Hello guys, ghistory is here! We’ve got quite a lot planned for today, so let’s jump straight in! Breakup of Yugoslavia, part 2: 1990 and the beginning of the Yugoslav wars So in my last video, I might have missed something So let’s talk about that right off the bat. On 10th of December 1989, central comittee of the Croatian branch of the Communist Party convened and decided to undertake democratic reforms. Often the first right step towards democracy is free multi-party elections, and not bombing the country. *poorly replicated satiric cough* So they decided, by a majority of 7 to 6 that free parliamentary elections be held in summer 1990. Encouraged by this change, Croatian Parliament allowed other political parties to apply on January the 11th 1990. Moreover, the Yugoslav Parliament had been shut down the same year following the events which I mentioned before, yet it still de jure existed till 1992. So every republic had to rely on its very own legislative body, But only two – SR Slovenia and SR Croatia – were actually able to do so. SR Slovenia officially ceased to be SR on March 7th, and was from now on the Republic of Slovenia. On April the 8th, 1990, history was made, As SR Slovenia held Yugoslavia’s first multi-party parliamentary elections since 1938. The results were as follows: And you might have thought that commies won, but here’s a twist: this(4x) and this party Formed a coalition. That coalition became known as the DEMOS coalition, stands for DEMocratic Opposition of Slovenia. That coalition won 55% seats and was declared winner. It is worth mentioning that the leader of the coalition was a Yugoslav disiident Jose Pucnik. The presidential elections were held the same day, with four candidates running for office, but only Jose and Milan Kucan proceeded into the second round. They around took place in 22nd of April, And Milan Kucan, a socialist, won the election. But on this day, Another parliamentary election started, now in Croatia. After having no multi-party elections for 77 years, it was something outstanding. All 356 seats were to be distributed in a tricameral Parliament. Virtually, there were two parties: The HDZ (Croatian Democratic Union), a nationalist party, and rebranded communists. But out of all remaining parties You have to take a look at the Serb Democratic Party (SDS) The thing is that Serbs were a significant minority and they didn’t like nationalist HDZ. Couple of events illustrate this, as on 18th of March 1990 In the town of bencovac (Pronounced : bencovats) a 62 years old Serb Pulled out a gas pistol, Attempting to assasinate the leader of the party Franjo Tudman, but he was stopped. And Srbian media also condemned things Tudman did, and percieved their party as Ustashe 2.0. So, talking about the results, it was easy for HDZ, as they won 137 seats by the time the first round concluded. and additional 68 on 6-7 May, when the second round was held. So they held a total of 205 out of 356 seats. But this election wasn’t really Croatian in spirit – for Croatia was still part of Yugoslavia. After seeing such drastic changes in politics of SR Slovenia and SR Croatia, They decided to invade (if you can say that) SR Slovenia and SR Croatia in order to disarm the Territorial Defence here and eliminate the possibility of armed resistance. And I’m not necessarily talking about military. Because a riot took place on 13 May 1990 in Zagreb at a football game between Dinamo Zagreb and Crvena Zvezda fans. There even was a famous criminal in charge – Zeljko Raznatovic. We’ll talk about him later. The newborn Croat Parliament convenient 13th of May and elected Franjo as a president by 281 to 50 votes. Soon after,new government started purging Serbs from government structures, mostly from the police – Serbs made up for 75% then, but it was reduced to 28% in November 1992. On 25 July 1990, amendments to the constitution were made: The word “socialist” in the name of the country was dropped, and the star on the flag was changed with chequy shield of Croatia, but not the one we see today – the chequy of Ustashe without… those coats of arms that look like a crown,was used. Serbs,of course, didn’t like it – they wanted their own state They also didn’t like the chequy, but this made no goddamn sense, since the same shield was used as the emblem of Socialist Croatia. So Serbs met in the town of Srb hours after changes were made, and set up their Parliament – Serb National Council. on the 1 of August Milan Babic was elected first president (if you can say so) and anounced a referendum, scheduled for in between 19th of August and 2nd of September. The referendum was held on 19th of August, with 97.7% voting “yes”, but was declared by Croats as null and void But nevertheless the first breakaway state – SAO Kninska Krajina – was proclaimed on September the 30th, 1990. Subsequently becoming the SAO Krajina on 21st of December. Croatians couldn’t attack this newborn entity – due to having no army. The Serb Democratic Party became the monopoly party here, yet sorta legal – because it was voted for on the Croatian elections But the party severed all relations with the Parliament on 30th of May I have to add some more important things: On 2 July, the Parliament of Kosovo tried to create their own republic, identical in rights to other 6. However, Serbs found a solution fast – they abolished the Kosovo Parliament. On 20 of July, multi-party elections became a thing in SR Serbia. But! I think you understand that guy isn’t givin’ his throne ito other wackos. On 12 of July, the SDS expanded to Bosnia and Herzegovina, and so did HDZ on 18 of August. Now what did I say literally 10 seconds before? The presidential election was won by serbs and Serb Socialist Party. In the neighboring Montenegro, the elections were won by the League Of Communists, which hadn’t broken up up to that point. Meanwhile, Serbs in Croatia could not handle the Constitution of Croatia, which was called Christmas Constitution, because it defined Serbs as minority, with rights equal to the other minorities, and also made a new flag and chequy shield legal. And the very next day, the 23rd December 1990, was by far one of the key days of the year, because the long-awaited referendum of Slovenian independence had taken place. 