent). From Tridentum it continued
northwards to Pons Drusus and further to Augusta Vindelicorum (modern Augsburg), and southwards
from Trent to Verona and Mutina (modern Modena). After the Battle of Philippi (42 BC) ended
the Roman Civil War, the lands of the Veneti, together with the rest of Cisalpine Gaul,
ceased to be a province. Between 8 and 6 BC, Augustus reorganized Italia into 11 regions.
The territory of modern Veneto along with Istria, modern Friuli and Trentino-Alto Adige
and eastern Lombardy (including its cities of Mantua, Cremona, Brescia, and Sondrio)
became Region X (Venetia et Histria). Aquileia, although not officially the capital was the
chief municipium of the region. Meanwhile, under the Pax Romana, Patavium developed into
one of the most important cities of northern Italy. Other Venetic cities such as Opitergium
(modern Oderzo), Tarvisium, Feltria, Vicetia (modern Vicenza), Ateste (modern Este), and
Altinum (modern Altino) adopted the Latin language and the culture of Rome. By the end
of the 1st century AD Latin had displaced the original Venetic language.
In 166 AD the Quadi and Marcomanni invaded Venetia. It was the beginning of many barbarian
invasions. Marcus Aurelius retaining the regions of Italia, superimposed another layer of administration
by ascribing Regions X and XI to the district of Transpadana under a iuridicus. The end
of the 3rd c. brought further administrative changes when Diocletian abolished the regions
and districts and established provinciae. Thus, Region X (Venetia et Histria) became
Province VIII (Venetia et Histria), being enlarged in the west up to the Adda River
governed by a corrector until 363 and from 368 to 373 by a consularius seated at Aquileia.
Venetia et Histria remained one of the 16 Provinces of Italy in the 5th century when
both Alaric the Goth and then Attila and the Huns devastated the area. Attila laid siege
to Aquileia and turned it into a ruin in 452 AD. Many of the mainland inhabitants sought
protection in the nearby lagoons which would become Grado in the east and Venice more to
the west. On the heels of the Huns came the Ostrogoths who not only invaded, but also
settled down in the region, especially near Treviso where the penultimate king Totila
was born.During the mid-6th century, Justinian reconquered Venetia for the Eastern Roman
Empire. An Exarch was established at Ravenna while a military tribune was set up in Oderzo.
Greek-Byzantine rule did not last long. Starting in 568 AD, the Lombards crossed the Julian
Alps. These invaders subdivided the territory of Venetia into numerous feuds ruled by Germanic
dukes and counts, essentially creating the division of Veneto from Friuli.
The invasion provoked another wave of migration from the mainland to the Byzantine controlled
coast and islands. In 643 AD the Lombards conquered the Byzantine base at Oderzo and
took possession of practically all of Veneto (and Friuli) except for Venice and Grado.
The 36 Lombard duchies included the Venetian cities of Ceneda, Treviso, Verona, and Vicenza.
A reminder of Lombard rule can be seen in the place names beginning with the word Farra.===Middle Ages===
By the middle of the 8th century, the Franks had assumed political control of the region
and the mainland of Veneto became part of the Carolingian Empire. Though politically
dominant, these Germanic invaders were gradually absorbed into the Venetian population over
the centuries. In the late 9th century, Berengar, Margrave
of the March of Friuli was elected king of Italy. Under his tumultuous reign, the March
of Friuli was absorbed into the March of Verona so that Verona’s territory contained a large
portion of Roman Venetia. In the 10th century, the mainland of Veneto,
after suffering raids from the Magyars and the Slavs, was incorporated into the Holy
Roman Empire. Gradually, the communes of the mainland grew in power and wealth. In 1167
an alliance (called the Lombard League) was formed among the Venetian cities such as Venice,
Padua, Treviso, Vicenza, and Verona with other cities of Northern Italy to assert their rights
against the Holy Roman Emperor. The Second Treaty of Constance in 1183 confirmed
the Peace of Venice of 1177 in which the cities agreed to remain part of the Empire as long
as their jurisdiction over their own territories was not infringed upon. The league was dissolved
at the death of Emperor Frederick II in 1250. This period also witnessed the founding of
the second oldest university in Italy, the University of Padua founded in 1222. Around
this time, Padua also served as home to St. Anthony, the beloved Saint called simply “il
Santo” (“the Saint”) by the inhabitants of the town.===Venetian Republic===As the barbarians were interested in the wealth
of the mainland, part of the Venetian population sought refuge on some of the isolated and
unoccupied islands in the lagoon, from which the city of Venetiae or Venice was born. After
a period of Byzantine domination in 8th century, Venice became an independent maritime Republic
ruled by its elected doge. The Republic became a commercial superpower
and its influence lasted through the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. In fact, the Venetian
Republic enjoyed 1100 years of uninterrupted influence throughout the Mediterranean. By
the 16th century, the Venetian Republic dominated over Veneto, Friuli, parts of Lombardy and
Romagna, Istria, Dalmatia, the Ionian Islands of Corfu, Cefalonia, Ithaca and Zante. From
the 13th to 17th centuries, it held the island of Crete and from the mid-15th to mid-16th
century, the island of Cyprus. Venetian mainland holdings led to Venetian
involvement in European and in particular, Italian politics. Cities had to be fortified,
two impressive examples are Nafplio in Peloponese and Palmanova in Friuli. The wise rule and
prosperity brought by the “Serenissima” (most serene republic) made the cities of the terra
firma willing subjects. Eastern Islands served as useful ports for Venetian shipping. However,
as the Ottoman Empire grew more powerful and aggressive, Venice was often put on the defensive.
Ottoman control of the eastern Mediterranean and the discoveries of sea routes to Asia
around Africa and of the Americas had a debilitating effect on the Venetian economy.
