Singing and Laughing Against Fascism

Singing and Laughing Against Fascism


good evening everybody and welcome to the Center for history I’m Julie Kaplan the centers manager for public programs over the past 17 years the Center for Jewish history has grown to be one of the greatest public Jewish historical and cultural institutions in the world it was founded to bring together the collections of the partner institutions in one place together comprising the largest and most comprehensive archive of the modern Jewish experience outside of Israel the center provides a collaborative home for five partner organizations the American Jewish Historical Society the Leo Beck Institute the yeshiva university museum the and the EVO Institute for Jewish research did I leave out the American Sephardi Federation yes sorry certainly the center is an archive but it is also a public institution a Jewish Library of Congress we see it as our mission to preserve the past so as to bring history alive to the public it is with this goal in mind that we happily agreed to host this evening’s event in partnership with the program in Jewish Studies at the University of Colorado Boulder and the editors of the journal European affairs those organizations are currently running a three-day scholarly symposium here at the center called laughing at power fascism and authoritarianism satire humor irony and interrogating their political efficacy this evening’s public program is being presented in conjunction with the symposium please join us after the performance in the Great Hall for dessert reception as well as book and CD sales now to say a few words about tonight’s very special program I’m happy to introduce David sneer Louis P singer chair of Jewish history and chair of the Department of Religious Studies at the University of Colorado in Boulder thank you for coming tonight and enjoy the performance [Applause] it’s all good so welcome everyone my name is David sneer and I’m very excited to introduce two of my favorite people honest an she’s and soy Clara lenka so honest and she says the owl and Malcolm Green associate professor Oh actually it’s now it’s been changed she’s now the professor she just learned today that she was promoted to full professor in Yiddish language in literature and as the director of the Anton and bound Center for Jewish Studies at the University of Toronto she’s the author of Soviet and kosher Jewish popular culture in the Soviet Union and more than 20 articles on the Soviet Jewish experience during World War two Russian Jewish culture and the post-soviet Jewish Diaspora and last year she published Boris and Sonya Jewish life under Stalin in Jewish life in Stalin’s so it sound it’s for sale out in the hallway it’s something about Jews living under Stalin SOI car alengka is a pseudonym of a Russian Jewish songwriter and performer by the name of Pavel eduardovich liang at the same time Pavel Lyon is a Slavic with a PhD in Russian literature and the two of them have just released this amazing CD called Yiddish glory just four weeks ago and since then it’s songs have been covered by get this list ABC News BBC world BBC News NPR ORF which is the Austrian version of NPR radio populaire which is Italian version of that mundo phony-ass rtbf which is Belgians national French language broadcaster and the other ABC Australian Broadcasting so that is the CD has really taken the world by storm and it’s also for sale out in the hallway and it’s it’s just amazing and you’re gonna hear some snippets of the CD tonight with Anna and soy to invite up [Applause] hi it’s great to be here and I’m going to hire David’s near to the fondant linker vets wig rosenbear own Ribbentrop in the industry me twist the bar grab her salty fiend rate RI home dine Padre fool blind grab a soul came stinking if needs I the song you just heard was first collected from she prepare Elena a young Jewish refugee woman from Lithuania who was then in Al Motta in Kazakhstan in 1943 she first sang it to a Yiddish poet and journalist named Herschel blushed in I’ll show you his picture blushed and was born in Argentina and moved to the Soviet Union in 1931 to work on Soviet he – literally seen during the war he was in Kazakhstan where he collected Yiddish songs and stories from Jewish refugees and evacuees in 1942 and 1943 blush they was convinced as he later wrote in an article about this project that 1943 was the year when Soviet Jewish humor in Yiddish blossomed it is somewhat strange to think of 1943 in Europe as the year of Jewish laughter the Year by the beginning of which the majority of Jews in Poland and Ukraine already killed and others began to learn about the loss of their families and communities nevertheless it seems that creating humorous songs and stories was one of the ways that people made sense of the horrific events around them indeed in 1943 Soviet Jewish folk songs are cheerful but they also call for violent revenge against the German army that attempted to destroy the Soviet Union in six and succeeded in killing so many Jews in this song it you just heard Hitler is compared with Hermann from the Purim story an evil state official who tried to destroy Jewish people but failed in the Soviet leaders culture of the time we see the word himand and the word Hitler to be used interchangeably this song provides a running commentary on news relevant to the Jewish audience in 1943 we see the names that are often discussed in Soviet newspapers German propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels the president of rakes dog Herman Goering Minister of Internal Affairs William Frick 19 at the Nazi ideology a ideologue alfred rosenberg Minister foreign affairs your him Ribbentrop and of course adult Hitler himself as you all know all these people died and natural death later Rosenberg and Goering were convicted at the Nuremberg trial and committed