The Indonesian Language (Bahasa Indonesia)

The Indonesian Language (Bahasa Indonesia)


Follow Langfocus on Facebook, Twitter and Instagram. Hello everyone. Welcome to the Langfocus channel
and my name is Paul. Today’s topic is the Indonesian language
or Bahasa Indonesia as it’s called in Indonesian. Indonesian is closely connected with Malay. So; if you haven’t seen my video on the Malay language yet,
I recommend that you watch that first before you watch this video. Indonesian is based on Malay, though it has evolved
and taken on some uniquely indonesian features. There are about 43 million native speakers of Indonesian
and about 155 million second language speakers of Indonesian, mainly in Indonesia where it’s the national language
and the sole official language. Why does Indonesian have so many more
second language speakers than native speakers? Well, there are hundreds of languages spoken in Indonesia
and Indonesian functions as a lingua franca
between speakers of different languages. It’s the language of education and of media
and these days everybody learns Indonesian. But most Indonesians still speak
a different regional language as their native language. Plus, Indonesian, the national language. How was the Indonesian language born? Indonesian is based on the Malay language
which has been a lingua franca of trade and of the elite
throughout the Malay Archipelago for centuries. The story of Indonesian begins during the colonial period. In the early 17th century, the VOC
or the Dutch East India company established
a trading post at Batavia, the site of present-day Jakarta and over the following three centuries expanded
into other areas of present-day Indonesia. The Dutch East India company made Malay
the administrative language of its trading outpost. In 1799, the Dutch East India company went bankrupt
and the Dutch government took control of the colony. In the late 18th century, the British East India Company
had also arrived in the archipelago. and in 1824, a treaty between the British and the Dutch
divided the area between the British to the north
and the Dutch to the south. In the Dutch colony, the promotion of the Dutch language and
education in Dutch began but only to a limited extent,
mostly for the elite. Compared to other colonial powers,
the Dutch were not really interested
in changing the culture of the colonized people. Their main goal was to facilitate trade. Therefore since Malay was already
a lingua franca that could facilitate trade, there was no reason for them
to introduce Dutch as a lingua franca. Dutch promoted Malay as the language of education,
recognizing “Riau Malay”, the classical Malay spoken
in the Malacca and Johor Sultanates,
as the standard language. The standard form of Malay continued to develop with the abundance of Malay literature in the 19th century and in the 20th century, Malay linguists
published dictionaries and grammars to further
standardize and modernize the language. The Dutch language never became widespread in Indonesia. In fact, in 1940, only 2% of Indonesians spoke Dutch . But, even though the role of the Dutch language was very limited,
a large number of Dutch loanwords entered
the Malay language in the areas under Dutch control. and this is one of the things that made the Indonesian
variety of Malay different from other varieties. In the early 20th century, a pro-independence movement arose
and people throughout the Dutch colony began
to see themselves as a single people, Indonesians. The term Indonesia was a new term for the archipelago,
created by European ethnologists
but adopted by nationalists in the Dutch colony. At the youth conference of 1928, young nationalists
declared the Youth Pledge, with three ideals:
one motherland, one nation and one language. The language they chose was the Indonesian variety
of Malay, which they named “Bahasa Indonesia”. When Indonesia declared independence in 1945,
Indonesian was declared the national language
of the new country. But why “Indonesian”? At the time of independence, Indonesian was
the native language of only 5% of the population, while Javanese was the native language
of over 40% of the population. So, why wasn’t Javanese chosen
to be the national language? Well, that would have shown favoritism
to Indonesia’s largest ethnic group
undermining the national unity of the country. But Indonesian previously known just as Malay had been
a lingua franca throughout the archipelago for centuries. So people in various regions of the country already knew some Malay. It was also a much simpler language than Javanese