In 1797, Napoleon invaded the territory of the Venetian Republic. Overwhelmed by more
powerful forces, Doge Ludovico Manin resigned and retired to his villa at Passariano in
Friuli and the thousand year old Republic disappeared as an independent state. This
proved very unpopular in the mainland cities where sympathies were strong with the Republic
of Venice. By the Treaty of Campoformio signed on 17 October 1797, part of the Venetian mainland
was handed over to Francis II of the Holy Roman Empire and a western part was annexed
to the French backed Cisalpine Republic. The territory soon reverted to Napoleon in 1801.===Habsburg rule===Then in 1805–1806, it was conquered by Napoleon’s
armies and included in the Kingdom of Italy. During 1809, the region revolted against the
French-Italian rule, supporting the advancing Austrian troops during the War of the Fifth
Coalition. It was mainly a peasant revolt, less organised than the nearby Andreas Hofer’s
revolt, while hurban national guard troops fought on the French-Italian side. After the
Congress of Vienna, 1814–1815, Venetia was the eastern half of the Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia,
a separate kingdom of the Austrian Empire. During the 1848 First Italian War of Independence,
Venetia rose against the central Austrian government, forming the Republic of San Marco,
which lasted 17 months. It asked to be annexed to the Kingdom of Sardinia to form an Italian
confederation against Austria, then using the Italian tricolour in its flag, but, after
the other Italian states left the war (May 1848) and Sardinia surrendered (August 1848,
then March 1849), Venetia stood alone. It surrendered on 24 August 1849, when the Siege
of Venice ended.The Austrian imperial government was unpopular among upper and middle classes
because of Metternich’s anti-liberal politics, turned by Emperor Franz Joseph into neo-absolutism
after 1848, and for not granting Lombardo–Venetia any real autonomy (it was considered less
than a puppet state). At the same time, it was appreciated for the efficient and honest
administration, especially among lower classes, and long-standing strong cultural ties linked
Venetia and Austria even after it was ceded to Italy. Despite this, after 1848–1849
there was no revolt against the Austrian rule.===United Italy===Venetia remained under Austrian control until
the Austro-Prussian War in 1866, when the Kingdom of Italy joined on the Prussian side
and was promised Venetia in exchange for its assistance. Austria offered to sell Venetia
to Italy, but the Italians refused, seeing it as a dishonourable act. This caused another
southern front for Austria, the Third Italian War of Independence.
Once the wars ended, the Treaty of Vienna ceded the region to neutral France, but left
the fortresses under Austrian control for a time. Following protests, the Austrians
left and the French ceded it to Italy on 20 October. A referendum – where only 30% of
the adult population voted as was custom in the period, and did so under government pressure
there was a 99.99% majority for Italy – was held on 21–22 October and ratified the handover.
During the fascist era, due to the nationalist policy the Venetian language, as other local
languages, was banned in public spaces.Due to uneven economic development reducing many
to poverty, the 19th century and the first half of the 20th became a period of emigration.
Millions of Venetians left their homes and their native land to seek opportunities in
other parts of the world. Many settled down in South America, especially in Brazil; others
in Australia, Canada, and the United States of America. After the Second World War, many
Venetians emigrated to Western European countries. In many of these places, their descendants
have maintained the use of their ancestral Venetian dialects.
Those who remained in Veneto would experience the turmoil of two World Wars. In 1915, Italy
entered the First World War on the side of the France and the United Kingdom, after extricating
itself from its alliance with Germany and the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Veneto became
a major battlefront. After the Italians suffered an enormous defeat at Caporetto in November
1917, the combined Austro-Hungarian and German forces advanced almost unhindered through
Veneto towards Venice until reaching the Piave River. The Battle of the Piave River prevented
their troops from advancing further and was celebrated in La Leggenda del Piave. Between
24 October and 3 November 1918, Italy launched the decisive Battle of Vittorio Veneto. The
battle’s outcome assured Italy’s victory. The Armistice of Villa Giusti which ended
warfare between Italy and Austria-Hungary in World War I, was signed at Villa Giusti
near Padua. Between 1943 and 1945, Veneto belonged to
the Italian Social Republic, while the province of Belluno was part of the Prealpine Operations
Zone. Many towns in the region were bombed by the Allies during the Second World War.
The most hit were Treviso and Vicenza, as well as the industrial area around Marghera.
During 1945–1946, Yugoslav Partisan brigades occupied part of Gorizia and for a month Trieste.
The eastern part of the town of Gorizia, together with the upper Isonzo valley and the main
part of Carso, were ceded to Yugoslavia in 1947, while Trieste formed the Free Territory
of Trieste, only annexed back by Italy in 1954.==Government and politics==Veneto is a semi-presidential representative
democracy. The President of the Region, colloquially nicknamed Governor or even Doge in remembrance
of Venice’s traditional head of state, is also the head of the Regional Government.
Legislative power is exerted by the Regional Council, the local parliament. The Statute
(i.e. the law establishing and regulating the regional institution, which was first
promulgated on 22 May 1971), uses the term “people” for Venetians, but, like in the case
of Sardinians, this is not a legal recognition of any differences from other Italian citizens.
Moreover, the region is not granted a form of autonomy comparable to that of neighbouring
Friuli-Venezia Giulia and Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol. This is the reason why many municipalities
have held referendums in order to be united to these regions.
Traditionally a very Catholic region, Veneto was once the heartland of Christian Democracy,
which won a record 60.5% of the vote in the 1948 general election, polled above 50% in
each and every general and regional election until 1983 and governed the region since its
establishment in 1970 to 1994. After that, Veneto has been a stronghold of the centre-right
coalition, which has governed the region since 1995, first under President Giancarlo Galan
(Forza Italia/The People of Freedom) and, since 2010, Luca Zaia (Liga Veneta–Lega
Nord). In the 2015 regional election Liga Veneta–Lega Nord won a combined 40.9% of
the vote (sum of party list and Zaia’s personal list), followed by the three main Italian
parties of the time, the Democratic Party (16.7%), the Five Star Movement (10.4%) and
Forza Italia (6.0%). According to Robert D. Putnam, the “institutional
performance” of Veneto’s regional government is higher than average in Italy and Veneto
belongs to the “civic North”.===Venetian nationalism===
Venetian nationalism is a regionalist/nationalist political movement which gained prominence
in Veneto during the 1970s and 1980s, demanding more autonomy, a special statute or even independence,
and promoting Venetian culture, language and history. This is the political background
in which the Liga Veneta was launched in 1980. Other regionalist/nationalist groupings, including
Liga Veneta Repubblica, North-East Project and the avowed separatist Veneto State, Venetian
Independence and Plebiscito.eu, emerged but they have never touched the popularity of
Liga Veneta, which was a founding member of Lega Nord in 1991.
