The German Ideology: Volume I, Chapter 1, Part D

The German Ideology: Volume I, Chapter 1, Part D



Karl Marx the German ideology part i fewer buck opposition of the materialist and idealist Outlook D proletarians and communism individuals class and community in the Middle Ages the citizens in each town were compelled to unite against the landed nobility to save their skins the extension of trade the establishment of communications led the separate towns to get to know other towns which had asserted the same interests in the struggle with the same antagonist out of the many local corporations of Bergers there arose only gradually the burger class the conditions of life of the individual burgers became on account of their contradiction to the existing relationships and of the mode of labor determined by these conditions which were common to them all an independent of each individual the burgers had created the conditions insofar as they had torn themselves free from feudal ties and were created by them insofar as they were determined by their antagonism to the feudal system which they found in existence when the individual towns began to enter into associations these common conditions developed into class conditions the same conditions the same contradiction the same interests necessarily called forth on the whole similar customs everywhere the bridge huazi itself with its conditions develops only gradually splits according to the division of labour into various fractions and finally absorbs all property classes it finds in existence one while it develops the majority of the earlier property less and a part of the hitherto propertied classes into a new class the proletariat in the measure to which all property found in existence is transformed into industrial or commercial capital the separate individuals form a class only insofar as they have to carry on a common battle against another class otherwise they are on hostile terms with each other as competitors on the other hand the class in its turn achieves an independent existence over against the individuals so that the latter find their conditions of existence predestined and hence have their position life and their personal development assigned to them by their class become subsumed under it this is the same phenomenon as the subjection of the separate individuals to the division of labour and can only be removed by the abolition of private property and of labour itself we have already indicated several times how this subsuming of individuals under the class brings with it their subjection to all kinds of ideas etc if from a philosophical point of view one considers this evolution of individuals in the common conditions of existence of estates and classes which followed on one another and in the accompanying general conceptions forced upon them it is certainly very easy to imagine that in these individuals the species or man has evolved or that they evolved men and in this way one can give history some hard clouds on the ear – one can conceive these various estates and classes to be specific terms of the general expression subordinate varieties of the species or evolutionary phases of men this subsuming of individuals under definite classes cannot be abolished until a class has taken shape which has no longer any particular class interest to assert against the ruling class the transformation through the division of labour of personal powers relationships into material powers cannot be dispelled by dismissing the general idea of it from one's mind but can only be abolished by the individuals again subjecting these material powers to themselves and abolishing the division of labour this is not possible without the community only in community with others has each individual the means of cultivating his gifts in all directions only in the community therefore is personal freedom possible in the previous substitutes for the community in the state at center of personal freedom has existed only for the individuals who developed within the relationships of the ruling class and only insofar as they were individuals of this class the illusory community in which individuals have up till now combined always took on an independent existence in relation to them and was at the same time since it was the combination of one class over again another not only a completely illusory community but a new federer's well in a real community the individuals obtain their freedom in and through their association individuals have always built on themselves but naturally on themselves within their given historical conditions and relationships not on the pure individual in the sense of the ideologists but in the course of historical evolution and precisely through the inevitable fact that within the division of labour social relationships take on an independent existence there appears a division within the life of each individual insofar as it is personal and insofar as it is determined by some branch of labour and the conditions pertaining to it we do not mean it to be understood from this that for example the Ron ta the capitalist etcetera ceased to be persons but their personality is conditioned and determined by quite definite class relationships and the division appears only in their opposition to another class end for themselves only when they go bankrupt in the estate and even more in the tribe this is as yet concealed for instance a nobleman always remains a nobleman a commoner always a commoner apart from his other relationships equality inseparable from his individuality the division between the personal and the class individual the accidental nature of the conditions of life for the individual appears only with the emergence of the class which is itself a product of the bourgeoisie this accidental character is only engendered and developed by competition and the struggle of individuals among themselves thus in imagination individuals seem freer under the dominance of the bourgeoisie than before because their conditions of life seem accidental in reality of course they are less free because they are more subjected to the violence of things the difference from the estate comes out particularly in the antagonism between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat when the estate of the urban Berger's the corporations etc emerged in opposition to the landed nobility their condition of existence movable property and craft which had already existed latent ly before their separation from the feudal ties appeared as something positive which was asserted against feudal landed property and therefore in its own way at first took on a feudal form certainly the refugee serfs treated their previous servitude as something accidental to their personality but here they only were doing what every class that is freeing itself from a Federer's and they did not free themselves as a class but separately moreover they did not rise above