and could realistically be learned by millions of people
as a second language. Indonesian turned out to be the right choice, successfully
becoming the language of government, education, trade
and communication between people in
different regions of the country. Indonesian completely replaced the former colonial language Dutch as the language of public life
and that’s something that’s very rare in former colonies. Today, Indonesian is still the second language
of most Indonesian people. But it’s becoming increasingly more common
as a native language, especially in the cities. That’s because people from all over the country
moved to the big cities. So, rather than speak their native
regional languages, they speak Indonesian instead. Some of them get married with each other
and they raise their children speaking
Indonesian as their primary language. So, what is Indonesian like? Well, undoubtedly, one of the things that made Indonesian
so successful as a national language so quickly
was its simplicity. If you’ve seen my video on Malay, then you’re already
familiar with the simplicity of Indonesian. Because, in its standard form, it’s very close to
standard Malay, just with some different vocabulary. Here are some features of Indonesian. Indonesian has simple phonology and orthography.
In general, one letter represents just one sound. Indonesian has simple SVO sentence structure.
There are no case inflections in Indonesian. There’s also no grammatical gender in Indonesian. There’s no plural form in Indonesian
and explicit plurals are made by republication. Reduplication meaning that you repeat the word again. And perhaps, best of all: no verb conjugations. Let’s look at a few Indonesian sentences
and we’ll identify some of those features. This sentence means :
“They are cooking eggs for breakfast” Word-for-word it’s
They – now – cook – egg – for – breakfast. We can see that the sentence is SVO.
(N.B. : SVO=Subject – verb – object). As I said before, there are no verb conjugations.
So how do we know that this action is happening now? Well, it’s because of this word right here: “sedang” This is an adverb that indicates
that something is happening right now. You can change the tense of the verb,
by changing this adverb. Here’s another sentence. After changing the word “sedang” to “sudah”,
the sentence now means: “They cooked eggs
for breakfast”, in the past tense. The adverb “sudah” means something like “already”
and shows that an action has been completed. How about the future tense? Here “akan” is the future adverb. Another example. This means:
“Like me, he often travels to Lombok”. Word-for-word, it’s :
Like – I – he – often – (to) travel – to – Lombok Another example: This means : “Do you want to sit?” “Apa” is a yes-or-no question marker. So word-for-word, it’s : question – you – want – sit But “Apa” is often left out in speech. And notice that to express desire,
you can just add “mau” right before another verb. The second verb doesn’t change its form at all. Another example. This means:
“I write letters from my friend” Word-for-word, it’s :
I – write – letter – for – friend – I Notice that the word for “letters” : “surat”
is the same as the singular form. Also notice that possession is shown by placing
a personal pronoun right after a noun. “teman saya” literally “friend – I” means “my friend”
This makes it quite easy to form possessives. Another example This means “I don’t like eating peanuts” Word-for-word, it’s I – no – like – eat – peanut.
So we negate a sentence by adding “tidak” before the verb. And notice that similar to the word “mau”, which means “want”,
we can express “like” by placing the word “suka”
right before another verb. This means “The peanuts have already been eaten” Word by word, it’s “peanuts – already – be aten’,
the verb dimakan is a passive. Let’s take a look at some of the verbs
from the above sentences. You can see that these Indonesian verbs have
two parts: a root in black and an affix in red. Indonesian has many such affixes that are added
to roots to make verbs and nouns. One example, the root : “tulis”, meaning “to write” (root). We have=”to write” (infinitive) “to be written” “to be written” “something that’s written” “to write something down” “a writer” “the process of writing” “to have (…) written on it” “with the writing or words”. You can see more examples of such affixes
in my video on Malay which functions in the same way. Affixes are the most challenging part of learning
Indonesian at least for a lot of learners. But you can make use of that feature of the roots
