Territorial nationalism | Wikipedia audio article

Territorial nationalism | Wikipedia audio article


Territorial nationalism describes a form of
nationalism based on the belief that all inhabitants of a particular territory should share a common
national identity, regardless of their ethnic, linguistic, religious, cultural and other
differences. Depending on the political or administrative
status of a particular territory, territorial nationalism can be manifested on two basic
levels, as territorial nationalism of distinctive sovereign states, or territorial nationalism
of distinctive sub-sovereign regions (regional nationalism).Within sovereign nation states,
territorial nationalism is manifested as a belief that all inhabitants of that nation
owe allegiance to their country of birth or adoption. According to territorial nationalism every
individual must belong to a nation, but can choose which one to join. A sacred quality is sought in this nation
and in the popular memories it evokes. Citizenship is idealized by a territorial
nationalist. A criterion of a territorial nationalism is
the establishment of a mass, public culture based on common values and traditions of the
population. Legal equality is essential for territorial
nationalism.Because citizenship rather than ethnicity is idealized by territorial nationalism,
it is argued by Athena S. Leoussi and Anthony D. Smith (in 2001) that the French Revolution
was a territorial nationalistic uprising.Territorial nationalism is also connected to the concepts
of Lebensraum, forced expulsion, ethnic cleansing and sometimes even genocide when one nation
claims a certain imaginary territory and wants to get rid of other nations living on it. These territorial aspirations are part of
the goal of an ethnically pure nation-state. This also sometimes leads to irredentism,
since some nationalists demand that the state and nation are incomplete if an entire nation
is not included into one single state, and thus aims to include members of its nations
from a neighboring country. This thus often leads to ethnic conflict. Thomas Ambrosio argues: “If the leader of
state A sends material support and/or actual troops into state B in the hopes of detaching
state A’s diaspora from state B, this would clearly be an indication of ethno-territorial
nationalism”.==Territorial nationalism in Europe==
In Western Europe national identity tends to be more based on where a person is born
than in Central and Eastern Europe. Scholars have argued this might be explained
by the fact that states in the later two emerged from imperial states. The communist regimes in the Eastern Bloc
actively suppressed what they described as “bourgeois nationalism” and considered nationalism
a bourgeois ideology. In the Soviet Union this led to Russification
and other attempts to replace the other cultures of the Soviet Union with the Russian culture,
even while, at the same time the Soviet Union promoted certain forms of nationalism that
it considered compatible with Soviet interests. Yugoslavia was different from the other European
Communist states, where Yugoslavism was promoted.==Territorial nationalism in the Middle East
==Although territorial nationalism is in contrast
with the universality of Islam, especially Egypt and Tunisia had territorial nationalistic
policies after gaining independence. This was gradually replaced by Pan-Arabism
in the 1950s, but Pan-Arabism declined by the mid-1970s.==
Territorial nationalism in Africa==In Africa, the prime examples of territorial
nationalism are the overlapping irredentist concepts of Greater Morocco and Greater Mauritania. While Mauritania has since relinquished any
claims to territories outside its internationally recognized borders, Morocco continues to occupy
lands south of Morocco, referred to as its “Southern Provinces”.==Territorial nationalism in North America
==Just as in Western Europe, national identity
tends to be more based on where a person is born than ethnicity.==See also==
Irredentism Jus soli
Nation-building Territorial integrity
Peripheral nationalism

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