the system of estates but only formed a new estate retaining their previous mode of labour even in their new situation and developing it further by freeing it from its earlier fetters which no longer corresponded to the development already attained 3 for the proletarians on the other hand the condition of their existence labour and with it all the conditions of existence governing modern society have become something accidental something over which they as separate individuals have no control and over which no social organization can give them control the contradiction between the individuality of each separate proletarian and laborer the condition of life forced upon him becomes evident to him himself for he is sacrificed from youth upwards and within his own class has no chance of arriving at the conditions which would place him in the other class thus while the refugee serfs only wish to be free to develop and assert those conditions of existence which were already there and hence in the end only arrived at free labour the proletarians if they are to assert themselves as individuals will have to abolish the very condition of their existence hitherto which has moreover been that of all society up to the present namely labour thus they find themselves directly opposed to the form in which hitherto the individuals of which society consists have given themselves collective expression that is the state in order therefore to assert themselves as individuals they must overthrow the state it follows from all we have been saying up till now that the communal relationship into which the individuals of a class entered and which was determined by their common interests over against a third party was always a community to which these individuals belonged only as average individuals only insofar as they lived within the conditions of existence of their class a relationship in which they participated not as individuals but as members of a class with the community of revolutionary proletarians on the other hand who take their conditions of existence and those of all members of society under their control it is just the reverse it is as individuals that the individuals participate in it it is just this combination of individuals assuming the advanced stage of modern productive forces of course which puts the conditions of the free development and movement of individuals under their control conditions which were previously abandoned to chance and had won an independent existence over against the separate individuals just because of their separation as individuals and because of the necessity of their combination which had been determined by the division of labour and through their separation had become a bond alien to them combination up till now by no means an arbitrary one such as is expounded for example in the contract social but a necessary one was an agreement upon these conditions within which the individuals were free to enjoy the freaks of fortune compare for example the formation of the North American state and the South American Republic's this right to the undisturbed enjoyment within certain conditions of fortuity and Chance has up till now been called personal freedom these conditions of existence are of course only the productive forces and forms of intercourse at any particular time forms of intercourse communism differs from all previous movements in that it overturns the basis of all earlier relations of production and intercourse and for the first time consciously treats all natural premises as the creatures of hitherto existing men strips them of their natural character and subjugates them to the power of the United individuals its organization is therefore essentially economic the material production of the conditions of this unity it turns existing conditions into conditions of unity the reality which communism is creating is precisely the true basis for rendering it impossible that anything should exist independently of individuals insofar as reality is only a product of the preceding intercourse of individuals themselves thus the Communists in practice treat the conditions created up to now by production and intercourse as in organic conditions without however imagining that it was the plan or the destiny of previous generations to give them material and without believing that these conditions were inorganic for the individuals creating them contradiction between individuals and their conditions of life as contradiction between productive forces and the form of intercourse the difference between the individual as a person and what is accidental to him is not a conceptual difference but an historical fact this distinction has a different significance at different times for example the estate as something accidental to the individual in the 18th century the family more or less – it is not a distinction that we have to make for each age but one which each age makes itself from among the different elements which it finds in existence and indeed not according to any theory but compelled by material collisions in life what appears accidental to the later age as opposed to the earlier and this applies also to the elements handed down by an earlier age as a form of intercourse which corresponded to a definite stage of development of the productive forces the relation of the productive forces to the form of intercourse is the relation of the form of intercourse to the occupation or activity of the individuals the fundamental form of this activity is of course material on which depend all other forms mental political religious etc the various shaping of material life is of course in every case dependent on the needs which are already developed and the production as well as the satisfaction of these needs is an historical process which is not found in the case of a sheep or a dog sternness refractory principal argument at versus hominem although sheep and dogs in their present form certainly but mal gerlichs are products of an historical process the conditions under which individuals have intercourse with each other so long as the above-mentioned contradiction is absent our conditions appertaining to their individuality in no way external to them conditions under which these definite individuals living under definite relationships can alone produce their material life and what is connected with it are thus the conditions of their self activity and are produced by the self activity the definite condition under which they produce thus corresponds as long as the contradiction has not yet appeared to the reality of their conditioned nature their one-sided existence the one-sidedness of which only becomes evident when the contradiction enters on the scene and thus exists for the later individuals then this condition appears as an accidental fetter and the consciousness that it is a federated to the earlier age as well these various conditions which appear first as