and affixes to help you learn new words
through their connections with other words. Standard Indonesian really is a simple language,
compared to other languages. But that’s standard indonesian which is normally
used as the written language and in formal contexts. The way Indonesian is spoken in daily life is
often fairly different from standard Indonesian. Different varieties of colloquial Indonesian are spoken
around the country and they’re influenced by
the local native language in that area. These different varieties of Indonesian
are referred to as “Bahasa Gaul”. The Bahasa Gaul of Jakarta is influenced by
Betawi, the Malay creole language that’s native to Jakarta, as well as by Javanese and Sundanese,
since people from all over Indonesia move to Jakarta. Let’s look at the Bahasa Gaul of Jakarta and see
how it differs from standard Indonesian. Here’s a sentence we looked at before. Now in Bahasa Gaul : The first difference we see is that the word “sedang”
which indicates present tense is “lagi” in Bahasa Gaul “lagi” is also used in standard Indonesian
to mean “again” or “still”,
but it’s not used as a present tense marker like this. Another difference is that the verb “memasak” is used
in its root form “masak” without the prefix Then we have a sound difference in the word “telur”,
which becomes like “telor”. And then, “untuk” becomes “buat”,
which can be used in standard Indonesian
but the meaning is more like “in order to” In Bahasa Gaul, you can use it to simply mean “for”. Now in Bahasa Gaul : Here notice that the word “sudah” is reduced to “udah”. Now in Bahasa Gaul : Here notice that the future marker “akan”
becomes “bakal” Another example: Now in Bahasa Gaul : The first difference here is that the word “seperti”, meaning “like”, changes to “kayak” Then notice that “saya” becomes “gue”,
which is a loanword from betawi. And “berlibur” becomes “liburan”.
The root is the same but the affixes are different. In this example, we’ll see two variations of Bahasa Gaul. The first variation is a simple casual sentence. Notice that the yes-or-no question marker “apa” isn’t there. Instead, at the end, you see “gak”,
which means “no” in Bahasa Gaul. So it’s like “You want to sit, no?” The second variation is used for close friends
or people the same age as you or younger. The second person pronoun is “Lu”, which I believe
is a loanword from Chinese which is present
in the betawi creole language of Jakarta. In this example, let’s look at some options
for first-person pronouns. In a casual-polite sentence,
you use “saya” even in Bahasa Gaul. In a more casual familiar sentence, “aku” is used. And when aku is used as a possessive,
a shortened form is attached to the end of the noun. In a more intimate sentence, “gua” or “gue” is used. Also notice that “menulis” loses its prefix,
but it doesn’t revert to its root form “tulis” Instead, it maintains the nasal sound at the beginning. And one more small difference we can see is that
the word for friend “teman” is pronounced more like “temen”. And another example: Now in Bahasa Gaul : Again here we see the pronoun “gua”
and we see that the negative “tidak” becomes “nggak”
which is related to the word “gak” which we saw before. And in Bahasa Gaul, “suka” sometimes becomes “demen”. And one last example: Now in Bahasa Gaul : Here the only difference is that “sudah” becomes “udah”,
as we saw before. So you can see that the colloquial Indonesian of Jakarta
is fairly different from standard indonesian. And there are varieties like this spoken
around the country. The influence of the other languages of Indonesia
on colloquial Indonesian is one of the things that
sets the language apart from other varieties of Malay. Indonesian is definitely a fun language to study and
communicating with Indonesians in their national language
and lingua franca is an amazing experience. The question of the day for Indonesians: To what extent do you speak standard Indonesian
and to what extent do you speak Bahasa Gaul
and in what situations? Leave your comments down below. And for learners of indonesian: what’s been your
experience communicating with Indonesian people? Do you find the standard Indonesian
that you learn at textbooks to be useful? Or do you feel like you should be learning
more of the language as it’s really spoken? Be sure to follow Langfocus
on Facebook, Twitter and Instagram. And again I’d like to say “thank you very much” to
my patreon supporters, especially the ones right here
on the screen for their monthly pledges. Thank you very much and have a nice day.