suicide freed Ribbentrop and Rosenberg were indeed hung this song chillingly in a joking manner predicts this punishment in 1943 every song that you will hear today was written during the war in the Soviet Union the country that produced so little public Holocaust memory most songs comes from the archive of the Kiev cabinet for Jewish culture which was a research lab of the Ukrainian Academy of Science that collected hundreds of folk stories and songs in here – during World War two starting from 1941 on the trains that took Jews the central parts of the Soviet Union and to the Central Asia in Central Asia itself in Kazakhstan Uzbekistan Kyrgyzstan and a few other places and also recorded in Ukraine starting from 1944 all the way until 1947 just as Ukraine got liberated from the Germans from the German army none of these songs collected by the workers of this atomies ecological section of the archive led by Moishe barry Gorski have been known before this collection was found in the archive the head of this and this is how some of the documents look like in this collection Barry Gorski and his colleagues planned to include 40 something of this songs into a book which was all typed out and ready to be published under the title Jewish creativity in the Soviet Union during the Great Patriotic War II to see the beautiful sexy cover that was ready to go but it even went for a round one round of Stalin’s censorship but it was never published and I’ll tell you at the end of the presentation why not and one of the most astonishing fact about this book and other materials in this archive recorded from Jews during the war about the war was how much humor was in this songs the next song you bought to here provides again commentaries on contemporary news contemporary to 1944 it was recorded from Belleville Shar garage in Krasnodar region in 1944 and it ridicules Hitler’s desire to occupy Ukraine and other parts of this oh boy Bona hungry name grows schrems even attach a life a local ordinance so false otters get raw from the right trailer body a boy monkey gabon dose of angular form cream sorry King Brogan’s boys I drain it in cos horses mid-calf cars whose horse is me smooth sort or he Clara keep Lana Venetian or scrub the coil my spunky the left nor such rhinos thus a regular for a most ever day loose or me for Dorothy Haagen game so for no crying Evo’s I’d be record of it oppa me shiny know a dog ain’t horny keep away now from garena hunger rows remain vivid attach a Lazaro kilos Dino’s new Porsche far away Yonkers I know ta-dah each day underneath Game Boy season it good title on these after there’s a Hitler he is kaput [Music] [Music] [Laughter] [Applause] before I tell you more about the song I want to complement this beautiful English translation of the lyrics which was done by Toby Benjamin who is here in audience now and why you PhD student in that Jewish history Thank You Toby this song has an unusually contemporary feel because we still hear the words like oil coal resources Caucasus Ukraine and Crimea in the news today and oil rhymes with key shift oil ransoms shift just like it did there today – these are the sides and this is issues that are causing Wars violence and ethnic conflict but today these songs are funny for different reasons compared to why they were popular in the forties in the forties they laugh at the German attempts to occupy Ukraine it is in 2000 it’s funny because we don’t expect other songs to care about oil and coal but there is also a third layer of humor here the song is actually based on another humorous song the one from the 19th century it’s an old mass killing song it’s all Hasidic song that ridicules must kill him it will cause them touch so really killing yeah cos and jury referring to them as stage but here they replaced each willdyche which is an actual German that’s trying to kill a Jew so discontinuity of humor continuous is just the object of humor changes by listening a song like this one this one and others that you’ll hear today we find out what people in 1943 relieved was funny all the songs you’ll hear that you already heard and you will hear more today a crude bold physical the humors like that very similar in some ways so these pictures of violence against fascists we see Germans running away with their pants down or their paints pants sold with from fear Hitler’s often portrayed as a woman here I’ll show you some pictures from the Soviet magazine called crocodile this is a German who is suffering in Ukraine in this down near Stalingrad 1943 this is Hitler also you know having trouble there and and of course popular one now Hitler portrayed as a woman who there’s nothing funnier than that of course and Christ and complaints so the nature of this humor is juvenile this is what children find funny and I haven’t thought about this why is that humor so juvenile and then I realized that well this is because many of these songs were written by children or teenagers it just this is what they found funny it just they happened to live during the darkest period of Jewish history so the next song you bought the here was recorded from a child her name or I’ll show you how it looks in the archive her name is Clara Rosenberg in 1944 she was interviewed in December 1944 in mogilev Podolsk which means that she survived the war under the occupation and then she was a student as their notes helpfully Stella’s of school number eighteen who wanted to sing the song called new wedding denied [Music] say Lloyd tried the Hitler or yo-yo limit or name right – I say fell love me moist comedy writer be right ear right boys commandeer said showing door feel awesome bar right the folding are giving Zen a characters and in a ecology for tortoise embark break below your Steven eaten frameless on Mitch pasta Katyusha Katyusha Katyusha what is the cut you sure it’s not Hitler in Berlin Ruiz of grosses Soros what