Spanish nationalism | Wikipedia audio article

Spanish nationalism | Wikipedia audio article


Spanish nationalism is the nationalism that
asserts that the Spaniards are a nation, and promotes the cultural unity of the Spanish. In a general sense, it comprises political
and social movements inspired by a love for Spanish culture, language, history, and a
sense of pride in Spain and its people. Spanish nationalists often reject other nationalist
movements within Spain, specifically Catalan and Basque nationalism. Other forms of Spanish nationalism have included
pan-Iberianism and pan-Hispanism.Spanish nationalism has its origins in Castilian-based culture. Its development runs parallel to that of the
state-building process carried out by the Spanish monarchy, and to the surge in patriotic
sentiment in the landlocked territories galvanized by the Reconquista — a period that began
in what would eventually become the Kingdom of Castile and ended in the final conquest
of Granada in 1492. This explains why the Castilian language became
known universally as the Spanish language. Hence, Spanish nationalism is a historical
corollary or synecdochal evolution of an expansionist phase in Castilian nationalism, much like
the process by which early English nationalism came to define all of British nationalism,
or by which Latin and Sabine political identity came to successfully assimilate all other
ethnicities in the Italian Peninsula, sometimes forcefully, into becoming a single national
entity. In spite of the early Castilian genesis of
Spanish nationalism, it must be emphasized that more recent stages of Castilian nationalism
are sometimes indifferent or even inimical to Spanish unionism.==History==
In many Western European nation-states (Portugal and England), the shaping of an authoritarian
monarchy, like those of the late Middle Ages, prompted a parallel secular development of
the state and nation. This occurred in Spain under the Spanish Monarchy’s
successive territorial conformations. Like many nations before it, Spanish national
identity and territorial dynamic gave rise to different outcomes. As a result of how the institutions responded
to the changing economic and social dynamic, the idea of nationalism did not fully flourish
into its contemporary frame until the Old Regime had succumbed. At the time, the clearest identification factor
that existed throughout this ethnic-religious period in Spain was the form of “Old Christian”
status. By the end of this period at the 18th century,
the linguistic identification factor had gradually revolved around the Castilian with new institutions
such as the Spanish Royal Academy. Historically, Spanish nationalism specifically
emerged with liberalism, during the Spanish War of Independence against Napoleon I of
France. Since 1808 we speak of nationalism in Spain:
ethnic patriotism became fully national, at least among the elite. This was unmistakably the work of liberals. The modernized elites used the occasion to
try to impose a program of social and political changes. Their method was to launch the revolutionary
idea of the nation as the holder of sovereignty. This idea of sovereignty is believed to have
mobilized the Spanish victoriously against a foreign army and against collaborators of
José Bonaparte, regarded as non-Spanish (afrancesados). The Spanish liberals turned their victory
on the battlefield to an feverish identity of patriotism and the defense of liberty:
as the Asturian deputy Agustín Argüelles when he presented the Constitution of 1812,
“Spaniards, you now have a homeland.” José Álvarez Junco
Since then, Spanish nationalism has often changed in meaning and its ideological and
political proposals; specifically doceañista, esparterista, even briefly iberista (advocating
union with Portugal in the dynastic crisis of 1868). The Carlism, which was a defensive movement
of the Old Regime, did not regard the adjective “national” with any esteem (national sovereignty,
national militia, or national properties) and considered it a term used only by liberals
(who were becoming more and more progresistas). However, what truly shaped Spanish nationalism
came in the twentieth century from the frustration of the disaster of 1898, that has been called
regenerationism. It assimilated from movements very opposite
one another such as the ruling bourbon-family dynasty (Francisco Silvela, Eduardo Dato,
Antonio Maura), the republican opposition (that only had a brief stay in power) and
even the military influence of the 1917 crisis and dictatorships of Miguel Primo de Rivera
and Francisco Franco. Under the movement of panhispanism, which
refers to the movement focused on the unity of Hispanic-American nations, whose origins