100 thoughts on “The Indonesian Language (Bahasa Indonesia)

  1. Hi, mate

    As for your first "Question of the day" = I still speak Standard Indonesia (SI) to my superior in office and to my elders, as speaking Bahasa Gaul (BG) to them is considered impolite. This is coming from the eastern culture, I believe, and also some native/local languages here have different vocab/verb for different kind of people you're speaking to (to elders, to your friends, to your buddies, to animals ), so speaking with SI is naturally for us.
    Also like, we use "Pak" or "Sir" instead of someone's name to communicate to someone older than we are. Not doing this is considered very rude to us.

    Bahasa Gaul (slank) being spoken when you feel close to your speaking counterparts.
    When I am new to a certain environment, I will learn the situation first before I comfortably use this style of speaking ( I believe this goes the same everywhere else).
    Bahasa Gaul mainly spoken in Jakarta (the capital city of Indonesia) and rarely spoken in other cities.

  2. Yaudah biarin aja sich, ngapain ribut2 rokes amat, malaysia itu juga saudara, die ramai tengok pelakon tv indonesia

  3. Bahasa indonesia bila diucapkan oleh orang jawa akan lebih berstandar dalam penggunaan kosakatanya tapi aksen jawa nya sangat terlihat.

  4. So for extend speak standart Indonesia we used to in formal situation like ini ceremony, or in goverment area, and di bahasa gaul we used to speak with close friend and parents to, but not to much because here still used Courtesy for old people, or might be say older Ages than you.

  5. To us Indonesians, bahasa gaul is like the language of swearing. Like in English if we hangout with friends we always use the words "Fuck" and "Shit". As "Gaul" in Indonesia means to hangout with friends. And bahasa Indonesia is the respectful and political language.

  6. Org indo banyak pake bahasa KODE
    ..suit : perawan lewat
    ..suit suit : gadis lewat
    ..suit suit suit : janda lewat
    ..eghm eghm : istri org lewat
    ..ckck ckck : LC lewat
    dstnya msh byk lagi
    ๐Ÿ˜€๐Ÿ‘Œ๐Ÿ‘Œ

  7. Saya tanya, apakah bapak seorang guru? Jika demikian, terima saya menjadi murid anda secara cuma-cuma hehe

  8. Kalau saya pribadi, menggunakan bahasa indonesia yang baik dan benar saat bertemu dengan seseorang yang tidak kita kenal seperti berbicara dengan seseorang dari suku lain.. jika sudah akrab? maka penggunaanya pun tidak perlu se baku standar bahasa indonesia.. contoh, saya bertemu orang lain yang tidak saya kenal, maka saya menggunakan bahasa indonesia yang sopan atau baik dan benar: kamu tinggal dimana sekarang? kamu dari mana? tapi kalau sudah akrab seperti, lo tinggal dimana sekarang? dari mana? pertanyaannya to the point.. inti nya kalau ketemu manusia baru harus sopan atau bisa di bilang ada basa basi.. kalau sudah dekat mah? inti nya apa yang kita maksud, nyampe aja ke dia. paham?

  9. Bahasa Indonesia mengingatkan saya pada Esperanto tetapi untuk asia tenggara.
    Indonesiano mi ricorda di esperanto, pero in asia sudest.

    Bahasa yang sangat sukses ( dan menarik ) , terutama dalam perbandingan
    รˆ una lingua multo di successo ( e interessante ) especialmente in comparazione.

  10. saya harap di setiap video yang anda buat terdapat subtitle bahasa indonesia juga bahasa inggris yang tidak otomatis seperti di video ini.please !!! it will be wonderfull, i`m indonesian want to learn your language ,i hope you make directly .nice learn in your channel

  11. Standart Indonesia spoken is commonly only use in daily conversiation by people +50 aged old.
    Just saying!

  12. We are using Standard Indonesia Linguage for Formal Speaking and Formal Books not for regular daily conversation. As We knew that Standard Indonesia Linguage was born about 1974 so not so many Indonesian People speaking proper Indonesian Linguage. What do think about 300 Dialectic Indonesian Linguage? Hehehehe anyway using Indonesian Linguage is very simple.

  13. Yes, the easiest language…๐Ÿ˜˜๐Ÿ˜˜๐Ÿ˜˜๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฉ

  14. Hi, i'm rafly from indonesia,i speak standard indonesian when i'm in the serious/formal situation. like,on the stage,presentation in my class,speak to elder or to someone that i never met him/her before.but we usually speak Bahasa Gaul to my close friends,my family,just only for casual situation..so if i speak Bahasa Gaul while i was presetation the audience will get offense obviously๐Ÿ˜‚๐Ÿ˜‚,or when i'm talking with my friends but i'm using Standard Indonesian it will looks wierd,so it depended on the situation

  15. I can speak 8 regional languages โ€‹โ€‹in Indonesia. Minang Palembang Ambon Java Sunda Flores Madura Manado. and more than 15 regional languages โ€‹โ€‹that I understand

  16. Hi !

    I am looking for foreigners who want to stay at my village in Bogor, Indonesia, to explore our life: economy, social, religion, etc. Maybe about 2 โ€“ 3 days or more. In this program, you can share your experience to local community, because they never know how other peopleโ€™s life in different country.

    I am trying to make us understanding each other in any aspect. There is a life where we donโ€™t know how it runs.