Venetian Independence and other alike groups have been long proposing a referendum on the
independence of Veneto from Italy. After the Regional Council approved a resolution on
self-determination (with an explicit reference to a referendum) in November 2012, a referendum
bill was proposed in April 2013.Plebiscite 2013 organised an online referendum, with
no official recognition, for 16–21 March 2014. According to organisers, turnout was
63.2% (2.36 million voters) and 89.1% of participants (56.6 of all eligible voters) voted yes. Several
news sources, however, contested these results, saying that participants were at most 135,000
(3.6% of eligible voters) based on public independent web traffic statistics.On 22 October
2017 an official autonomy referendum took place in Veneto: 57.2% of Venetians participated
and 98.1% voted “yes”.==Administrative divisions==Veneto is divided into the Metropolitan City
of Venice and 6 provinces and also divided in 581 municipalities. Of the seven provinces
of the region, the Province of Padua is the most populous and has the greatest density,
with 424. 81 persons per km2, reaching 2268. 58 in the city of Padua. In contrast the capital
city, Venice, has a moderate density of 646. 71. The province of least density is Belluno
(58. 08), which is the largest in area and the most mountainous.===Metropolitan City and provinces======Largest municipalities=====Demographics==
The region has about 4.8 million inhabitants, ranking Veneto as the fifth most populated
region in Italy. Veneto has one of the highest population densities among the Italian regions
(265 inhabitants per km2 in 2008). This is particularly true in the provinces of Padua,
Venice and Treviso, where the inhabitants per km2 are above 300. Belluno is the least
densely populated province, with 57 inhabitants per km2.
Like the other regions of Northern Italy and Central Italy, though with a certain time
lag, Veneto has been experiencing a phase of very slow population growth caused by the
dramatic fall in fertility. The overall population has so far been increasing – though only
slightly – due to the net immigration started at the end of the 1980s, after more than 20
years of massive exodus from the poorer areas of the region.
Nearly 3 million Venetians were forced to leave their country between 1861 and 1961
to escape poverty. Many emigrated to Brazil and Argentina. After World War II, they moved
to other European countries. In 2008, there were 260,849 Venetian citizens living outside
of Italy (5.4% of the region’s population), the largest number was found in Brazil, with
57,052 Venetians, followed by Switzerland, with 38,320, and Argentina, with 31,823. There
are several million people of Venetian descent around the world, particularly in Brazil,
in the states of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina and Paraná. Local names in Southern
Brazil such as Nova Schio, Nova Bassano, Nova Bréscia, Nova Treviso, Nova Veneza, Nova
Pádua and Monteberico indicate the Venetian origin of their inhabitants. In recent years,
people of Venetian descent from Brazil and Argentina have been migrating to Italy.Due
to the impressive economic growth of the last two decades, Veneto has turned into a land
of immigration and has been attracting more and more immigrants since the 1990s. In 2008,
the Italian national institute of statistics ISTAT estimated that 403,985 foreign-born
immigrants live in Veneto, equal to 8.3% of the total regional population.===Religion===Veneto converted to Christianity during Roman
rule. The region venerates as its patrons the 2nd-century bishop St. Hermagoras and
his deacon St. Fortunatus, both of Aquileia and both martyrs. Aquileia became the metropolitan
see of Venetia. Aquileia had its own liturgical rites which were used throughout the dioceses
of Veneto until the later Middle Ages when the Roman Rite replaced the Aquileian Rite.
By the 6th century the bishop of Aquileia claimed the title of patriarch. Rejection
of the Second Council of Constantinople (553) led to a schism wherein the bishops of Aquileia,
Liguria, Aemilia, Milan and of the Istrian peninsula all refused to condemn the Three
Chapters leading to the churches of Veneto to break communion with the Church of Rome.
The invasion of the non-Catholic Lombards in 568 only served to prolong the schism until
606 and then finally 699 when the Synod of Pavia definitively ended the schism.In 2004,
over 95% of the population claimed to be Roman Catholic. The region of Veneto along with
the regions of Friuli and Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol form the ecclesiastical region of Triveneto
under the Patriarchate of Venice. The Patriarchate of Venice is an archdiocese and metropolitan
see of an ecclesiastical region which includes suffragan episcopal sees of Adria-Rovigo,
Belluno-Feltre, Chioggia, Concordia-Pordenone, Padua, Treviso, Verona, Vicenza, and Vittorio
Veneto.The Archdiocese of Venice was elevated to an honorary Patriarchate by the pope on
8 October 1457 when the Patriarchate of Grado, a successor to the Patriarchate of Aquileia,
was suppressed. The first patriarch of Venice was St. Laurence, a nobleman of the Giustiniani
family. During the 20th century the patriarchs were
usually appointed cardinal, and three cardinal patriarchs, Giuseppe Sarto, Angelo Roncalli,
and Albino Luciani, were elected pope: Pius X, John XXIII, and John Paul I, respectively.