are rooted during the period of Spanish colonization and imperialism, refers in this case to the
movement that emerged after the crisis of 1898. Panhispanism was influenced by the regenerationism
movement and the Generation of ’98, whose authors came from the Spanish periphery and
agreed to consider Castile the representation of “Spanish”. These philosophers, ideologues and authors,
like Ramiro de Maeztu, Ramiro Ledesma and Onésimo Redondo, founders of the JONS, and
José Antonio Primo de Rivera, founder of Falange, expressed a generation frustrated
with Spanish society and politics at the time. During this period, this form of nationalism
incorporated a traditionalist component (with the notable exceptions of the vanguardism
of Ernesto Giménez Caballero) that could be traced back to a century old belief of
traditional monarchy or Catholic monarchy. It is not lay nor secular, but Roman Catholic,
which would define in Francoist Spain the term, National Catholicism. Spanish liberal philosopher and essayist José
Ortega y Gasset defined Spain as an “enthusing project for a life in common (proyecto sugestivo
de vida en común). Meanwhile, the Fascist leader José Antonio
Primo de Rivera preferred the definition of a “unity of destiny in the universal” and
defended a return to the traditional and spiritual values of Imperial Spain. The idea of empire makes it universalist rather
than localist, this is what makes it singular among other forms of nationalisms, but closer
to others (Italian fascism).==Modern==
The political transition which occurred in Spain, together with social and economic changes
rooted in a detailed sense of modernization, began at the end of Franco’s time in power
and lasted until the creation of current institutions (Spanish Constitution of 1978 and Statutes
of Autonomy). This also produced a strong reversal of the
social uses for Spanish symbols of national identification.Peripheral nationalisms have
acquired a significant presence and territorial power, especially in Catalonia (Convergence
and Union Republican Left of Catalonia) and the Basque Country (Basque Nationalist Party,
as well as among EA and so-called abertzale left). The numbers are substantially lower in comparison
to Catalonia and Basque country, but these nationalisms are still present in Navarre
(Nabai) and Galicia (Galician National Bloc) too. The Canary Islands (Coalición Canaria), Andalusia
(Partido Andalucista) and other autonomous communities also have less obvious nationalism
and are often grouped as regionalisms, based on linguistic or historical differential facts
no less distinct than the previous ones. In comparison to other nationalisms, “Spanish
nationalism” is often referred to as españolismo, an equivalent to centralism. Usually with a controversial political purpose,
it may be identified with conservative nostalgia for Franco’s regime or with alleged state
oppression in those territories, which in extreme cases (particularly ETA in the Basque
Country and Navarre) is used as justification for terrorism that sees itself as armed struggle
for national liberation. By contrast, none of the major political parties
affected by such designation of españolistas or “Spanish nationalists”, self-identify as
such. Instead, they use the phrase non-nationalist
to separate themselves from the nationalist, which is how they usually designate the so-called
“periphery” or outliers.From the majority point of view, in social, territorial and
electoral terms, the identification with Spain, its symbols, and its institutions have become
more characteristic of constitutional patriotism or civic nationalism. It seeks to respect the different visions
of Spain and fit it into a pluralistic framework, inclusive and non-exclusive. Concepts which often coincide the majority’s
political parties, Spanish Socialist Workers’ Party and People’s Party, the minority’s,
United Left, Union, Progress and Democracy,and other regional or nationalist parties sometimes
called moderate, despite maintaining deep political differences.Since 2017 constitutional
crisis over the Catalan issue, it is seen that Spanish Nationalism is growing.==Parties=====
Current===National Democracy (Spain) (1995–present)
Alternativa Española,AES (2003-present) Falange Española de las JONS (FE de las JONS)
(1976) (1976–present) La Falange (1999) (1999–present)
España 2000 (2002–present) Party for Freedom (Spain) (2013–present)
Ciudadanos (2006–present) Vox (2013–present)===Former===
Movimiento Social Republicano (1999–2018)==See also==
Nationalisms and regionalisms of Spain Spanish unionism
Spanish republicanism Spanish irredentism
Iberian federalism (Iberism) The two Spains
Hispanophobia

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