sine rates are may win she toid show enough kappa rest after me rasoi kima deserve is bi-state caring mothers I donate to Frank Hitler he was veins too was veins to vein in this mirror in the hallway was a minor Roy’s cook nor on the lakes are made your shrine fool is my your funniest hot men near half torment sis given a whole images it super sharp balls easier divest their whole affairs he’s a risk affair has their home a Massey’s after two nor gotten s V estate in be ho Hitler a Fergus Fergus two condos righty cook freestyle invites the fire I’m teaser there may you has script in detorri resign cars Paisley poison true still rates are Maybach rope back row be back rope the legs are made back row hope to a lachemann say your flames if you need a layup the feeder was yeah there is a may work avoid pieces means I need aver there was to take me Clemmy ciske where’s in the beatable Sally Sally Mazel haha Irish songs of the time glorify Katyusha and which is of course a machine-gun I think kind of a gun which they use as they often use a good Yiddish word for it called Pullum yacht the admiration almost fetishization of the of the machine gun is understandable not so many Jews in Europe were able to get their hands on weapons especially on machine guns and to use them to fight against fascism and this topic of a morbid wedding is actually very popular Yiddish folklore when a bride kills the groom and all that but here we have a very different bride and very different wedding the one that brings love to death and the brings marriage the marriage of Hitler to Katyusha de gand machine gun that will kill him speaking of yeah and there if there is love and this marriage this only love to that weapon that will kill the groom speaking of guns and violence and destruction and revenge our next song deals with pouring and a story of how the enemies of Jews exactly suffered and what how the current enemies of Jews will pay for their atrocities it is cold it was recorded in Kazakhstan in 1945 and it’s called omen antiochos Torquemada Khrushchev an OB de Velde party pest-free are no fun dear Alamgir said Florence’s foreign threat least I am kind papaer Audiology sad silly stout mohab so making for whom there well nor it on my face as give and styrene veteran who tonight the hint my Friedler voice lost a fire plant or stole mine after a decent horse to mine a full of citron monkish for me hoist to roll Norville – nourishes dine fazer Troy Mirabelle labels IV site and software designer Foreman’s boy [Music] the song received includes all they failed enemies of Jewish people of course we’re ready talked about Hamas until who’s whose defeat Jews celebrate during Hanukkah Torquemada they had a Spanish Inquisition and of course Bible Khrushchev on the alleged author of the protocols of the Elders of Zion who the text that inspired a lot of violence against Jews so all these people end up on on Hamas tree but what’s interesting about this song is you know he’s saying Imus roll high at the end and usually a boy sings it longer but we short for time so it’s not as dramatic maybe you can show how you say it like probably then some sign of omens boy he throw will fight in any way so this line Armas roll high was not in the original document you see it like it will end on Herman’s boy on a month’s three but so it says to me when I showed him that text he says to me you know it doesn’t rhyme we have to have something that rhymes with anyway side his side so he just added a morale high by himself so I was against it because I believe this was going this goes against Soviet spirit of the song Soviet Jews would never sing a Mistral hi it was against the spirit of the material but every time we performed this this is when he got derivation so so I sold my soul to the commercial success and let him sing like that a year later I found the draft of that song I’m going to show it to you and those of you who read Yiddish the last line of the song which was probably cut out by sensors or by self censors who knows actually says I’m a troll hi so that told us one important lesson will to me humility but that’s one a separate story but to the project this is that an artist an artist gets another artist better than a historian yes an artist living even though they’re separated by time and the story of this song and how it was the cat does not end there because in 1968 Soviet ashame lon the Soviet Jewish monthly published a version of this song they took out a lot of things they took out pouring from it for example and a few and and most other things and the tune is also some random one not true not doesn’t quite fit and they also took out a Mistral high probably for the same reasons that I believe that it didn’t fit into that song nobody could say a morale high in the Soviet Union in 1968 so this song gives us a time capsule of what Soviet Jews did could and did sing during the war about the war very soon they were no longer able to do that but with that particular window it was possible the next piece that you got into here is actually not a song but an actual joke a joke recorded by a friend blushed in we heard earlier again in 1943 and it’s called the beard Hitler orders n the zanga shaft is Kapoor authors actually clapped aboard the honky Tonk from his shoes [Music] Sid our booth bag a person who is not a bleep elaborate in their tree team Perry on the equipment so they need Brutus weed Hitler’s mentioned your insignia the mids badly worn for dainty their dancer inion they wrote knock kneed her visits as I eat those organ of Hitler’s oil for mention highest in Pasquini a cos cos areum a burnished mention Qunari straightness given dr. suzanne bald over our soil is Etta fatter as Elaine over McCoy were happy but ha dry fedoras under to or behind gansan Arab d’Ivoire from the mid part of Anzhi quite a call music like Arab name and aboard only Burleson obstacle