    It is not only tourism. It is a volunteerism, social activity, humanity, and peace building program.

    https://hidayatmuflih.blogspot.com/2019/07/please-come-to-my-village.html

  17. Indonesian here, who is now learning Dutch! I'm planning to study abroad! Thank you Langfocus! For this epic and informative video about my language! (I consider to be more fluent in English)

  18. To; Langfocus
    1. We use formal language in speeches, talking to teachers or older people. Whereas, we use slang for peers.

    2. Actually, in everyday conversation we rarely use Indonesian as in the textbook, because it's too formal and rigid. But the funny thing is, on average, many of us (students) have higher grades in English lessons than Indonesian. ๐Ÿ˜‚๐Ÿคฃ

  19. *bahasa/indo content vid exist.

    indo : joking about being proud of how simple their language is to describe their genetic irony of brain retardation.

  20. Standard bahasa is used in formal communications both verbally or written such us in offices, schools, news radio or tv, etc. Whereas bahasa gaul is used in daily communications among friends, in market, etc

  21. Affix & bahasa gaul/slang its so hard to learn, bahasa gaul will upgrade every year again and again ๐Ÿ™

  22. jujur aje nih, gw baru tau kalo ada yg bikin vidio beginian. mantap jiwa >.< <~> honestly, i just found a video like this, and i effing love it!

  23. Komenan org indo overproud semua๐Ÿ‘Œ, pantes banyak yg manfaatin viewers. Ga salah sih ntr di masa depan indonesia bakal dibodohi๐Ÿ˜‚

  24. I use the standard Indonesian in formal occassion… or when I write on social media. Other than that, it's tiring to speak standard Indonesian all the time since the sentence are (usually) longer and pronunciation are troublesome. I am just being lazy and chop lots of prefix and destroy the proper pronunciation and sometimes flip the structure, or I just have no idea how to say something in Indonesian (from other languange).

    Standard Indonesian is very useful to speak to all people in Indonesia.. so, I think it's still worth it to learn from textbook. Lots of Indonesian will understand you regardless of region!

  25. Javanese language is the simplest ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ’™โค๏ธ

  26. I am Dutch! So with asian food for example there's of course a big influence from Indonesia! We have several indonesian kinds of stores and communities as well here, so we pick up at least a few Indonesian words here, without trying.
    Think of: pasar/bazar, pedis, gadogado, nasi and mie(goreng), kecang/katjang, lemper, ajam… This is just from the top of my head!

  27. Suka gak suka Bahasa Indonesia itu emang Bahasa Melayu, guys.
    Emang kenyataan. Susah diterima karena kalian selama 12 tahun mengenyam pendidikan wajib didoktrinasinya bahwa bahasa kita adl bahasa Indonesia. Padahal, dinamakannya bahasa kita bahasa Indonesia itu alat politik belaka, untuk mempersatukan kita aja.
    Udah ya ga usah ribut2 sm "sepupu" Malaysia lagi.

  28. From Coco soundtrack

    English-Spanish
    In every beat of my proud corazon

    Indonesia-Spanish
    Di setiap debar mi corazon yang bangga

    Just my opinion
    Hanya opiniku

  29. If you learn local language beside bahasa Indonesia the first words or phrase are swear and bad language…
    You will not know the real meaning till you get slapped…. By other natives.

  30. Noticing that most Indonesian speaks 2-4 languages (Regional (living region/own ethnic traditional language may differ) + Indonesian + English and/or complementary languages such Arabic/Mandarin/Japanese/French even being not in stated ethnic groups)

  31. hi me from indonesian your can many languages fery 2 good you canadian peoples ๐Ÿ˜ƒ๐Ÿ˜ƒgreetings from indonesian

  32. memasak cooking ..and language modern bahasa gaul ..cooking eeg memasak telur ๐Ÿ˜ƒ๐Ÿ˜ƒ๐Ÿ˜ƒeating peanut memakan kacang

  33. In indonesia the royal presiden is jokowi dodo , how do i now but i still say in english well because i live there!
    I go to tradisional plus plus ok plus that why i can speak in english the name of my school is pelita 2 . Is in
    Jakarta in their is so much activites

  34. English : Can I borrow your money?

    Indonesian (standard) : Bisakah aku meminjam uangmu?

    Javanese : Sak derengipun kulo aturi maturnuwun sampun diparingi lenggah teng griyone njenengan, nggeh kulo ugi bade nyambung silaturohmi kaleh njenengan. Ketigo, kulo badhe ngampil artonipun kangge tumbas voucher game pabji, sak derenge kulo maturnuwun ingkang kathah..