conditions of self activity later as fetters upon it form in the whole evolution of history a coherent series of forms of intercourse the coherence of which consists in this in the place of an earlier form of intercourse which has become a fetter a new one is put corresponding to the more developed productive forces and hence to the advanced mode of the self activity of individuals a form which in its turn becomes a federal in replaced by another since these conditions correspond at every stage to the simultaneous development of the productive forces their history is at the same time the history of the evolving productive forces taken over by each new generation and is therefore the history of the development of the forces of the individuals themselves since this evolution takes place naturally ie is not subordinated to a general plan of freely combined individuals it proceeds from various localities tribes Nations branches of labor etc each of which to start with develops in depend of the others and only gradually enters into relation with the others furthermore it takes place only very slowly the various stages and interests are never completely overcome but only subordinated to the prevailing interest and trail along beside the latter for centuries afterwards it follows from this that within a nation itself the individuals even apart from their pecuniary circumstances have quite different developments and that an earlier interest the peculiar form of intercourse of which has already been ousted by that belonging to a later interest remains for a long time afterwards in possession of a traditional power in the illusory community state law which has one an existence independent of the individuals a power which in the last resort can only be broken by a revolution this explains why with reference to individual points which allow have a more general summing up consciousness can sometimes appear further advanced than the contemporary empirical relationships so that in the struggles of a later epoch one can refer to earlier theoreticians as authorities on the other hand in countries which like North America begin in an already advanced historical epic the development proceeds very rapidly such countries have no other natural premises than the individuals who settled there and were led to do so because the forms of intercourse of the old countries did not correspond to their wants thus they begin with the most advanced individuals of the old countries and therefore with the correspondingly most advanced form of intercourse before this form of intercourse has been able to establish itself in the old countries this is the case with all colonies insofar as they are not mere military or trading stations Carthage the Greek colonies and Iceland in the eleventh and twelfth centuries provide examples of this a similar relationship issues from conquest when a form of intercourse which has evolved on another soil is brought over complete to the conquered country whereas in its home it was still encumbered with interests and relationships left over from earlier periods he it can and must be established completely and without hindrance if only to assure the conquerors lasting power England and Naples after the Norman Conquest when they received the most perfect form of feudal organization five the contradiction between the productive forces and the form of intercourse as the basis for social revolution this contradiction between the productive forces and the form of intercourse which as we saw has occurred several times in past history without however endangering the basis necessarily on each occasion burst out in a revolution taking on at the same time various subsidiary forms such as all-embracing collisions collisions of various classes contradiction of consciousness battle of ideas etc political conflict etc from a narrow point of view one may isolate one of these subsidiary forms and consider it as the basis of these revolutions and this is all the more easy as the individuals who started the revolutions had illusions about their own activity according to their degree of culture and the stage of historical development thus all collisions in history have their origin according to our view in the contradiction between the productive forces and the form of intercourse incidentally to lead to collisions in a country this contradiction need not necessarily have reached its extreme limit in this particular country the competition with industrially more advanced countries brought about by the expansion of international intercourse is sufficient to produce a similar contradiction in countries with a backward industry for example the latent proletariat in Germany brought into view by view by the competition of English industry conquest this whole interpretation of history appears to be contradicted by the fact of conquest up till now violence war pillage murder and robbery etc have been accepted as the driving force of history here we must limit ourselves to the chief points and take therefore only the most striking example the destruction of an old civilization by a barbarous people and the resulting formation an entirely new organization of society Rome and the barbarians feudalism and Gaul the Byzantine Empire and the Turks with the conquering barbarian people war itself is still as indicated above a regular form of intercourse which is the more eagerly exploited as the increase in population together with the traditional end for it the only possible crude mode of production gives rise to the need for a new means of production in Italy on the other hand the concentration of landed property caused not only by buying up and indebtedness but also by inheritance since loose living being rife and marriage rare the old families gradually died out and their possessions fell into the hands of a few and its conversion into grazing land caused not only by the usual economic forces still operated today but by the importation of plundered and tribute corn and the resultant lack of demand for Italian corn brought about the almost total disappearance of the free population the very slaves died out again and again and had constantly to be replaced by new ones slavery remained the basis of the whole productive system the plebeians midway between Freeman and slaves never succeeded in becoming more than a proletarian rebel Rome indeed never became more than a city it's connection with the provinces was almost exclusively political and could therefore easily be broken again by political events nothing is more common than the notion that in history up till now it has only been a question of taking the barbarians take the Roman Empire and this fact of taking is made to explain the transition from the old world to the feudal system in this taking by barbarians however the question is whether the nation which is conquered has evolved industrial productive forces as is the case with modern peoples or