The Patriarchate of Venice claims St. Mark the Evangelist as its patron. The same saint,
symbolised by a winged lion, had become the typical symbol of the Venetian Republic and
is still represented on many civic symbols.==Economy==
Under Austrian rule, Veneto’s agriculturally based economy suffered, which later led to
mass emigration. But, since the 1970s it has seen impressive development, thanks to the
so-called “Veneto development model” that is characterised by strong export-oriented
entrepreneurship in traditional economic sectors and close social cohesion – making it actually
the third richest region in terms of total GDP (€166.4 billion) after Lombardy and
Lazio.Geography and historical events have determined the present social and economic
structure of the region, centred on a broad belt running from east to west. The plain
and the Alpine foothills are the most developed areas in contrast to the Po delta and the
mountainous areas, with the exception of the surroundings of Belluno. This is why the Alps
and the province of Rovigo are suffering more than other areas, from a trend of declining
and ageing population.===Agriculture===
Though its importance has been decreasing for the past 20–30 years, agriculture continues
to play a significant role in the regional economy. The agricultural sector of Veneto
is among the most productive in Italy. However, it is still characterised by an intensive
use of labour rather than capital, due to the specialisation in market gardening, fruit-growing
and vine-growing throughout the plain and the foothills, requiring very much handicraft.
In the south and in the extreme east of the region, grain crops are more common and land
holdings are larger than in the rest of the region; mechanisation is more advanced here.
The cattle stock, although declining, still represented 15% of the national stock. Fishing
is also still important in coastal areas. The main agricultural products include maize,
green peas, vegetables, apples, cherries, sugar beets, forage, tobacco, hemp. Moreover,
Veneto is one of Italy’s most important wine-growing areas, producing wines, such as Prosecco,
Valpolicella, and Soave. Overall, Veneto produces more bottles of DOC wine than any other area
in Italy. The Amarone della Valpolicella, a wine from the hills around Verona, is made
with high-selected grapes and is among the more expensive red wines in the world.===Industry===
In the last 30–40 years industrialisation transformed the appearance of the landscape,
especially in the plains. The regional industry is especially made of
small and medium-sized businesses, which are active in several sectors: food products,
wood and furniture, leather and footwear, textiles and clothing, gold jewelry, but also
chemistry, metal-mechanics and electronics. This has led to the establishment of a strongly
export-orientated system of industries. Typical of Veneto is the partition of the
territory into industrial districts, which means that each area tends to specialise in
a specific sector. The province of Venice hosts large metallurgical and chemical plants
in Marghera and Mestre, but is also specialised in glass handicraft (Murano). The province
of Belluno hosts the so-called eyeglasses district, being the largest world manufacturer
Luxottica a firm domiciliated at Agordo. Fashion industry is extremely strong all over the
region: Benetton, Sisley, Geox, Diesel, Replay are all Venetian brands.
During the last 20 years, a large number of Venetian companies relocated their plants
(especially the most dangerous and polluting productions) in Eastern Europe, especially
Romania. The Romanian city of Timișoara is also called “the newest Venetian province”.===Tourism===Although being a heavily industrialised region,
tourism is one of its main economic resources; one-fifth of Italy’s foreign tourism gravitates
towards Veneto, which is the first region in Italy in terms of tourist presence, attracting
over 60 million visitors every year, second after Emilia-Romagna in terms of hotel industry
structures; the business volume of tourism in Veneto is estimated to be in the vicinity
of 12 billion Euros.===Statistics=======Historical GDP====
A table which shows Veneto’s GDP growth:====Economic sectors====
The main sectors in the economy of Veneto are:====Unemployment====
The unemployment rate stood at 6.3% in 2017 and was lower than the national average.==Culture=====Art and architecture===The Middle Ages stimulated the creation of
monumental works such as the complex of churches on the island of Torcello, in the Venetian
lagoon, with the Cathedral of Santa Maria Assunta founded in 639, its bell tower erected
in the 11th century and the adjacent Martyrium of Santa Fosca built around the 1100, notable
for the mosaics. They saw the construction of the Basilica
of San Zeno Maggiore in Verona, which was Veneto’s main centre for that esthetic movement
and we note, by the mixture of styles that Verona was an important crossroads to the
north of Europe. Examples of Gothic art, in addition to the
Venetian church of Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari and that of Santi Giovanni e Paolo,
are the Scaliger Tombs in the historical centre of Verona.
While in Veneto Byzantine art was important, an element of innovation was brought to Padua
by Giotto, bearer of a new pictorial tradition: that of Tuscany. Towards the 1302 he was commissioned
by Enrico Scrovegni to paint the family chapel, now known just by the name of Scrovegni Chapel,
one of the most important artistic monuments of Padua and Veneto. The influences of the
contribution of Giotto were felt immediately, as in the frescoes of Giusto de’ Menabuoi
in the Baptistry near the Cathedral of Padua and those of Altichiero in the Basilica of
Saint Anthony. After a phase of development of Gothic art,
with the creation of important works including the Ca’ d’Oro and the Doge’s Palace in Venice,
and the churches of Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari and of Saints John and Paul in Venice,
the influence of the Renaissance ushered in a new era. In addition to Donatello, an important
Venetian Renaissance artist was Andrea Mantegna (1431–1506), whose most important work in
Veneto is perhaps the San Zeno Altarpiece, found in Verona. With the mainland expansion
of the Venetian Republic and the consolidation of its institutions, there was also an artistic
development of exceptional stature: Mantegna, Vittore Carpaccio, Giovanni Bellini, Cima
da Conegliano, Pordenone laid the foundations for what would be the age of Venetian painting.
Padua was a cradle of the Venetian Renaissance, Where influences from Tuscany and Umbria filtered
north. Amongst the Renaissance artists who worked there were Donatello, who worked on
an altar of the Basilica of Saint Anthony, and Pisanello, whose works are mainly in Verona,
for example, the fresco of Saint George in the Church of St. Anastasia. In the first phase with Carpaccio and Bellini,
the influences of international painting were still evident and the references to Flemish
art were numerous. Artists of the successive phase included Giorgione, Titian, Sebastiano
del Piombo and Lorenzo Lotto. Giorgione and Titian developed an original and innovative
style, which characterised the painters of the Venetian school rather than other traditions.