  35. Bahasa Indonesia berasal dari Bahasa Melayu, tapi Malaysia steady je takde pula nak claim itu ini ๐Ÿ˜„๐Ÿ˜„

  36. Why the Indonesian do not use Javanese languange as The Indonesian National Languange?

    Because, it is not easy to learn and to speak Javanese languanges in the correct way.

    The Javanese Languanges have 7 levels of how to speak with :

    Level 1st (Low level) : Ngoko Kasar

    Level 2nd (Middle Low Level) : Ngoko Halus

    Level 3rd (High Low Level) : Kromo

    Level 4th (Middle Level) : Kromo Madya

    Level 5th (High Level) : Kromo Inggil

    Level 6th (Very High Level) : Kromo Inggil Bagongan

    Level 7th (Kingdom / Palace Languange) : Kromo Inggil Keraton

  37. alright alright alright! I answer the question ๐Ÿ˜€ as an Indonesian I would like to speak Standart Indonesian all the time LoL

  38. funny story. i'm singaporean chinese and my family has had the same domestic helper from indonesia since i was 17 months old. whenever she spoke on the phone with her family or some of her friends, i always thought she was speaking bahasa indonesia. turns out it was javanese, and i only found out a year ago at the age of 16/17. that's how dumb i am. on the bright side, i'm starting to be able to differentiate the two.

  39. Abdi mah sundanese. Kadang saya bicara formal bahasa Indonesia, terkadang campur sunda tapi lebih sering bahasa gaul. Menurut gue bahasa indo yg formal tuh lebih pantes dijadiin bahasa International soalnya lbh gampang grammarnya ๐Ÿ˜‰ but if you want the easier language and unique because sounds of a person fall in certain kind of causes can also be written and said in a word such as fall because of slippery = tisoledat, Fall into a ditch = tigebrus, fall because of the foot touch a stone or rock = titajong, etc. ๐Ÿ˜…๐Ÿ˜„

  40. Seng tak takokne… Nyapo songko kata PARI, GABAH, BERAS, MENIR, SEGO, UPO, KARAK, AKING KOK BOSO INGGRISE GOR RISE… ๐Ÿค”๐Ÿค”๐Ÿค”๐Ÿค”๐Ÿค”๐Ÿค”๐Ÿค”๐Ÿค”๐Ÿค”PADAHAL PARI KWI PAS NENG WET, GABAH KWI PAS RUNG DI SELEP, BERAS KWI SENG WES DI SELEP, SEGO KWI WES DIMASAK, UPO KWI BEN BIJI SEGO, MENIR KWI TURAHAN BERAS SELEPAN, KARAK KWI DIPEPE, AKING KWI KARAK SENG DIDANG MANEH… KOK MAYAR WAE BAHASA INGGRISE RISE… ๐Ÿ™„๐Ÿ™„๐Ÿ™„๐Ÿ™„๐Ÿ™„

  41. Banyak orang Indonesia yang berkomentar di sini hanya untuk mengekspresikan kelucuan mereka tentang bahasa Gaul saja, dan sedikit yang benar-benar mengomentari esensi dari apa yang dibahas oleh Paul. Sangat berbeda dengan komentar-komentar dari mereka yang dari luar Indonesia yang sangat berbobot dalam membahas tentang seluk-beluk Bahasa Indonesia.

  42. We speak standard Indonesian language for a formal conversation such as Interviews, school, media writing, national news (except you reading/watching local media) and other formal activities.

    Bahasa gaul to be using for informal conversation such as talking to friends on daily life, informal offline/online social interaction. Technically i speak the gaul language when i know the people that speak with using gaul too. Honestly gaul language used to be easier and even more simple, and sometimes we mix the language between standard (formal) and gaul too ๐Ÿ˜€

    Some people who living majorly in big city speaks gaul (informal) language for more friendly tone, and some of the people who living in each specific region/village they'd prefer to use their own local/cultural language (such as Java, bali, medan, padang ect) for easier understanding and politeness. However, if the local knows that we don't understand the local language then they will use the Indonesian language as it's our national language.

    Thanks for sharing knowledgable Indonesian language video, appreciated it ๐Ÿ™‚

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