whether they're productive forces are based for the most part merely on their association and on the community taking is further determined by the object taken a banker's fortune consisting of paper cannot be taken at all without the takers submitting to the conditions of production and intercourse of the country taken similarly the total industrial capital of a modern industrial country and finally everywhere there is very soon an end to taking and when there is nothing more to take you have to set about producing from this necessity of producing which very soon asserts itself it follows that the form of community adopted by the settling conquerors must correspond to the stage of development of the productive forces they find in existence or if this is not the case from the start it must change according to the productive forces by this to is explained the fact which people profess to have noticed everywhere in the period following the migration of the peoples namely that the servant was master and that the conquerors very soon took over language culture and manners from the conquered the feudal system was by no means brought complete from Germany but had its origin as far as the conquerors were concerned in the martial organization of the army during the actual conquest and this only evolved after the conquest into the feudal system proper through the action of the productive forces found in the conquered countries to what an extent this form was determined by the productive forces is shown by the abortive attempts to realize other forms derived from reminiscences of ancient Rome Charlemagne etc contradictions of big industry revolution our investigation hitherto started from the instruments of production and it has already shown that private property was a necessity for certain industrial stages in industry extractive private property still coincides with labour in small industry and all agriculture up till now property is the necessary consequence of the existing instruments of production in big industry the contradiction between the instrument of production and private property appears from the first time and is the product of big industry moreover big industry must be highly developed to produce this contradiction and thus only with big industry does the abolition of private property become possible non contradiction between the productive forces and the of intercourse in big industry and competition the whole mass of conditions of existence limitations biases of individuals are fused together into the two simplest forms private property and labor with money every form of intercourse and intercourse itself is considered fortuitous for the individuals thus money implies that all previous intercourse was only intercourse of individuals under particular conditions not of individuals as individuals these conditions are reduced to two accumulated labor or private property an actual labor if both or one of these ceases then intercourse comes to a standstill the modern economists themselves for example sis Maundy sure beliefs etc oppose association of individuals to association of capital on the other hand the individuals themselves are entirely subordinated to the division of labor and hence are brought into the most complete dependence on one another private property insofar as within labor itself it is opposed to labor evolves out of the necessity of accumulation and has still to begin with rather the form of the commonality but in its further development it approaches more and more the modern form of private property the division of labor implies from the outset the division of the conditions of labor of tools and materials and thus the splitting up of accumulated capital among different owners and thus also the division between capital and labor and the different forms of property itself the more the division of labor develops and accumulation grows the sharper are the forms that this process of differentiation assumes labor itself can only exist on the premise of this fragmentation thus two facts are here revealed first the productive forces appear as a world for themselves quite independent of and divorced from the individuals alongside the individuals the reason for this is that the individuals whose forces they are exist split up and in opposition to one another whilst on the other hand these forces are only real forces in the intercourse and association of these individuals thus on the one hand we have a totality of productive forces which have as it were taken on a material form and are for the individuals no longer the forces of the individuals but of private property and hence of the individuals only insofar as they are owners of private property themselves never in any earlier period have the productive forces taken on a form so indifferent to the intercourse of individuals as individuals because their intercourse itself was formerly a restricted one on the other hand standing over against these productive forces we have the majority of the individuals from whom these forces have been rested away and who robbed us of all real-life content have become abstract individuals but who are however only by this fact put into a position to enter into relation with one another as individuals the only connection which still links them with the productive forces and with their own existence labour has lost all semblance of self activity and only sustains their life by stunting it while in the earlier period self activity and the production of material life were separated in that they devolved on different persons and while on account of the narrowness of the individuals themselves the production of material life was considered as a subordinate mode of self activity they now diverge to such an extent that altogether material life appears as the end and what produces this material life labor which is now the only possible but as we see negative form of self activity as the means 10 the necessity preconditions and consequences of the abolition of private property thus things have now come to such a pass that the individuals must appropriate the existing totality of productive forces not only to achieve self activity but also merely to safeguard their very existence this appropriation is first determined by the object to be appropriated the productive forces which have been developed to a totality and which only exist within a universal intercourse from this aspect alone therefore this appropriation must have a universal character corresponding to the productive forces and the intercourse the appropriation of these forces is itself nothing more than the development of the individual capacities corresponding to the material instruments of production the appropriation of a totality of instruments of production is for this very reason the development of a totality of capacities in the individuals themselves this appropriation is further determined by the persons