95.71% voted “Yes”, and thus, the yugexit of Slovenia was only a matter of time. I have to had that Macedonia held independent elections on 25th of November, which were won by deeply nationalist VMRO-DPMNE. Bored? I think you are but we’re getting to interesting stuff. So we finally enter 1991 and right off the bat, 2 simultaneous events happen on 4th of January: The Croatian Defence Council – a predecessor to army – is created, and so is the Police of Serbian Krajina. Meanwhile, if you thought all this time that Serbs in Dalmatia were the only Serbs in Croatia, You’re wrong. Because they were present in other regions, and Serbs of Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Syrmia, for example, also proclaimed the creation of their council. We can talk more, but let’s jump over all the way to 25th of June 1991, when Slovenia declare independence. Trying to reclaim all TOs, Yugoslav government decided to invade Slovenia and replace TOs with centralized defence system. So it’s finally time to talk about what TO is! TO was an acronym for the Territorial Defence of Yugoslavia. It was established because once upon a time, Czechs drank beer instead of vodka, if ya know what I’m saying. Yugoslavs were scared and decided to make a military reserve force system, and scatter it all over Yugoslavia in case of Cold War turning hot. But later, that same JNA was like …wait a second… They’re gettin too big… they can oppose us if… all republics will declare independence! But it was a bit too late. So Slovenia declared independence on June 25th, and a new coat of arms and flag were presented to people of Slovenia. The flag wasn’t that flag with 1:2 proportions we see today, but instead was a L O N G B O I with absolutely f*cked up proportions. Here’s a twist: It was hoisted vertically. So Slovenian declared independence and Milosevic didn’t like it and allowed the JNA to enter Slovenia. I want to point out that Slovenia wasn’t prepared for the war, like,at all! They had only some TO and police officers, and that was basically it. On 26th of June, JNA set off from Rijeka, Croatia to invade Slovenia. That’s how the Slovenian War of Independence, or the Ten-Day War, began. JNA tactic was to occupy the border crossings and hold them, but it didn’t go according to their plan. The war was officially declared on 27 of June at 1:15 AM, when Yugoslav troops heading from Karlovac (yes,they were heading from Karlovac) crossed the border at Metlika. At 2:40 AM, a batallion left the town of Vrhnika for the airport in Brnik. Column started advahcung through Bela Krajina, but came to a stop in Poganci, resuming advance at 10:30 AM, but stopping in Medvedjek 5 hours later. Column which headed to Brnik split up in two several kilometres short of Ljubliana. One part continued onward, The other one turned to Trzin and Menges. The former reached Brnik at 5 AM and seized area around it. Latter fought the first actual battle against TO and Police later. one TO conscript was killed and many Yugoslavs surrendered. Those who didn’t retreated to Menges. At 9 AM, yet another column departed from Maribor to Sentilj and Dravogad, the first one was stopped by a barricade in Pesnica, firing at it until 5:30 PM, when TO ambushed them. Also,the border crossing at Vrtojba was occupied. More Yugoslav troops wanted to enter the country, but were repelled by Slovene border troops. Only around 6 PM Slovenes fought with JNA at the airport. Another fierce fight happened in Kosece. And on a high note, Slovenes shot down 2 helis – one over Ig (Yes, that’s the actual name of the city) and the other one over Ljubliana, and just so happened that a Slovene Piloted one of them. TO commandment has really boosted up the morale the following day – Those who were in Pesnica removed the barricade. They then were stopped by other barricades, by the way, JNA bombed many things, including… …towns of Kosevska Reka and Murska Sobota, mountains Krim, Kum and Nanos, and Karavanke Tunnel, lying under the Alps. But most impotrantly, the Brnik Airport. 2 tanks were ambushed in Limbus, in Gibina, a column attempting to enter from Croatia was stopped. But most importantly… JNA had never reached Dravograd, and Slovenes captured the border crossing nearby. But JNA was finally able to enter near Razkrizje Many other objects were taken, including the Rozna Dolina crossing, where the decisive battle would be waged. Yugoslavs were the first to begin talks about a ceasefire. the ceasefire was never implemented, though. Small skirmishes happened during the day, but one JNA brigade was captured and then reorganized by Slovenes. Also, the Vrtojba border crossing was liberated by Slovenian TO. First made an ultimatum to Slovenia no one cared about, and on June 30th, at 9 AM, an alarm sounded all over Slovenia, signifying an arrival of JNA planes, but the planes didn’t actually arrive. Karavanke tunnel was seized later in the day and the decision that left of Agora to heaven and the decisive battle of Nova Gorica (Rozna Dolina) happened. There were so many wounded that some were transported to the Italian town nearby, Which also is named Gorica. (Gorizia actually) A day later, an explosion destroyed the weapon storage in Crni Vrh, damaging the town severely. A column in Medvedjek was finally able to move, but as it entered the Krakovski Forest, Slovenes thought: *itsfreerealestate.avi* And they went full gangsta! At 5 AM, the tanks in Krakovski Forest were ambushed by TO. Some more places were bombed. A JNA column set off to rescue foresters, But had to stop because of losses. At 1:30 PM, a guardhouse in Sentilj was captured. At 4:15 PM, TO attacked JNA at Gornja Radgona crossing. Tanks attempted to backup JNA and headed from Vrhnika to Ljubliana and Logatec, but came to a halt in Cesarski Vrh and Sinja Gorica, several more crosses were taken. At 9 PM, a ceasefire was offered, but was rejected by JNA. A column of vehicles set off from Belgrade, but it did never arrive due to breakdowns. TO stopped another relief at Radenci and VIdem ob Scavnici, and JNA units at Kog were attacked. The ceasefire was finally enacted. on the next day, all crossings were in Slovenian hands, and all units belonging to JNA were permitted to withdraw. The war lasted for two more days, until was formally and officially ended on July the 7th at Brijuni islands off the coast of Croatia. And how did Slovenia manage to win? I’ll let you figure it out yourself, But if you don’t want I’ll say it in the 3rd part, when we’ll be taking a look at the Croatian War of Independence. Thank you guys for watching, and farewell!