Rise of nationalism in Europe | Wikipedia audio article

Rise of nationalism in Europe | Wikipedia audio article


Nationalism is the ideological basis for the
development of the modern nation-state. According to Leon Baradat, nationalism “calls on people
to identify with the interests of their national group and to support the creation of a state
– a nation-state – to support those interests.” It was an important factor in the development
of Europe. In the 19th century, a wave of romantic nationalism swept the European continent,
transforming its countries. Some newly formed countries, such as Germany and Italy were
formed by uniting various regional states with a common “national identity”. Others,
such as Greece, Serbia, Poland, Romania and Bulgaria, were formed by uprisings against
the Ottoman Empire and Russia. Nationalism was the ideological impetus that, over the
century, transformed Europe. Rule by monarchies and foreign control of territory was replaced
by self-determination and newly formed national governments.
The French Revolution initiated the movement toward the modern nation-state and also played
a key role in the birth of nationalism across Europe where radical intellectuals were influenced
by Napoleon and the Napoleonic Code, an instrument for the political transformation of Europe.
“Its twin ideological goals, nationalism and democracy, were given substance and form during
the tumultuous events beginning at the end of the eighteenth century.” Revolutionary
armies carried the slogan of “liberty, equality and brotherhood” and ideas of liberalism and
national self-determinism. National awakening also grew out of an intellectual reaction
to the Enlightenment that emphasized national identity and developed a romantic view of
cultural self-expression through nationhood. The key exponent of the modern idea of the
nation-state was the German G. W. Friedrich Hegel. He argued that a sense of nationality
was the cement that held modern societies together in the age when dynastic and religious
allegiance was in decline. In 1815, at the end of the Napoleonic wars, the major powers
of Europe tried to restore the old dynastic system as far as possible, ignoring the principle
of nationality in favour of “legitimism”, the assertion of traditional claims to royal
authority. With most of Europe’s peoples still loyal to their local province or city, nationalism
was confined to small groups of intellectuals and political radicals. Furthermore, political
repression, symbolized by the Carlsbad Decrees published in Austria in 1819, pushed nationalist
agitation underground.==Revolutions==
1789, French Revolution 1804–15, Serbian Revolution against the
Ottoman Empire 1814, Norwegian independence attempt against
Denmark-Norway and future Sweden & Norway, aftermath of the Napoleonic Wars (including
War on independence) 1815, Congress of Vienna
1821-29, Greek War of Independence against the Ottoman Empire
1830, Croatian national revival 1830-31, Belgian Revolution
1830-31, Revolution in Poland and Lithuania 1846, Uprising in Greater Poland
1848, Nationalist revolts in Hungary, Italy and Germany (including Polish revolt in Greater
Poland) 1859, Romania unified
1859-61, Italy unified 1863, Polish national revolt
1866-71, Otto Von Bismarck unifies Germany 1867, Hungary granted autonomy
1867, Irish Fenian uprising 1878, Congress of Berlin: Serbia, Romania
and Montenegro granted independence, and Bulgaria became autonomous, after the Russo-Turkish
War (1877–1878). 1905, Slav nationalism gathers force in the
Habsburg and Ottoman Empire 1905, Norway becomes fully independent from
United Kingdoms of Sweden and Norway 1908, Bulgaria becomes independent
1912, Albanian national awakening Albania becomes independent.
1916, Irish Republican Brotherhood and Volunteers, Easter Rising.
1923, Turkish War of Independence resulted in the abolition of monarchy in 1922 and the
establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923==The struggle for independence==A strong resentment of what came to be regarded
as foreign rule began to develop. In Ireland, Italy, Belgium, Greece, Poland, Hungary,and
Norway local hostility to alien dynastic authority started to take the form of nationalist agitation.
The first revolt in the Ottoman Empire to acquire a national character was the Serbian
Revolution (1804–17), which was the culmination of the Serbian renaissance which had begun
in Habsburg territory, in Sremski Karlovci. The eight-year Greek War of Independence (1821–29)
against Ottoman rule led to an independent Greek state, although with major political
influence of the great powers. The Belgian Revolution (1830–31) led to the recognition
of independence from the Netherlands in 1839. Over the next two decades nationalism developed
a more powerful voice, spurred by nationalist writers championing the cause of self-determination.
The Poles attempted twice to overthrow Russian rule in 1831 and 1846. In 1848, revolutions
broke out across Europe, sparked by severe famine and economic crisis and mounting popular
demand for political change. In Italy, Giuseppe Mazzini used the opportunity to encourage
a war mission: “A people destined to achieve great things for the welfare of humanity must
one day or other be constituted a nation”. In Hungary, Lajos Kossuth led a national revolt
against Austrian rule; in Transylvania, Avram Iancu led successful revolts in 1846. The
1848 crisis had given nationalism its first full public airing, and in the thirty years
that followed no fewer than seven new national states were created in Europe. This was partly
the result of the recognition by conservative forces that the old order could not continue
in its existing form. Conservative reformers such as Cavour and Bismarck made common cause
with liberal political modernizers to create a consensus for the creation of conservative
nation-states in Italy and Germany. In the Habsburg Monarchy a compromise was reached
with Hungarian nationalists in 1867 granting them virtual independence. Native history
and culture were rediscovered and appropriated for the national struggle. Following a conflict
between Russia and Turkey, the Great Powers met at Berlin in 1878 and granted independence
to Romania, Serbia and Montenegro and a limited autonomy to Bulgaria.==Nationalism’s growth and export==The invention of a symbolic national identity
became the concern of racial, ethnic or linguistic groups throughout Europe as they struggled
to come to terms with the rise of mass politics, the decline of the traditional social elites,
popular discrimination and xenophobia. Within the Habsburg empire the different peoples
developed a more mass-based, violent and exclusive form of nationalism. This developed even among
the Germans and Magyars, who actually benefited from the power-structure of the empire. On
the European periphery, especially in Ireland and Norway, campaigns for national independence
became more strident. In 1905, Norway won independence from Sweden, but attempts to
grant Ireland the kind of autonomy enjoyed by Hungary foundered on the national divisions
on the island between the Catholic and Protestant populations. The Polish attempts to win independence
from Russia had previously proved to be unsuccessful, with Poland being the only country in Europe
whose autonomy was gradually limited rather than expanded throughout the 19th century,
as a punishment for the failed uprisings; in 1831 Poland lost its status as a formally
independent state and was merged into Russia as a real union country and in 1867 she became
nothing more than just another Russian province. Faced with internal and external resistance
to assimilation, as well as increased xenophobic anti-Semitism, radical demands began to develop
among the stateless Jewish population of eastern and central Europe for their own national
home and refuge. In 1897, inspired by the Hungarian-born Jewish nationalist Theodor
Herzl, the First Zionist Congress was held in Basle, and declared their national ‘home’
should be in Palestine. By the end of the period, the ideals of European nationalism
had been exported worldwide and were now beginning to develop, and both compete and threaten
the empires ruled by colonial European nation-states.==
Revolutionary organizations==Serb revolutionary organizations
Greek revolutionary organizations Albanian revolutionary organizations
Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization==References====See also==Communitarianism
Cultural identity Expansionism
Identity politics Intercultural competence
Irish nationalism National flag
National liberation movements National personification
National romanticism Society of the United Irishmen

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