courses [Music] neither not Hitler but his neighbors – and firm or the reader strength on the hunt in their board by Hitler rotten genome and sidon hell houthis on those Ottoman guns nourish began under a donkey’s of a harsh and isn’t even mid board this is natira functional feel occurs embackment belt in the hand Oh pariah – abort affair integer Mordor well well well obviously came on it under weeds and excess metagraph Soviet Hitler your board need board the great Newton King birth dinettes mark is in death [Music] [Applause] the most optimistic the most humorous the funniest Yiddish songs celebrating Soviet victory in World War two appeared before the actual Soviet victory act actually happened and definitely with a while Jews were still losing the war against fascism well before for example then Hungarian Jews were rounded up to go to Auschwitz also at that time the scope of destruction of the Jewish communities in the Soviet Union and in Europe was not fully known and these songs celebrated at the end of the war and the end of the displacement or they hoped for it this function was to give hope rather than to celebrate the actual victory all hear their songs of the time including humorous ones call for the ultimate revenge on the German army they are not invested in the never again water which became a staple of the Holocaust education in the West since mayor Kahana used it in his book published in 1972 entitled never again a program for survival instead Soviet leaders songs proclaimed that the German army the fascists should be killed and punished then violence should never happen again of course not but only because all those who conceived such destruction or perform such destruction should be killed the story of revenge of unforgiveness is the ultimate feature of the Soviet leaders wartime culture and it didn’t fit with the memory of the Holocaust that developed in Israel and in the United States especially during the World War when Germany was once again part of a world economy and the Soviet Union was the war against it in 1949 the cabinet for Jewish culture was closed in 1950 my Seabury Gorski was arrested and only released in 1956 in the 50s it began that’s why the book never came out in the fifties it became dangerous to speak about Yiddish culture in public and no state funding was available of course to continue the research that they started in the forties the materials that they collected was seized and made secret was deposited to the first to the NKVD archive and then transferred to the manuscript section of the Ukrainian national library where it was became available to researchers in the 90s thanks to the work of militia Hawaa hawaai incas here as well who who first catalogued those materials and made them available for researchers like myself today we wanted to tell you about the songs not just to alert you to the entire layer of Yiddish speaking of culture of Yiddish speaking Jews that developed during World War two and which similarly to Jewish cultures of Vilna were so large in other places in Europe reflected a strong desire of Jews to fight against fascism to revenge the dead and to remember their loved ones we also wanted to owner the heroic people who collected and preserved these songs for us when they were arrested they believed that their collection was gone forever I spoke to the granddaughter of moisei Barry Gorski recently and she said to me one thing she remembers about her grandfather is that her grandmother his wife yelled at him all the time after he was released from prison 1956 because he spent every day every from from the morning to the very late night trying to sort his archive and she says to him she said to him she told me nobody will ever need it you’re wasting your time you’re wasting your health and this fight was son is a vivid memory that she has of her grandfather but hooked the grandmother his wife was wrong yes it is 70 years after the archive was closed but the songs did see the light of day and for that we’re grateful to be Rogowski and his colleagues for their work and to you for your attention tonight we will finish our part of this program with the song that was written in 1946 this song that was recorded by B regal ski team actually outside of the Soviet Union and just in a joint distribution in an in a DP camp and in in Germany and it tells it signals the return of Jewish humor of where it is supposed to be self-deprecating the song is talking about the life of Jews that disagree with one another and the life of Jews were – Jews have three opinions and also the time when Jews are making fun of Jewish organizations that are trying to help them such as Joint Distribution Committee and circle [Music] [Music] before before tomorrow it’s not a life she joined Molloy some revenue ergun significant aids again Zog needy asleep Rojas Versailles mittens parasol Lieber brooder Laura pitocin mere assertion Harper walking design a pianist Oh for not be showing all right on enjoyed their story Piazza uns get Anika and fair Navarro’s Misaki mrs. old main Tara’s s is okay Zoe needs ordinates is not good Fausto above her food soft note here is Laura Havarti Riyadh he Tahereh certificate no sir rain shine Azul vase mere showing wonderful for ligament I can need a mood ability a greenish dark sister bleep my name in the red only this rule won’t know given my need nor it being shown apples showing that with me is where designed Ino died he trails idea goodbye [Music] thank you soy cry lianca [Applause] okay doodle improvisation I don’t have translation okay the last song kills in really the last song for the record I was against it it’s a pouring song that says Happy New Year 1944 it translates it you know constraint so your man you know constraint so clogged you know constraint so your man give no constraints of clog you know super Haman on sur le bateau a they over a