Giorgione’s enigmatic style infused his work with allegory, and he created his paintings
with less reliance on a preparatory drawing than previous painters. This innovation was
looking for the imitation of natural phenomena by creating atmospheres with the colours and
shifting the emphasis from the pursuit of artistic perfection. The storm (1506–1508),
now in the Accademia in Venice, is an example of this use of colour, where the mixture colour
and texture continue indefinitely without preparatory drawing for the painting work
gives a special atmosphere. Titian, born in Belluno Pieve di Cadore, brought
forward the use of this technique without pictorial design, creating masterpieces such
as the Assumption of the Virgin (1516–1518), an altar made by imposing visible sizes on
the main altar of the Basilica of Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari in Venice, a work whose
suggestion is due to the use of colour. At the end of his long life, he had acquired
fame and commissions across the continent. Tintoretto (1518–1594) recast Roman Mannerism
in a Venetian style, less linear, and with more use of colour to distinguish forms, highlighting
the bright prospects for its operations, giving unusual deformations of perspective, to increase
the sense of tension in the work. His studio was prolific. Palaces and churches of Venice
abound with his paintings. The Scuola Grande di San Rocco alone sports 66 paintings by
this painter. The San Giorgio Maggiore houses a huge canvas by him depicting the Last Supper.
Paolo Veronese (1528–1588) was about as prolific as Tintoretto, with works that celebrated
the Venetian state, as well as decorating houses of Venetian nobles. He decorated large
portions of the Palazzo Ducale and the decoration of many villas Palladian, including Villa
Barbaro. Jacopo Bassano (1517–1592) and Lorenzo Lotto
were active in the mainland, and reflected some of the influences of Milanese painters
with the introduction of images taken from real life, enriched by a touch of drama. In architecture, Andrea Palladio (1508–1580),
born in Padua, completed some highly influential works, including Villas in the mainland, in
Vicenza, Padua and Treviso. In Venice, he designed the Basilica of San Giorgio Maggiore,
the Il Redentore, and Zitelle on the island of Giudecca. Palladian Villa architecture,
in masterpieces such as Villa Emo, Villa Barbaro, Villa Capra, and Villa Foscari, evoked the
imagined grandeur of antique classical Roman villas. This aesthetic, through his publications,
proved very popular and underwent a revival in the neoclassical period. In his villas,
the owner shall permit the control over production activities of the surrounding countryside
by structuring the functional parts, such as porch, close to the central body. In the
case of Villa Badoer, the open barn, formed by a large circular colonnade, enclosing the
front yard in front of the villa allows you to create a space that recalls the ancient
idea of the Forum Romanum, and bringing all campaign activities to gravitate in front
of the villa itself. The research style of Palladio has created
an architectural movement called Palladianism, which has had strong following in the next
three centuries, inspiring architects, some of them his direct students, including Vincenzo
Scamozzi, after the death of the teacher who completed several works, including the first
Teatro Olimpico in Vicenza. The 18th-century Venetian school comprises
many artists. Important painters include Giambattista Tiepolo, his son Giandomenico, Giambattista
Piazzetta, Niccolò Bambini, Pietro Longhi, Marco and Sebastiano Ricci, Sebastiano Bombelli,
Gianantonio Fumiani, Gaspare Diziani, Rosalba Carriera, and the architect/painter Girolamo
Mengozzi Colonna. Sculptors include Morlaiter, Filippo Parodi,
Bernard Torretti and his nephew Giuseppe Torretti, and at the end of the republic Antonio Canova.
Some other important artists are the architects Girolamo Frigimelica, Giorgio Massari, Scalfarotto,
and Tommaso Temanza; the carver Andrea Brustolon; playwrights Carlo Goldoni and Gaspare Gozzi;
the poets Alessandro Labia and George Whisker; and composers Benedetto Marcello and Antonio
Vivaldi. Giovanni Battista Tiepolo (1696–1770), described
as “the greatest decorative painter of eighteenth-century Europe, as well as its most able craftsman.”
was a painter and printmaker, who together with Giambattista Pittoni, Canaletto, Giovan
Battista Piazzetta, Giuseppe Maria Crespi and Francesco Guardi formed the ultimate group
of traditional great Venetian old master painters of that period. Perspective played a central
role in Tiepolo’s representations, and was forced beyond the usual limits in his ceiling
decorations depicting levitating figures viewed from below.
Another characteristic feature of Venetian art is landscape painting, which sees in Canaletto
(1697–1768) and Francesco Guardi (1712–1793) the two leading figures. Canaletto’s rigorous
perspective studies make for an almost “photographic” reality, in contrast to Guardi’s more subjective
capriccios. Antonio Canova (1757–1822), born in Possagno,
was the greatest of the neoclassical artists. The Temple of Possagno, which he designed,
financed, and partly-built himself, is among landmarks of neo-classical architecture. His
most important works include Psyche Revived by Love’s Kiss and The Three Graces.
After the fall of the Republic of Venice in 1796, every city in Veneto created its own
form of art. Important was, however, the role of Accademia di Belle Arti in Venice, who
was able to attract many young artists from the surrounding territory.
