Turkish nationalism | Wikipedia audio article

Turkish nationalism | Wikipedia audio article


Turkish nationalism is a political ideology
that promotes and glorifies the Turkish people, as either a national, ethnic, or linguistic
group.==History==
After the Fall of the Ottoman Empire, Mustafa Kemal came to power. Atatürk introduced Hilaire de Barenton’s
Sun Language Theory into Turkish political and educational circles in 1935, at the high
point of attempts to “cleanse” the Turkish language of foreign influence. Turkish researchers at the time also came
up with the idea that Early Sumerians were proto-Turks.==
Variants==Ideologies associated with Turkish nationalism
include Pan-Turkism or “Turanism” (a form or ethnic or racial essentialism or national
mysticism), “Neo-Ottomanism” with imperial ambitions derived from the Ottoman era, “Anatolianism”
which considers the Turkish nation as a separate entity which developed after the Seljuk conquest
of Anatolia in the 11th century, and secular, civic nationalist Kemalism.===Kemalism===Implemented by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the
founding ideology of the Republic of Turkey features nationalism (Turkish: milliyetçilik)
as one of its six fundamental pillars. The Kemalist revolution aimed to create a
nation state from the remnants of the multi-religious and multi-ethnic Ottoman Empire. Kemalist nationalism originates from the social
contract theories, especially from the principles advocated by Jean-Jacques Rousseau and his
Social Contract. The Kemalist perception of social contract
was effected by the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire which was perceived as a product of
failure of the Ottoman “Millet” system and the ineffective Ottomanism. Kemalist nationalism, after experiencing the
Ottoman Empire’s breakdown into pieces, defined the social contract as its “highest ideal”. Kemalist ideology defines the “Turkish Nation”
(Turkish: Türk Ulusu) as a nation of Turkish People who always love and seek to exalt their
family, country and nation, who know their duties and responsibilities towards the democratic,
secular and social state governed by the rule of law, founded on human rights, and on the
tenets laid down in the preamble to the constitution of the Republic of Turkey. The Turkish Nation is defined as such: “The
folk which constitutes the Republic of Turkey is called the Turkish Nation.” Kemalist criteria for national identity or
simply being Turkish (Turkish: Türk) refers to a shared language, and/or shared values
defined as a common history, and the will to share a future. Kemalist ideology defines the “Turkish people”
as: Those who protect and promote the moral, spiritual,
cultural and humanistic values of the Turkish Nation.===Pan-Turkism===”Turanist” nationalism began with the Turanian
Society founded in 1839, followed in 1908 with the Turkish Society, which later expanded
into the Turkish Hearth and eventually expanded to include ideologies such as Pan-Turanism
and Pan-Turkism. The Young Turk Revolution which overthrew
Sultan Abdul Hamid II, allowed Turkish nationalism into power, eventually leading to the Three
Pashas control of the late Ottoman government, but Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk) explicitly rejected
the ideology of Turanism just as he rejected Pan-Islamism. During the Turkish War of Independence, on
December 1, 1921 Kemal stated: … We never established Pan-Islamism. Perhaps we said “We are establishing it and
we shall complete it.” Our enemies said “Let us kill them before
they complete it.” We never established Pan-Turanism. Perhaps we said “We are establishing it and
we shall complete it.” Our enemies said, “Let us kill them before
they complete it.” That is the whole problem, instead of bringing
pressure and resentment upon ourselves from our enemies… Let us know our places!===Anatolianism===
“Anatolianism” (Turkish: Anadoluculuk) takes as its starting point that the main source
of Turkish culture should be Anatolia (Anadolu), and the main base of this thought is that
the Turkish people had built a quite new civilization in Anatolia after 1071 when they won at the
Battle of Manzikert. In the early Republican era, some intellectuals
proposed that the origins of the Turkish nationalism should be sought in Anatolia, not in “Turan”.Hilmi
Ziya Ülken, one of the founders of Anatolianism, was objecting to Neo-Ottomanism and Pan-Islamism
as well as to Turanism. Between 1918 and 1919 he published the periodical
Anadolu with Reşat Kayı. In 1919 Ülken wrote a book titled Anadolunun
Bugünki Vazifeleri (Present duties of Anatolia), but it was not published. In 1923, Ülken and his friends published
the periodical Anadolu. They worked to form an alternative thought
to Ottomanism, Islamism and Turanism, and they opposed the specificity of Turkish history
traced origins outside of Anatolia. Their conclusion was Memleketçilik (memleket
meaning “homeland”).===Turkish Islamic synthesis===
The tension between Pan-Turkic and Pan-Islamic Turkish nationalism persisted in modern Turkey. Following the 1980 Turkish coup d’état, the
compromise solution of a “Turkish-Islamic synthesis” (Türk-İslam sentezi) was declared
the official state ideology.===Turkish-Cypriot nationalism===
Emphasizes the support for the independence of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
(TRNC) and desires that the TRNC stay independent from Turkey while opposing the idea of a United
Cyprus with the Greek-dominated Republic of Cyprus==The “Insulting Turkishness” laws==
Article 301 of the Turkish Penal Code, which is perceived as being contrary to notion of
freedom of speech, states “The person who publicly denigrates the Turkish Nation, the
Republic of Turkey, the Grand National Assembly of Turkey, the Government of the Republic
of Turkey and the judicial organs of the State, shall be punished with imprisonment of six
months to two years. But also it can be only with permission of
the minister of justice” However, it also states that “Expressions of thought intended
to criticize shall not constitute a crime.” There have been recent indications that Turkey
may repeal or modify Article 301, after the embarrassment suffered by some high-profile
cases. Nationalists within the judicial system, intent
on derailing Turkey’s full admission into the European Union, have used Article 301
to initiate trials against people like Nobel Prize–winning Turkish novelist Orhan Pamuk,
the Turkish novelist Elif Şafak, and the late Hrant Dink for supporting the existence
of the Armenian Genocide. In May 2007, a law was put into effect allowing
Turkey to block Web sites that are deemed insulting to Atatürk.==See also==
Pan-Turkism Kemalism
Ottomanism Neo-Ottomanism
Turanism Turkification
Sun Language Theory 16 Great Turkic Empires
Nationalist Movement Party==Notes

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