appropriating only the proletarians of the present day who are completely shut off from all self activity are in a position to achieve a complete and no longer restricted self activity which consists in the appropriation of a totality of productive forces and in the dust postulated development of a totality of capacities all earlier revolutionary appropriations were restricted individuals whose self activity was restricted by a crude instrument of production and a limited intercourse appropriated this crude instrument of production and hence merely achieved a new state of limitation their instrument of production became their property but they themselves remain subordinate to the division of labour and their own instrument of production in all expropriations up to now a mass of individuals remain subservient to a single instrument of production in the appropriation by the proletarians a mass of instruments of production must be made subject to each individual and property to all modern universal intercourse can be controlled by individuals therefore only when controlled by all this appropriation is further determined by the manner in which it must be effected it can only be effected through a union which by the character of the proletariat itself can again only be a universal one and through a revolution in which on the one hand the power of the earlier mode of production and intercourse and social organization is overthrown and on the other hand there develops the universal character and the energy of the proletariat without which the revolution cannot be accomplished in which further the proletariat rids itself of everything that still clings to it from its previous position in society only at this stage does self activity coincide with material life which corresponds to the development of individuals into complete individuals and the casting off of all natural limitations the transformation of labour into self activity corresponds to the transformation of the earlier limited intercourse into the intercourse of individuals as such with the appropriation of the total productive forces through United individuals private property comes to an end whilst previously in history a particular condition always appeared as accidental now the isolation of individuals and the particular private gain of each man have themselves become accidental the individuals who are no longer subject to the division of labour have been conceived by the philosophers as an ideal under the name man they have conceived the whole process which we have outlined as the evolutionary process of man so that at every historical stage man was substituted for the individuals and shown as the motive force of history the whole process was thus conceived as a process of the self estrangement of men and this was essentially due to the fact that the average individual of the later stage was always foisted on to the earlier stage and the consciousness of a later age on to the individuals of an earlier through this inversion which from the first is an abstract image of the actual conditions it was possible to transform the whole of history into an evolutionary process of consciousness the necessity of the communist revolution finally from the conception of history we have sketched we obtained these further conclusions one in the development of productive forces there comes a stage when productive forces and means of intercourse are brought into being which under the existing relationships only cause mischief and are no longer productive but destructive forces machinery and money and connected with this a class is called forth which has to bear all the burdens of society without enjoying its advantages which rousted from society is forced into the most decided antagonism to all other classes a class which forms the majority of all members of society and from which emanates the consciousness of the necessity of a fundamental revolution the communist consciousness which may of course arise among the other classes – through the contemplation of the situation of this class – the conditions under which definite productive forces can be applied are the conditions of the rule of a definite class of society whose social power deriving from its property has its practical idealistic expression in each case in the form of the state and therefore every revolutionary struggle is directed against a class which till then has been in power for three in all revolutions up till now the mode of activity always remained unscathed and it was only a question of a different distribution of this activity a new distribution of labour to other persons whilst the communist revolution is directed against the preceding mode of activity does away with labour and abolish is the rule of all classes with the classes themselves because it is carried through by the class which no longer counts as a class in society is not recognized as a class and is in itself the expression of the dissolution of all classes nationalities etc within present society and for both for the production on a mass scale of this communist consciousness and for the success of the cause itself the alteration of men on a mass scale is necessary an alteration which can only take place in a practical movement a revolution this revolution is necessary therefore not only because the ruling class cannot be overthrown in any other way but also because the class overthrowing it can only in a revolution succeed in ridding itself of all the muck of ages and become fitted to found society anew footnotes 1 marginal note by Marx to begin with it absorbs the branches of labour directly belonging to the state and then all more or less ideological estates – the statement which frequently occurs with st. max that each is all that he is through the state is fundamentally the same as the statement that bourgeois is only a specimen of the bourgeois species a statement which presupposes that the class of bourgeois existed before the individuals constituting it marginal note by Marx to the sentence with the philosophers pre existence of the class three and B it must not be forgotten that the serfs very neat of existing and the impossibility of a large scale economy which involved the distribution of the allotments among the serfs very soon reduced the services of the serfs to their Lord to an average of payments in kind and statute labor this made it possible for the serf to accumulate movable property and hence facilitated his escape out of the possession of his Lord and gave him the prospect of making his way as an urban citizen it also created gradations among the serfs so that the runaway serfs were already half burgers it is likewise obvious that the serfs who were masters of a craft had the best chance of acquiring moveable property for marginal note by Marx the people are interested in maintaining the present state of production

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