Among the many artists which were important in modern ages were Guglielmo Ciardi, who
incorporated the experience of macchiaioli movement, uniting the typical colour of the
classic Venetian school, and yet bringing out from his paintings a chromatic essence,
Giacomo Favretto, who too as Ciardi, enhanced the colour, which was sometimes very pronounced,
painter Frederick Zandomeneghi, who deviates from the tradition of Venetian colouring to
venture in a style similar to French impressionism, and finally Luigi Nono, whose works feel realistic,
even if, in addition to painting genre scenes, includes portraits of finity for psychological
enhancement.===Education===
Veneto hosts one of the oldest universities in the world, the University of Padua, founded
in 1222. OECD investigations show that school education achievements in North-Eastern Italy
(whose population comes mainly from Veneto) are the highest in Italy. In 2003 the university
had approximately 65,000 students.===Language===Most of the people of Veneto speak Italian
along with widespread usage of local varieties of the Venetian language. Within Venetian
there are distinct sub-groups centered on the major cities, and distinctions are also
found between rural and urban dialects and those spoken in northern mountainous areas
and on the plain.Venetian dialects are classified as Western Romance. Linguists identify five
major types of Venetian: an Eastern or Coastal (Venice) group, a Central (Padua, Vicenza,
Polesine) group, a Western (Verona) group, a North-Central (Treviso) group, and a Northern
(Belluno, Feltre, Agordo, Cadore, Zoldo Alto) group of dialects. All dialects are mutually
intelligible to varying degrees, are descended from Vulgar Latin and influenced to varying
degrees by the Italian language. Venetian is attested as a written language in the 13th
century. The language of Venice enjoyed substantial
prestige in the days of the Venetian Republic, when it attained the status of a lingua franca
in the Mediterranean. Notable Venetian-language authors include the playwrights Carlo Goldoni
(1707–1793) and Carlo Gozzi (1720–1806), while Ruzante (1502–1542) is best known
for his rustic comedies “cast in mainland peasant Pavan ‘Paduan'”.Ladin, also Romance,
is spoken in parts of the province of Belluno, especially in the municipalities of Cortina
d’Ampezzo, Livinallongo del Col di Lana and Colle Santa Lucia, while Cimbrian (Germanic)
is spoken in two villages (Roana and Giazza respectively) of the Seven Communities and
the Thirteen Communities. These are two historical groups of villages of Cimbric origin, which
for a long time formed two distinct “commonwealths” under the rule of the Republic of Venice,
among others. Furthermore, in the area around Portogruaro people speak Furlan.
As the region does not enjoy a special status of autonomy, minority languages are not granted
any form of official recognition. A motion to recognise Venetian as an official regional
language has been approved by the regional Parliament.===Literature===Venetian literature is the corpus of literature
in Venetian, the vernacular language of the region which roughly corresponding to Venice
from the 12th century. The Venetian literature, after an initial period of splendour in the
16th century with the success of artists such as Ruzante, reaches its maximum zenith in
the 18th century, thanks to its maximum exponent, dramatist Carlo Goldoni. Subsequently, the
literary production in Venetian undergoes a period of decline following the collapse
of the Republic of Venice, succeeding anyway during the 20th century to reach peaks with
wonderful lyrical poets such as Biagio Marin of Grado.===Cuisine===Cuisine is an important part of the culture
of Veneto, and the region is home to some of the most recognisable dishes, desserts
and wines in Italian, European and worldwide cuisine.====Wines and drinks====Veneto is an important wine-growing area producing:
Soave, Bardolino, Recioto, Amarone, Torcolato, Prosecco, Tocai Rosso, Garganega, Valpolicella,
Verduzzo, Raboso, Moscato, Cabernet Franc, Pinot Nero, Pinot Grigio, and Merlot. Homemade
wine making is widespread. After making wine, the alcohol of the pressed grapes is distilled
to produce grappa or graspa, as it is called in the local language.
Prosecco is a dry sparkling wine. It is made from a variety of white grape of the same
name, which is traditionally grown in an area near Conegliano and Valdobbiadene, in the
hills north of Treviso. The name of Prosecco is derived from the northern Italian village
of Prosecco (Trieste), where this grape variety is believed to have originated.Spritz, in
the Venetian language also called “spriss” or “spriseto” depending on the area, usually
consists of ⅓ sparkling wine and ⅔ Aperol. Campari or gin may also be used.====Cheeses====Cheeses of Veneto include: Asiago (PDO), Piave
(PDO), Monte Veronese (PDO), Morlacco, Grana Padano (PDO).====Salamis and meats====
The sopressa vicentina (PDO) is an aged salami, cylindrical in shape and prepared with raw,
quality pork meat. It may or may not include garlic in its ingredients and comes in medium
and large sizes. Prosciutto Veneto Berico-Euganeo (PDO) is obtained from the fresh meat of a
top breed of adult hogs. The aroma is delicate, sweet and fragrant.====Vegetables====
Radicchio rosso di Treviso (PGI) is a peculiar vegetable with a faintly bitter taste and
a crunchy texture. The production area encompasses many town districts in the provinces of Treviso,
Padua and Venice. The radicchio Variegato di Castelfranco (PGI) has a delicate and slightly
sweet taste and a crunchy texture. Veronese Vialone Nano Rice from Verona (PGI) is a type
of rice with short, plump grains, which have a creamy consistency when cooked. They are
commonly used in risotto dishes and have a high starch content. The Bean of Lamon (PGI)
is particularly prized for its delicate flavour and extremely tender skin. The White Asparagus
of Cimadolmo (PGI) has a characteristic scent and a very delicate taste. The White Asparagus
of Bassano is a typical product of the northern part of the province of Vicenza. The San Zeno
di Montagna (Verona) chestnut has Protected Geographical Status.====Desserts====Tiramisù (a dessert made from mascarpone,
coffee, Marsala wine, savoiardi and chocolate) originates from Veneto.===Festivals===
Each town, often every quarter, has its patron saint whose feast day is solemnly celebrated.
Many other festivals are closely linked to the religious calendar. Among these: Carnival of Venice celebrated the Tuesday
before Ash Wednesday; Panevin celebrated around Epiphany;
Pasqua (Easter Sunday); Saint Mark’s feast day (25 April);
La Sensa (Ascension Thursday); San Giovanni Battista (24 June);
La festa del Redentór (mid July); Vendemmia (grape harvest in September);
San Nicolò de Bari (St. Nicholas, 6 December); Nadàl (Christmas)===Music===Veneto, and in particular Venice and Verona,
are important Italian musical centres, home to a vibrant musical life.