hundred very show in dr vada row over a hundred very show in the are my dear Reuter Hitler calls hell in order but nothing fall as often wavered in sinus but very tall as awful way when teams line a severe intro solemn freak nasty reveled limp I chew up sir law has been tight roll up sir losses Hitler loved in heat to help when there can on Scotian in tosses Hitler Larkin hit some help on air cannon Scotian him [Music] thank you very much it’s really important website to finish with daughters it’s a whole and what you saying [Applause] okay and I will do it all over again no it is my honor and pleasure to introduce our next presenters the David sneer historian who holds the position of Lewis singer chair in Jewish history and who’s also a department chair of Religious Studies and professor of history religious studies and Jewish Studies but you didn’t write that this University of Colorado Boulder but it’s good that I know that David is over the world’s leading scholar on Soviet Jewish history and culture he recently he first published a book on Soviet Irish writers writing in the 1930s then he published an award-winning book her called through Soviet Jewish eyes photography war and the Holocaust which changed the discussion in the field about the importance of visual culture in understanding the Soviet experience of the war and also brought to life the works of previously obscure photo journalists who actually documented the Holocaust I think the book is for sale after their show so I strongly recommend that you don’t know by heart please buy it and he is now writing a sequel to that book called grief the biography of a Holocaust photograph and it will appear shortly next year at Oxford University Press he is performing with Julie Eisenberg an American composer and performer hostess and an incredibly interesting and amazing artist she’s the founder of and a band leader of charming hostess and she coined the term okay nerdy and sexy call me girly says citation needed to describe the genre of music which spans the eclectic range of styles and her CDs are also for sale in the great hall and today they’re going to present to us the premiere right of the lineal Dottie’s work in cabaret of 1930s please welcome Julie Eisenberg and David [Applause] [Applause] talk amongst yourself not like I needed to give you an invitation this accordion player and pianist is named shook on a guy lets your hand [Applause] the Chi flow is so much better now I’m just messing with you I would like to do that sometimes [Music] [Music] and affiliate ah [Music] and just because she won in the work [Music] while there mention I mentioned it is EV s not in I’m guessin side-by-side but I’m shining so we’re gonna tell you a story in 30 minutes about a woman named Lynn Yale Dottie who was born in Amsterdam in 1912 and she grew up in a Jewish family sort of a middle lower middle-class Jewish family whose grandmother spoke Yiddish but whose father really didn’t want her to be speaking Yiddish in the home and she insisted on her daughter being Dutch but Rebecca as she was known at the time Orlean she as her mother fondly called her snuck out to Zionist meetings in her teenage years and she snuck out on her lunch breaks when she was working in the factory to go train in dancing and so what you have here is her in a revue in 1934 dancing with a chorus line and I actually don’t know which one she is and I actually asked her daughter do you know which one she isn’t she said I have no idea so that’s the point of A Chorus Line right to have everybody blend into the background so that the feature can be up front but this was not really compelling work for her and so she decided that she would start learning about Jewish dance and so she was engaged with a number of people from the Vilna Troopa who had settled in amsterdam and she learned from them about interwar yiddish art theater and yiddish cabaret or Clank winced as it’s called and she sort of created the caricatures of biblical characters so here you have the snore care or the beggar woman you have Rebecca at the well this is a famous story from from the Bible Rebecca and here’s her bucket you draw water from and she’s got her keys I don’t know what the keys are doing there but an interesting twist on this performance was the idea of cross dressing so cross dressing with in Yiddish culture was fairly common at this time as Jews are moving from east to west there starts to be a lot of play around gender and like as place gender displacement starts to happen a lot – so we’re seeing this like Pepe Lippmann is a famous singer that’s also doing stuff like this Molly pecan probably seen her movies so that’s something she’s part of a larger larger – motion that is happening at this time so um we’re gonna sing so she’s also doing a lot of play with kind of moving back and forth within religious culture and radical culture so she’s starting to get politically radicalized but she’s still singing music from the Yiddish canon that is religious or cousin of Hasidic canon and this is one of the songs we’re gonna be singing right now is a song that kind of valorizes labor and it’s about the importance of labor specifically the labor of a hasn’t the labor of a cantor like what is the work of a cantor so within Judaism we actually also have a lot of that so like kena homer during the Yom Kippur service we talk about labor and the importance of labor and it’s it’s like it’s religious value so this is kind of both part of that tradition and also in resistance to it hasn’t on Shabbos since becoming a husband in shtetl turned up at night Jarvis forgot that my travels so dominant no ifs Jarvis so Dominic no Chavez hey hey hey so da van hanoi shy sending human hair in the dry since the balla button for them Stella hey hey hey hey Naresh Snider Oh on a narrow kovalchik Canaan Arab allegory hope there’s natural ah hey hey ho dare get up and boy hot air guitar ha man [Music] as Ivy Maggie’s mitten fotomat see with Nautilus stock soy hot air guitar [Music] Ruthy of the Kowalczyk I’m his son whiny son [Music] SIV make you memorize a pretty classic fetch [Music] [Applause] look after Donegal chicken [Music] [Music] so Lin became a member of the Communist Party in 1936 because of a boyfriend but also it was in the context of the Spanish Civil War that was about to break out in Spain and go figure little did you know it’s in England Spanish Civil War – but she became a communist and was also part of this leftist scene in Amsterdam and so the left is seen also put on these cabarets and these were multicultural cabarets in which she performed the Jewish Act so you can see here it’s uh you have an Indonesian performer you have a Russian performer and she is actually doing what’s called Eastern Jewish performance so then she meets the man she would spend the rest of her life with Aberhart ravely who’s pictured here at the piano he is a German not Jew who is a go figure you can have those on stage – who is a trained pianist and got his PhD in in musicology but he ends up leaving Germany in 1936 to follow his PhD adviser who was Jewish and who ended up settling in in the Netherlands and so he moves to the Netherlands and ends up meeting Lynn in a sort of recalling a sort of flophouse in The Hague in 1937 and he encourages her to give up her chorus line dancing and actually break out with her solo show of doing just Eastern European Jewish music and so she does and so she performed the song that we just sang a has enough Shabbos so in Dutch the G is pronounced huh and what we’re gonna sing now is the next song that’s in circles called Robbo sire how the Tsar drinks his tea and this you want to introduce the lead okay so the there is ended an indigenous tradition in German music called a spot lead or a satiric song which comes from the 1848 revolution going way back to the 19th century um and Girish also has an indigenous tradition of sort of satiric songs poking fun at closets sometimes rabbis or Cantor’s in this case black case that’s our and in this case butts are yes when we’re starting to think about like what is anti-fascist music and you’re starting to look within yesh culture for that you’re seeing the roots of it with these with these old songs so you get to repurpose these songs about the Tsar are amazingly useful and we need to tell them about their part you guys have a part everyone has a part to play [Music] no I’m serious you really do okay so your part is the otai section [Music] you’re so ready now who wants to come up anyone no good see that they there’s three different verses so the first verse is the Tsar how does the Tsar drink his tea and you can see the translation it’s basically this is basic how a Jew a poured you would have fantasized about living in the capital and it’s probably made up I don’t think those are actually drank the tea with the from a pile of sugar but and shot then ate potatoes with a soldier shooting them through a wall of butter and he did probably everyone did it that way Oh Cyrus I feel like a pig if we were happy spring– no and fit me rather up – Takashi be a soy drink there Kaiser [Music] [Music] [Music] so I think there Kaiser what the soil – I think they’re kinda [Music] rubble equal except this plague if I was a district and fed me off my next Akasha the soy Esther Kaiser boom yeah [Music] [Music] beside Ramos [Music] all men [Music] let’s shine big Frank’s when Frank joined Frank and fit me round off my legs – I vias I so she doesn’t get to perform publicly for very long because the Germans invade the Netherlands made 1940 and so at that point she is no longer able to perform publicly she gives dance lessons to support herself and then in 1942 he because remember he’s a German citizen he gets a draft notice for the Vermont and she gets a t portation notice – Wester bork and then on we know now to Auschwitz or Sobibor so neither of them want to answer these notices so they go into hiding and they go into hiding and they actually end up giving illegal house concerts and what Lin’s daughter told me Yalda was that the Nazis sort of had official concerts with the sort of public performance but the fryi cousteau not which is the sort of underground artists organization organized these underground concerts that actually were and that people would actually buy tickets for the official concerts and then not go and people would be performing for an empty hall and nobody likes to perform for an empty hall so this is word up so this is a concert program that I found in her archive of an illegal concert that they gave so this is the building that they hid out in it’s this is another archival photograph but they end up getting betrayed by one of the neighbors in July 1944 so they were so close but basically the Netherlands is one of the last countries to be liberated May 1945 so that’s very late so probably they would have had a whole nother year to sort of live in hiding um but they get betrayed in the same summer as and Frank and they actually all meet each other at Wester bork which is where she her sister her brother her mother and her father and Anne Maho Otto and Edith end up investor vork and they all end up on the last train to Auschwitz September 3rd 1944 he ends up escaping with their daughter who was born during the war into hiding again so he doesn’t end up getting sent to a concentration camp and he actually would have been probably killed on the spot because he was considered a traitor to the German army so she survives Auschwitz and she survives bergen-belsen and she actually enters her sister who was a nurse actually nursed and and Marco Frank from typhus and they ended up not surviving typhus and she did survive typhus and her sister ended up telling otto Frank after the war about the fate of his daughters so this is an early post-war picture and we know it’s post-war because she’s got the mark of Auschwitz on her arm but she takes one summer just one summer to sort of recover her body and so she starts singing again on stage and she’s always got her husband Abraham at the piano and she starts singing again summer 45 late summer 45 and she ends up touring through the Scandinavian countries through DP camps so she goes to Copenhagen Copenhagen Stockholm Helsinki and then she ends up in Berlin at the displaced persons camp called schlock tansy and this was the theater at schlock tunes a bad era or on the way and this is a concert program of their show and here she is with a mask and that was pretty common in this period to be performing with these sort of I guess I want to call them expressionist masks but this is the post-war period and I kind of feel like this this is her sort of ghostly presence with whom she’s dancing on stage she ends up traveling through the Communist world so the displaced persons camp was closed in 1948 and we’re remember where Rea billing is from he’s from Germany but specifically he was from Berlin and so he still has family and so they’re going to visit his family and his family were Nazis so this is a Ashwood survivor going to stay at her in nazi in-laws house so in 1948 the place that she had been performing the displaced persons camp gets closed down because the United States is basically done supporting displaced persons in Berlin and so she has to find a new place to perform and so she ends up performing for the first time an ace it explicitly communist context with the quota bunt which is operating in East Berlin under Soviet authorities and she ends up getting an invitation to travel through communist newly communist Eastern Europe so this is a program a poster I should say from her concert in where we were in Wood Warsaw excuse me but what’s important about this is she and Abraham filling and Zi GaN and Schumacher for those of you who know who they are they’re very famous Yiddish comedians have second billing so she was that important in the post-war period so she goes to Prague which is also newly communist and there she meets the sort of like I want to call them the sort of Godfather of global communism Paul Robeson I’ve never used that word in public before but probably sticks with him but you can see he’s he’s like six five and she’s like five two so you can see that he’s looming over her but they end up being on a radio program together and that’s where we got the title for the program art is my weapon and so they both talked about art as their collective weapon she on behalf of Jews he on behalf of African Americans so then they end up making the really hard decision to move from Amsterdam back to his hometown of Berlin but they choose East Berlin because they’re both communists and so he actually has a job with the music journal the state music journal on because all culture in the communist countries is funded and produced by the state what’s she gonna do sort of not play lonely housewife so she ends up getting a gig teaching Germans folk dancing so this is a picture of her again I’m like this popped out in the archives like I kind of I think I made it actually like a scream in this very very quiet German reading room for those of you who ever worked in German reuse it’s quiet and this is not appropriate behavior German reading room but this picture would probably make any of you like what the hell is going on here what turns out is she was actually safely reintroducing Germans in the East to their own folk traditions because Nazis had kind of tainted German folk culture and so she was able to sort of reintroduce that because she kind of had permission because she’s a Jewish ash whit’s survivor which makes her basically golden in communist East Germany alright so she’s gonna be teaching German folk dancing but she probably doesn’t want to do that for a living so she actually ends up singing in performing as well so her first concert in East Germany is actually at a Cristal knock commemoration November 9th which is the date of cristinaw which was in 1938 and it’s when the Nazis had a major pogrom against the German Jewish population and businesses and East Germany is commemorating cristal knocked every year basically since 1945 when the Soviet Army liberated East Germany but that’s probably surprising to you it was surprising to me that East Germany actually maintained a specifically Jewish memory but they framed it in anti-fascist terms so here she is on the concert program singing the two classics sort of what I’m calling them to her anti-fascist Canon so she’s saying s Brent or it is burning more – hi Gilbert six famous 1938 song although it’s generally Mis attributed to being a ghetto song from 1942 and joking it came or never say and that became a sort of I’d like to think of it as the sort of European Jewish national anthem before Hatikvah the Israeli national anthems sort of pushed it aside globally but amongst bundes if we sang tonight Dogen it came up but if there any Buddhist in the audience you would presumably rise and it’s it’s this is a sort of very powerful moment and sort of we were like what’s going on here but it was it’s very meaningful still to this day but we’re talking about humor and satire but I wanted to show you this because this is an in particular of how important christina was to the state the East German Jewish communities convinced the government to actually produce a commemorative postage stamp which is the government’s way of saying this is an important holiday this is the first country in the world to the best of my knowledge to ever produce a postage stamp for Kristallnacht Israel had did not do it for its this is the 25th anniversary 1963 Israel did not do it and West Germany did not do it until 1988 for the fiftieth anniversary so she had this encounter once with the person who is going to help move us into the sort of closing stage of what we are of our narration okay so she becomes part of this kind of cultural elite of East Germany and there’s actually a lot of Jews and important Jewish composers that are a part of that in the post-war period saluting paul deschile but right now we’re gonna sing a song by Hunts Eisler so in the States he’s pretty famous for doing a lot of film scores for up like Hollywood film scores because during the war he was here in California but then he was exiled so exiled his second exile is from here because he fell under he the house of unamerican activities decided that he was the Karl Marx of music and his sister testified against him right that’s really a really bad Hugh Act story that’s a bad Quebec story there’s not that many good ones but he’s so he went back to East Germany he went back to Germany which at that point was East Germany he’s very famous for his collaborations with Berthold Brecht this is one of them actually this is to haul ski yeah this is this is a talk to call ski but he’s very famous for his work with breath also he studied under Sternberg comfortable with twelve-tone but also with cabaret and cabaret and jazz forms and this is from an agitprop play I believe it’s supposed to be funny because that’s not really done [Music] much less rise for me than the rice will then be even cheaper but what is rice actually I only know its price when winter comes the workers on all of the [Music] these cotton spinning mounds they pay to my wages watch man take too much Peter that’s what makes them so expense for the feeling event under men are needed while the cooks can make the food cheaper but those who needed me few men around here anyway I don’t know god only knows what a man is I only know his price give it up for Julie Eisenberg [Applause] so Lynn yell dotty ends up becoming the most well known East German Yiddish singer period so this is a concert program at the up at the top and she’s also the most visible ash whit’s survivor and she’s a Jewish ash wit survivor to be an Auschwitz survivor in East Germany does not necessarily mark you as Jewish because it considered itself a communist country and communists were also incarcerated in Auschwitz so this is a from 1960 this is her at a program and you can see the photograph of the the ramp at Auschwitz so she takes her Yiddish program and puts it in the service of the state and we were talking a little bit earlier about what happens when anti-fascist music gets put in service of power and so East Germany ends up using this couple as the sort of diplomatic cultural cultural diplomats so they travel first to Indonesia where she’s singing in Yiddish to Indonesian rice farmers in 1965 no joke it’s right it’s it’s food it’s a grain it comes out of the ground but they and they spent a lot of time with the Indonesian Communist Party which one month after they were there ended up there was a military coup and basically all of their friends who who had it hosted them they were there for a whole month they were all murdered half a million people died in that coup so then they travel to North Korea and they perform in for North Korean Industrial Workers and she performs s Brent which the Chinese also goes to China which I don’t have an image from China to put to show you but the Chinese government are worried that in that they don’t want her to sing a sprint it’s burning because they’re worried it’s going to conjure up images of a nuclear catastrophe so she’s like I’m gonna sing it anyway so she goes back to East Germany because the Asian Cajun communist countries no longer really wants to have European communism in their backyard especially after Mao inaugurates his Cultural Revolution so she ends up staying in the East Germany and she works in these hootenannies so she worked with Western leftists to import the form of the hootenanny which is sort of folk music form that dissolves the boundary between audience and performer so you can see her doing a hootenanny here and here she’s actually one of the cofounders of a festival of political song which was an international gathering of leftist musicians from around the world from 1970 until 1991 that brought and the so she met lots of colleagues from around the world who ended up then hosting the couple in the 70s and 80s Thank You Julia and so in that in the 1980s she’s not diagnosed with with breast cancer and so she she kind of sees that her life is coming to an end and so she actually ends up adding a song to her repertoire which I had not seen before until the 1980s and it’s this song here which is actually the oldest Yiddish song that we are performing for you tonight so it’s called the Millers tears it’s from 1899 and it speaks about loss and a loss of a home and you can see the English on the right and this is going to be our final song if you’re someone who likes to sing along we invite you to do that and if you’re someone that likes to play a percussion part I would like you to do that if you want to I’m going to teach to you right now onegai people joking a guy and will be in the hallway afterwards for comments questions conversation and signing right books cds [Music] before you’re hurtin sanding for heard or bearded rains Hyorin games [Music] you’ve been showing us when Christ grow their address the Horten games we’ve been showing our heads or Hogan that means for your Hogan – door from under me deirdre handsy Gordon Ganges horn an effing all she did at the crayons we ordered gay NZ no Nanette or Nazi vilifying let me join him you’ve been showing all take been shortened meet here at the dragons a here your nankai hands nice mistaken toys hey hey dude a Death Ray hands [Music] [Applause] [Music] that’s David’s near people shell Koenig I thank you [Applause]

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