The city of Venice in Italy has played an important role in the development of the music
of Italy. The Venetian state—i.e. the medieval Maritime Republic of Venice—was often popularly
called the “Republic of Music”, and an anonymous Frenchman of the 17th century is said to have
remarked that “In every home, someone is playing a musical instrument or singing. There is
music everywhere.”In Padova, musical ensembles such as the Amici della Musica di Padova,
the Solisti Veneti and the Padova-Veneto Symphony are found. Concerts are often held in the
historic Loggia Comaro, built in 1524. As well, the city is the site of the Teatro delle
Maddalene, the Teatro delle Grazie, the Giuseppe Verdi Theater, and the Cesare Pollini music
conservatory. Rovigo is the site of the Teatro Sociale,
built in 1819. In the 20th century it was the venue for the career beginnings of Tullio
Serafin, Beniamino Gigli and Renata Tebaldi. The town of Rovigo is also the site of the
Francesco Vanezza music conservatory. The city of Verona is the site of the Roman
amphitheater known as the “Arena” which has been hosting musical events since the 16th
century, but more recently the spectacular outdoor staging of Verdi’s Aida, an event
staged for the first time in 1913. The city also has the Felice Evaristo Dall’Abaco music
conservatory;====Musicians and composers====Claudio Monteverdi (1567–1643), composer,
opera pioneer, and director of music at San Marco
Alessandro Marcello (1669–1747) was a nobleman, poet, philosopher, mathematician and musician.
Tomaso Albinoni (1671–1751) was a composer and violinist of the Baroque period.
Antonio Vivaldi (1678–1741) was a violinist and composer of Baroque music.
Benedetto Marcello (1686–1739) was a composer, writer, advocate, magistrate, and teacher.
Baldassare Galuppi (1706–1785) was a composer and organist.
Antonio Salieri (1750–1825) was a conductor and composer of sacred, classical and opera
music. Mario Brunello (1960 – ) is a renowned worldwide
cellist and musician. Jacopo Foroni a Venetian musician from Valeggio
sul Mincio, in the province of Verona. Luigi Nono (1924–1990) was a contemporary
music composer. Giuseppe Sinopoli (1946–2001) was a conductor,
composer and Italian essayist. Rondo Veneziano are an Italian musical ensemble
that mixes Baroque music with pop music and rock.
Calicanto is a folk group, which incorporates themes of the Venetian tradition in their
work. See also====Theatres====Teatro La Fenice is the main opera house of
Venice. Repeatedly destroyed by fire and later rebuilt, it is home to an important opera
season and to the International Festival of contemporary music. Teatro La Fenice in Venice
was designed in 1790 by Gian Antonio Selva for the society of the Venetian artistocracy,
and the Venetian Theatre was built rapidly despite the many controversies about its location
and its rational structure and neoclassical style.
Teatro Malibran is a Venetian theatre. In the 17th and 18th centuries it bore the name
of Theater St. John Chrysostom. Teatro Stabile del Veneto “Carlo Goldoni”
corresponds to the ancient Teatro Vendramin, also known as San Salvador or San Luke, and
was opened in 1622. The Teatro Carlo Goldoni is located in the vicinity of the Rialto bridge,
in the historical centre of Venice. It is a film set, with rooms structured in four
tiers of boxes, stalls and galleries. With a total of 800 seats, the stage is off 12
Underground and 11.20 deep and is framed in iron. The Teatro Goldoni season hosts Prose
organised by the Teatro Stabile del Veneto “Carlo Goldoni”, the review of Children’s
Theatre, opera, concerts, ballets and other events in the concession.
Teatro Verdi (Padua) is the main theatre in Padua. Commissioned by a society formed specifically
for the purpose of establishing a major theatre in the city, it was built by the Paduan architect
Giovanni Gloria (c.1684–1753) to designs by Antonio Cugini (1677–1765), an architect
from Reggio Emilia. It opened in 1751, and was known as the Teatro Nuovo until 1884.
Substantial restoration work was carried out in 1847, 1884 and 1920. Currently the Teatro
Verdi is the operational headquarters of the Teatro Stabile del Veneto.
Teatro Olimpico is a theatre designed by the Renaissance architect Andrea Palladio in 1580
and located in Vicenza. It is generally considered the first example of a modern indoor theatre
set. The realisation of the theatre, in a pre-existing medieval complex, was commissioned
by the Olympic Palladio for the staging of classical plays. Its construction began in
1580 and was inaugurated on 3 March 1585, after the realisation of the stationery scenes
of Vincenzo Scamozzi. These wooden structures are the only of the Renaissance to be extant,
however, they are still excellent condition. The theatre is still the seat of performances
and concerts and has been included in 1994 in the list of World Heritage Sites’ s UNESCO,
as other works by Palladio to Vicenza. Philharmonic Theater (Verona) is the main
opera house of Verona. It is owned by the Accademia Filarmonica di Verona, since its
foundation, but is used by the foundation of the Arena as the site of the opera season
in winter. Roman Theatre of Verona is Verona’s main arena,
located in the northern part of the city at the foot of Colle San Pietro. This theatre
was built at the end of BC, a period in which Verona has seen from the monumental St. Peter
of the hill. Before, it was built between the Stone Bridge and Gates of the embankments,
which were built on Tyrol parallel to the theatre itself, in order to defend against
the possible flooding of river. It is considered the largest Roman theatre in the north of
Italy. Today it is used for theatrical and operatic productions during the summer.
Teatro Salieri==Tourism=====Cities===
Venice: Venice and its lagoon are listed as World Heritage Sites by UNESCO.
Padua: also known as the “City of the Saint”; the Orto botanico di Padova is on UNESCO’s
list of World Heritage Sites. Verona: The city of Shakespeare’s lovers:
Romeo and Juliet. Verona has been named a UNESCO world heritage site.
Vicenza is on UNESCO’s list of World Heritage Sites, together with a number of the Palladian
Villas. Belluno the capital of the Dolomites, the
bell tower was designed by Filippo Juvarra. Montagnana is a municipality in the province
of Padova with perfectly conserved medieval walls.
Bassano del Grappa with its Ponte degli Alpini on the river Brenta, designed in 1569 by Andrea
Palladio. Marostica : The ‘Chess Game’ is the most important
event of the town, taking place on the second weekend of September, involves over 550 participants
and lasts two hours. Asolo is known as ‘The Pearl of province of
Treviso’, and also as ‘The City of a Hundred Horizons’.
Este : The House of Este held the city until 1240, when they moved their capital to Ferrara.
Arquà Petrarca : this village on the Euganean hills features the tomb and house of Francesco
Petrarca, one of the most important Italian poets of the 14th century.===UNESCO World Heritage Sites======Palladian Villas of Veneto===Vicenza and the Palladian Villas of Veneto
are a number of beautiful Palladian villas which are World Heritage Sites. UNESCO inscribed
the site on the World Heritage List in 1994. At first the site was called “Vicenza, City
of Palladio” and only buildings in the immediate area of Vicenza were included. Various types
of buildings were represented including the Teatro Olimpico, palazzi and a few villas.
Most of Palladio’s surviving villas lay outside the site. However, in 1996 the number of Palladian
villas included in the site was expanded to include those in other parts of Veneto. The
site was given its present name. The term villa was used to describe a country
house. Often rich families in Veneto also had a house in town called a palazzo. In most
cases the owners named their palazzi and villas with the family surname, hence there is both
a Palazzo Chiericati in Vicenza and a Villa Chiericati in the countryside, similarly there
is a Palazzo Foscari in Venice and a Villa Foscari in the countryside. Somewhat confusingly
there are multiple Villas Pisani, including two by Palladio.
There are these sorts of villas all over the Venetian plain, but especially in the provinces
of Treviso, Padua, Vicenza and Venice. The date of construction of these villas ranges
from the 15th to the 19th century. There are approximately five thousand Ville Venete,
of which 1,400 are declared of historical and monumental interest.
Apart from the numerous Palladian villas, of which 24 are protected by UNESCO, there
are many beautiful villas spread across Veneto, mainly from the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries.
Many of them are museums, public institutions or private residences.
The 24 Palladian villas which are part of UNESCO: Villa Almerico Capra, also called “La Rotonda”
(Vicenza) Villa Gazzotti Grimani (Vicenza, but in the
village of Bertesina) Villa Angarano, also known as Villa Bianchi
Michiel (Bassano del Grappa VI) Villa Caldogno (Caldogno VI)
Villa Chiericati (Vancimuglio di Grumolo delle Abbadesse VI)
Villa Forni Cerato (Montecchio Precalcino VI)
Villa Godi (Lonedo di Lugo di Vicenza) Villa Pisani (Bagnolo di Lonigo VI)
Villa Pojana (Poiana Maggiore VI) Villa Saraceno (Agugliaro VI)
Villa Thiene (Quinto Vicentino VI) Villa Trissino (Meledo di Sarego VI)
Villa Trissino (Vicenza, in Cricoli) Villa Valmarana (Lisiera di Bolzano Vicentino
VI) Villa Valmarana (Vigardolo di Monticello Conte
Otto VI) Villa Piovene (Lugo di Vicenza VI)
Villa Badoer, called “La Badoera” (Fratta Polesine RO)
Villa Barbaro (Maser TV) Villa Emo (Vedelago TV)
Villa Zeno (Cessalto TV) Villa Foscari, called La Malcontenta (Mira
VE) Villa Pisani (Montagnana PD)
Villa Cornaro (Piombino Dese PD) Villa Serego (Santa Sofia di Pedemonte VI)Amongst
these, Villa Trissino (Cricoli) is not regarded a Palladian villa, but is also an important
country house.===Parks===
Dolomiti Bellunesi National Park is situated in the southern section of the Province of
Belluno. Cansiglio is a pre-alpine massif located in
the north-eastern Veneto in the provinces of Treviso and Belluno.===Lakes===
The area of Lake Garda is a major tourist destination. Various towns along the lake,
such as Lazise, Cisano, Bardolino, Garda (VR), Torri del Benaco and Malcesine, are resorts.===Mountains===Cortina d’Ampezzo, it is situated in the province
of Belluno and is one of the most exclusive mountain locations in Europe together with
Kitzbühel in Austria and St. Moritz in Switzerland. It was scene of the 1956 Winter Olympics.
To the north there are the Tre Cime di Lavaredo, said to be a symbol of the Italian Dolomites.
Arabba lies between the Sella group and the Marmolada.
Auronzo is in the upper Cadore. Sappada is in the extreme north of the region.
Other carateristical places are: Mount Pasubio and Strada delle 52 Gallerie
(a military mule built during World War I with 52 tunnels)
Altopiano di Asiago and Calà del Sasso, with 4444 steps, the world’s longest staircase
open to the public.===Thermal baths===
The thermal baths of Abano Terme are an important tourist attraction. Montegrotto Terme and
Recoaro Terme are other resorts.===Beaches===
Venice’s Lido is an 18-kilometre long sandbar, visited by many tourists every summer.
Jesolo is one of the most important seaside resorts on the Adriatic coast, just a few
kilometres far from Venice. Every year Jesolo gives accommodation to over 4.5 million tourists.
Caorle has often received awards for one of the cleanest beaches in Italy. Bibione, Eraclea
and Sottomarina are resorts too. Albarella island is a private island on the Lido. Alberoni
Beach is set in a nature reserve.==Notable people====References=====Bibliography===
Butterfield, Andrew (2007-04-26). “Brush with Genius”. New York Review of Books. 54 (7).
Archived from the original on 16 April 2007. Retrieved 2007-04-18.
Carlo Ridolfi, La Vita di Giacopo Robusti (A Life of Tintoretto) 1642
Rosand, David, Painting in Sixteenth-Century Venice: Titian, Veronese, Tintoretto, 2nd
edition, 1997, Cambridge UP ISBN 0521565685 Levey, Michael (1980). Painting in Eighteenth-Century
Venice (revised ed.). Cornell University Press. pp. 225–230.===Notes=====Further reading==
Roy Domenico (2002). “Veneto”. Regions of Italy: a Reference Guide to History
and Culture. Greenwood. pp. 367+. ISBN 978-0313307331.==External links==
Geographic data related to Veneto at OpenStreetMap Map of Veneto
Venice and Veneto in the Words of Great North American Travelers

One thought on “Veneto | Wikipedia audio article

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *