Reframing Racial Justice

Reframing Racial Justice


Thank you all for having me today I’d first
like to start by thanking doctors A.J. Walton and Eboni Zamani-Gallaher for
welcoming me and also Dean Anderson, the Office of the Provost and the Office of Community College Research
and Leadership. Let me go ahead and
pull of the Power Point here. So my talk today is called Reframing
Racial Justice: A discussion on Plantation Politics, Neoracism, and
Critical Race Tempered Radicalism. As I just said My name is Dian Squir, I use he/ him/his pronouns and I’m a visiting assistant
professor at Iowa State University and the student affairs program. Over the past couple months a few
impactful albums have dropped Solange’s A Seat at the Table and Common’s
Black America Again. In a song called Weary Solange might have brought to the fore
the way many people feel after waking up on November ninth. She sings, ” I’m
weary of the way of the world Be weary of the ways of the world I’m weary of the ways
of the world I’m gonna look for my body yeah I’ll be back real soon But you know
that a king is only a man With flesh and bones, he bleeds just like you
do He said ‘Where does that leave you And do you belong?’ I do I do. Along with this
album of empowerment blackness and womanhood Solange reveals a tiredness
with the state of anti-black racism and the place of black people in a racial
hierarchy particularly as no justice has been served for the killings of black
people across the nation. She searches for a place in the world and implores us to
critically examine how the world and society works to maintain white supremacy.
Ultimately she recalls to a time of being figuratively
asked if she belongs and she responds I do I do. I just want to
say that you do, you do belong and I see you and we all will overcome and
we must resist. The work of racial justice is ongoing. The last twenty months have revealed to us
how much work we still have to do, who we can trust to do the work with us, and those
who will need to reach out even harder to. It’s also revealed to us the many ways
in which how we understood race and racism has changed over time in
order to maintain the status quo under the guise of colorblindness,
economics, and a need for law and order. Although I’m not a significant scholar of
political philosophy myself, I would also say that fascism has reasserted itself in
a more dominant and visible way recently. And unfortunately various iterations
are creeping up in different ways. We must resist. Today I hope to give us some new language
to think about racial justice on our college campuses. We need new
ways to view the oppression and marginalization of people of color at our
universities. Then we need to find ways to transfer this new knowledge into action.
I have renewed dedication to practice and I’ve been burned doing it but it’s
necessary work. I’m not entirely sure that these are complete lenses from
which to view our work but I do think that they can be revealing
in helping us to pursue justice. I’m currently developing, supplementing, and
mulling over these frames and others as I decide for
myself what I’m going to do with my work. Oops, too far. I want to talk about three frameworks
from which I try to be my work and I’ll start at a bit theoretical and
move into a more practice ready framework that spans three different areas
of higher education that I believe are relevant to the University of
Illinois and to many of our campuses. The first is a framework I call plantation
politics, stemming from some of the work that I’m doing with Dr Frank to it
at the University of Denver and Dr Bianca Williams at the University
of Colorado Boulder and also joining our project is Dr Lori Patton
Davis who will be with you in the spring. Plantation politics provides
the opportunity to reveal parallel, organizational, and cultural norms
between contemporary higher education institutions and slavery plantations.
This unfolding framework is still under construction and
to many it’s scary and dangerous. And scary and
dangerous to those in power and those entrenched in that snares
because it is both tacit and ignored. It’s theoretically evolving and
the material reality affects the daily lives of students, faculty, staff, and
administrators on our campuses every day. As we know plantations and
slavery were formed after and due to a colonial imperialist need for
land, religious superiority, and economic power the vestiges of those
mindsets still exist today in the many Neo’s; neoliberalism, neoconservativism, neocolonialism, and neofascism that have
transformed across time and continue to influence policy, behavior, and
culture. But their line in each as it relates
to higher education is in the many ways in which universities reach beyond borders
and engage in economic globalization and imperialism. The one area that I think
is most salient at this moment is the increasing reaction to globalization
or the internationalization of higher education are particularly concerned with
the increase of international students on college campuses and the purposes of those
increases. I posit that the increase is due to a nuance of neoliberalism in higher
education that commodifies international bodies of color in order to produce and
reproduce an academic capitalist knowledge regime. As a result, we as institution
engage in what Lee and Rice call neo racism an analysis of near race and racism
may help us to move toward the Reagan administration of international students
particularly at large institutions such as are vanishing appearing in my campus
at Iowa State University in the wake of ongoing scapegoating analysis of treatment
of this group is of the utmost importance. Finally I’d like to think about
the ways that students faculty and staff are stunted in our
ability to affect campus change I posit that campuses are plantations. Posit that groups of students are utilized
for economic gain at the sake of their humanity and now we have to engage in
campus change however there are fissures in our community students say the faculty
of and staff of color are not doing enough they see as the sellouts they call our
chief diversity officer is worthless and that they’re working for
the man I like to think a little bit more critically about these
relationships by engaging in what I and my colleague Dr Veronica Jones at
the University of Texas Antonio called critical race tempered radicalism they
were critical race analysis of the ways that white supremacy acts on various
people were able to better move the racial remove the racial wedge that is being
placed in between students faculty and staff and administrators and
that’s forcing us to make races and classes assumptions about communities of
color on the campuses in which they engage racial justice change so
it’s good to get started. Let me take a little drink here. So I reference comments album and
on his latest album in a song called Black America again he says I know that
black lives matter and they matter to us these are the things we’ve got to discuss
the new plantation mass incarceration instead of educate they’d rather convict
the kids as dirty as the water and Flint the system is I’m sorry I’m
not a great rapper or singer. So in this line he connects education and the plantation the new plantation
in a political race where white people overwhelmingly elected
a racist sexist in a phobic able this homophobic neo con president elect
it’s hard to not draw the same line. This race was one of the intersections
raise awareness and education. In the newest edition of critical race
theory in education geared Albert Duncan writes quote contemporary forms of racial
oppression and inequality are expressions of chronic discourses that
Inform ontological blackness or the blackness that whiteness created as
Western civilization began to emerge as a prominent force in the world a locker
in Islam rejects the contemporary contemporaneous existence of object and
subject and they were. Therefore places the object in another
time that is to say that black people are seen understood and treated by
others as existing in a space that is not contemporary but
rather situated in material and non-material realities of time and place
as originally defined by their captors centuries ago in essence black people
are seen as savage and non-human or quote having a debilitated mental
capacity as a result the policies programs are realities of today’s
white supremacist society act and reproduce in accordance to
the races of history of another perhaps what we might call a single logic
longitudinal racial formation project. Or maybe this concept of a lack of them is
not new to anthropology Duncan brings this theory in concept to the educational fold
to provide us with an apt language to explore the phenomenon more clearly
if the goal of revealing and critiquing the acronym is to bring into
better alignment time and place or CO evaluate this in the project of a plan
and the project of a plantation politic is to find the ways in which the
organization of a plantation society for all its economic religious and social
implications continues to inform the ways in which higher education as a system
perpetuates white supremacy and racial hierarchy’s they’re utilizing the critical
race ten and up to counter narrative and storytelling Duncan posits that we
bring into alignment space and time and move towards liberation for black people
I want to begin to define the plantation politic as a frame as a framework for
exploring these parallel structures explicate application of this theory to
a set of contemporary campus realities and then have you walk into need to make
these connections in your departments and that’s what those little
cards are going to be for so we’re going to do some
some group work today so I’m going to attempt to provide you
a broadly stroked explanation of the model and some model for modern formations of
higher education through the discussion of slave codes which are the main legal
doctrine that held slavery in place and it’s linked to modern day
neo liberal university. Formations. So projects such as this allows one to
begin to paint parallels between time and place and eliminate the ways
that alacrity is in works to make normal the dehumanization of black
people in modern time it also allows us to disentangle historical underpinnings
from modern organizing structures in order to reconstruct more equitable systems
Craig Stephen Wilder in Ebony and Ivory provides us with an extensive
history of the ways that higher education were quite literally built on
the backs of native peoples and black slaves during the sixteen hundreds
this book should be required reading for all students Wilder writes that quote colleges were imperial instruments akin
to our Marines and forts a part of the colonial Garrison with the specific
responsibilities to train ministers and missionaries convert indigenous peoples
and soften culture resistance and extend European rule over over four
nations the project of white supremacy in this country and globally was born out
of clear colonial competition between Europe nations European nation states
in order to extend religious rule and build economy the plantation as
a socialist of social system as defined by Thomas trader at is defined as
an orderly and systematic social unit composed of identifiable
interdependent parts and social processes developed
from economic cultural and political necessity as defined by multiple
waves of colonial rulers slave plantations burgeon to maintain colonial dominance
at the sake of black human hood and body the social system perpetuated for
decades may be defined as the origin of race relations in the United States
including white supremacy in a racial conflict a white upper
class racial segregation and the institutionalized racial racial norms
that exist in higher education today. So the slide has a lot of words on it but
it defines the structural elements and the process through elementary other
exist in and on slave plantations and a little bit of a definition of what
they are so I’m not going to fully the. Explicate them all for you but
I’ll read them out loud so understanding the organization of
plantations involves understanding the nine structure elements and
the six processional elements so over here on the left you’ll see knowledge
are these are the beliefs of what are thought to be true sentiment or the
expressive feelings between two people. Goals relate to the objective of slavery
norms are the rules that govern in control behavior status are the different
positions within the social units and this one is particularly important to
look at when we think about laying this framework over our higher education and so
we can think about the various people who have power over others and the roles that
they play rank or the arrangement of that power into the social hierarchy
power the capacity control people saying. Given based on conformity or
nonconformity do certain rules and facility which are the different
technologies of dominations or resources that help you obtain and. The way we get there is there
communication boundary maintenance which is the attempt to maintain
a system system link with linkages or the way we link to other forms of control
so might link slaves to police control for instance socialization or
the process by which we. Set cultural norms social control or
the way the deviancy is eliminated or reduced or rendered harmless so
this is particularly apt to think about when we think about student activism and
institutionalization or the processes through which organizations
are made stable predictable. And persistent. So during argued that slate
plantations are characterized by the import of slaves and control by whites forced exploitation of labor resulting
in acquired wealth power profit and prestigious slaves of chattel property
a social caste system with little upward mobility racially stratified
divisions of labor with whites at the top. And blacks at the bottom a strict system
of governance employing control mechanisms slave and non slave subsystems represented
by emerging social institutions such as family economy educational
politics and religion and a structure that required continual
adaptation to internal and external forces the parallels
are incriminatory and it’s clear that slave plantation politics
can serve as an apt framework in which to view the university so if we look at
campus environments the lens of Durant’s plantations they may help us to better
understand the ways in slave Africans and sleep intuitions were fundamental to
the creation of university campuses how the exploitation of
black people’s physical and emotional labor continues to be central to
the economic workings of universities and how the vestiges of plantation culture and life influence modern university culture
climate and structures of power. Using the framework are able to examine
the interactions between institutional leaders and campus protesters
such as student faculty and staff in order to understand
the power differentials embedded in these interactions we can explore how
the technologies used to create plantation life are similar to those technologies
used to saying to sustain higher education institutions in the ways these work
to reproduce racial inequalities and hostile racial environments that give rise
to campus rebellions finally we can better understand how Point control mechanisms
that seek for press campus rebellions may reinforce white supremacy limit freedoms
and continue to oppress black lives. Well plantation life has
been vigorously studied for its heterogeneity of system
determined by geography and crop individual slave owner in time
there are broad commonalities and trends much as there are broad
commonalities characteristics and movements and today’s higher ed
system the nuance of place time and purpose opens up interstices for
future exploration. But per broad example the framework
I want to share one in particular that is called the oxy moronic social
existence of whites or neo liberalism. As the new slave code. Beverly John exploring the social
psychology of slaveholders by examining what she calls
the oxymoronic social existence of whites throughout history white people created
a hedge of Monica understanding of quote the power of the slave holding planter
class to construct reality in a fashion that justified their every action. Some kind of laying it out here there’s
a lot to read but maybe just listen. Through these had demonic understanding
Sauber their inherent contradictions or the oxymoronic social realities for
instance slaves are seen as non-human savages and yet made to take care of
children and homes slaves are also seen as having a quote debilitated mental capacity
if there is much research which proves that slaves work towards their liberation
constantly essentially there was a disconnect between the reality of white
life and the notions of human head that whites created for black people in
order to maintain order the authors of law created slave codes to maintain
that order and punish any dissenters. The name of the game was white supremacy
the rules were slave codes and the gameboard was the plantation through
this lens one may examine today’s contradictions in diversity work often
shaped by neo liberal logics and actions that simultaneously dehumanize and
provide moderated space for black people to engage and
educational enterprise today’s game is the commodification of bodies of color
for economic gain the rules are neoliberal diversity rhetoric and the game
board is your college or university. When slavery was headed toward its formal
and somewhat religious leaders publicly wanted to free blacks however there was
a realization that freeing black people gives them potential power equal to
whites now they thought the only thing that separated blacks and
whites was skin color. But that that wasn’t good so
at the same time whites needed blacks in order to run their plantations
ultimately blacks couldn’t be free or white people would go broke so
how can they do both they. Asked if we watched thirteenth on Netflix
you can see our shadow slavery has been redesigned to the prison industrial
complex to maintain aspects of our economy and we can also apply the same logic to
today’s economy and illuminate the ways that these parallels exist so we may
recognize many neoliberal contradictions in today’s colleges but they wouldn’t
call them that Ford four centuries ago in today’s new liberal organizing of higher
education we might identify institutional maneuvers that do just enough to keep
black students here on our campuses and subdue activists Newmans while at the same
time dehumanizing them these potential dehumanization include commodifying
their bodies and marketing booklets and other visible recruitment materials
knowing well that students are looking for diverse campus contacts in their college
choice processes utilizing numerical statistics to look good in campus raking
booklets in or do increasing good pool bust good publicity for those high
numbers and utilizing bodies of color for economic gain Visa V. tuition dollars and
a growing lead diverse economy. These are some of the economic drivers
that require universities to continue to engage in a double down of
the commodification of bodies of color at the same time we need allies terms
which hearken to an alacrity istic understanding of black people such
as at risk unprepared remedial along with other social stereotypes
of black people such as dangerous we also treat black students faculty and
staff as less of them and without respect we marginalize
them overtax them showcase then in these few comparisons we begin to see
how white mindsets about black people and they want to rectify this reality by some
is reinforced in reified In can’t this action put simply white people who run our
universities need black people to attend their universities in order to stay open
however that doesn’t remove the white the mindset with which white people
think about and treat black people and while some people would have liked to free
slaves or give black people humanizing education neoliberal action and
policy or slave codes work to can. Two newly commodify bodies and
qual controversy. Slave codes were laws enacted
on a state by state basis that determine the rules and
regulations for owning slaves and slave behavior that were
punishable by fine or corporal punishment if not followed
thinking of diversity through a neoliberal lens reveals the ways that universities
still function as a polders of the slave codes slave codes dictated life on
the plantation through the restriction of movement education behavior and also
dictated behavior for the slave owners or those who opposed to slavery importantly
slaves were created in order to quell uprisings today universities taught
diversity inclusion policies despite the continued cultural environments
that perpetuate white supremacy in the dehumanization of people of color
aptly rendering those policies useless This is how neo liberal neo liberalism
acts as slave codes neo liberal action and policy determines the types of coursework
and the presence of black faculty and staff through many mechanisms including
alumni giving power and scholarly publishing normative ety neoliberalism
militarized our campus police forces such as when Sam depose was killed by
University of Cincinnati police officer. The officers logic probably assumed it
was dangerous and ripe for uprising neo liberalism thrives off of fiscal austerity
of necessary congregation spaces and services for communities of color thriving
in a white supremacist society battering down the walls of these microclimates of
safety neoliberalism also provides just enough leeway for black people to
breathe and have a sense of humanity when the campus creates diversity task
forces invite speakers to campus and conducts climate surveys but
only just enough room to maintain order quote Nothing abrasive to the public
harmony or divisiveness in civil affairs could be tolerated in the curriculum or
the culture of the student body more broadly speaking society’s new
liberal rhetoric regarding the necessity of a college degree to maintain upward
mobility and the reality of the college degree is the new high school diploma
places higher education at the center. Of an economic enterprise that easily
allows administrators to take advantage of the attendees and keeps them in place
to hedge amount of notions of success in a more nuanced example we might explore
the ways that black athletes are held at will of the university via scholarship and promise of fame in these ways you can see
parallels between human Hood reality and the slave codes that hold the economic
state of higher education in place through this view view we pull together the
structural elements of knowledge sentiment goal status sanction and
facility through process process will go back to the slide elements to pull
together boundary maintenance systemic linkages socialization social Cole
code and institutionalization. To pull it all together in Wilder’s Ebony
and Ivory he writes about a sermon given by Reverend Benjamin Wadsworth future
president of Harvard University. Wilder writes that Wadsworth told
us congregation to not quote pinch their servants by denying them food
drink clothing medical medical attention in periods of rest necessary to their
health issue give their slaves time for prayer in private contemplation give
them to God and pray for them and let them read the Bible and other books
that would enhance their faith keep them busy enough to avoid saying but not
so exhausted as to impair their well being choose the mildest penalty that
would effectively cure the fault or membrane that a good master you
did neither tyranny nor terror. So here’s where we get to all apply some
of this framework to our campus today I gave you all to index cards and
I have you work in Paris which is somebody on your aisle or
you know somebody sitting next to you and what you just think about is plantation
politics an effective framework for thinking through the ways that higher
education institutions work particularly in the context of racial equality what
is the focus on slave plantations in plantation politics teach us about
the significance of black people and black labor on university campuses and
what are some maybe. Some more parallels that you might draw
between plantation life based on what you know. And a modern day campuses
this might be easier for some folks if you have read a lot of
history maybe a little bit harder for others but I think we can all
engage in this exercise together so we might think of like the mammy and
compare that to black faculty members and how they support with a lot of emotional
labor we might think of the C.D.O. as an overseer right so we can we can draw all particularly people
and we can also draw all systems and put back up on the screen the framework
of what is involved in plantation life the different structures and processes and
just give you a few minutes to chat with the person next to you in your row
about this and I would love for on one of those cards with you answer this
question What are the other questions or topics we should consider because as we’re
continuing to build out this framework we’re really interested in hearing
what people have to say and how they’re making those parallels so
I’ll give you about six or seven minutes to do that and
then we’ll come back together. So I think we can continue to extend and
involve this framework into modern times through the engagement of the term such
as neo colonialism neo imperialism and neo racism and also employee engagement
and globalization and internationalization as a case study connecting to the previous
framework maybe employ a setter Clonie a logic and examine how the import of
bodies spurs the economic reproduction of the higher educational industrial complex
States continue to reduce funding to higher education institutions are left
to find new ways to reduce costs and increase income at the same
time globalisation persists in shaping the international marketplace
and universities have capitalized by increasing Internet internationalization
efforts on their campuses in part to offset some of these lost revenues
post World War two institutions in. RIESS their national is this nationalistic
presence in countries around the world as part of the nation’s
cultural political economic and military forms of domination while also
maintaining and increasing the Internet internationalization of research and
scholarship on their home campuses increase multinational university system
such as University United States branch campuses in other countries lack of access
to education in many countries in the U.S. is widely recognized institutional speech
and massive occasion of higher education led to increased numbers of
international students who sought out higher ed in the U.S. and points to an
important juncture in understanding higher education broadly roads and new argue
that the increasing internationalisation globalisation of higher education exists
in relation to a globalized capitalistic economy driven by neo liberal ideologies
neo liberalism as a global social and economic theory understand society to
be organized around market based values individual ism individualistic
capital again fiscal austerity across a range of social structures and
an increased competitive eat those. As a relates to international
student enrollment in the U.S. neoliberalism suggest that universities
admit students from international country for countries because they pay
higher tuition rates and or may be supported by their countries
financially at the same time the students. Lost my place at the same time the
students increased production that boost the university’s competitive advantage
be a research production and universities provide fewer resources to
support them so just funding mental health job placement English skills training
writing support assimilation support etc Well concurrently understanding that
students are constricted by legal visa regulations lastly universities top
international students a successful and diverse students of color
in marketing materials thereby continuing to capitalize on their
physical bodies the dehumanization and commodification of international
students of color by ways of monetize monetizing them for
capitalistic game is the focus of the. Part with a seventy two percent increase
in international student enrollment since two thousand over eight hundred eighty six
thousand students are international making up four percent of total graduate
enrollment so that’s the focus of a lot of my research in stem fields international
graduate students make up anywhere from fifty to seventy percent of enrolled
students students also tend to come from certain countries in twenty fourteen
there is a twenty six percent increase in Roman from students from India
three percent from China and thirty two percent from Brazil
overall there was an eight percent increase in graduate enrollment of
international students since two thousand importantly OP back estimated that
the international students bring in approximately twenty seven billion dollars
annually to the U.S. alone and over one hundred billion globally therefore the
purposes of international admissions and the subsequent experiences of
students is a temporary importance. In order to understand the climate
surrounding international graduate students of color admissions I draw from
Foundation understanding of globalised neoliberalism and imperialism and the
concept of neo racism in higher education through these lenses I observe
the continued construction of an academic capitalist knowledge regime that guides
the actions of the university toward the commodification of bodies of international
students towards economic gains and uncovers the quote hidden cultural
stereotypes that dictate the experiences of international students so we can
start to see some parallels neoliberal new liberalism in its most basic form is
a theory and set of practices that aims to deregulate practice in order to provide
unrestricted capital gain and embedded practice and gauged in all neoliberal
actions as globalization Globalization and Its intended result economic neo colonial
domination is integral to the success of this logic opt out called higher education
related globalization the new colonialism. Roads in lieu describe globalization as
local and worldwide social relations and human rights interactions that have
altered the very nature of society and increasingly shape the operate. Sins and functions of the nation state and
its foundational institutions including the university globalization raises
the issue of neo liberalism in the ways in which their world economy is being shaped
by a particular view of capitalism and global economics where in fact neo
liberalism is most dangerous and oppressive the facts often
are intentionally concealed. In theory states should
reduce restrictions for goods to pass between borders in order to
facilitate Global Exchange or we can Lloyd aptly recognise that globalization is
development lies in the fact that economic processes social interactions politics
culture and even individual relationships transcend these national borders and
I reach higher education this is seen through the ways that universities
leverage resources behind academic services that assist students in obtaining
visas and send admission counselors abroad to recruit among others that
you might be able to identify. Neoliberalism specifically addresses
economic capital community accumulation although it may also do so through
the eradication of a country’s cultural political and social idiosyncrasies in the
name of freedom democracy and a certain saving one from oneself thereby employing
imperialist of principles in the name of US economic and social domination okro
most international students pay for their own studies producing significant
income for host countries and drain on the economy of the developing
world or home country additional resource depletion the consumption of foreign
markets as resources in commodities commodities and Sue thereby feeding
a continued imperialistic reign. In addition to money international
graduate students add to the university prestigious and rankings and
they have direct and positive impact on patent applications and
grants and this is shown by research these benefits
speak directly to neoliberal policy and practice in the academic capitalist
knowledge regime all concealed purposes neoliberal and racialized projects of
globalisation and internationalisation also feel a secondary outcome as a result
of the commodification of international students of color called neo racism or
racism stemming from the national origin. That is described mainly by culture and ethnicity know that racism is the
deployment of new colonial mindsets that homogenized this diverse international
identities commodifies bodies and creates third class that in citizenship
arguably the first being white second being domestic students of color and
the third being international students of color near a some distance
near racism does not a race historical us understanding is that racism however
provides a new way to discriminate based on race by masking the discrimination
with arguments against national origin. New racism leverage is the whiteness of an
organization against international bodies of color as well as domestic bodies
a problem or when those domestic scenes are mis identified as foreign even as
the diversity remains a desired commodity. And the racism may affect the types of
student services provided to international students including admissions registration
residence life and dining that do not do well to accommodate international
students despite the greater need such students have as compared to domestic
students through this logic I argue that the racism manifest in the cloud
of creation of bodies of international students of color by using them to raise
the academic capital of knowledge or resume but not providing the necessary
services or developmental opportunities. As an example one way that international
student bodies are used is through their use of diversity reporting to broad
publics this rhetoric has the implication of shifting the narrative diverse of
diversity discourse away from remedying historical representation and equity
work for domestic students of color. Therefore I think near racism is an app
theory from which to view this project as a ground of specific understanding of
the treatment of international students. Participants in one study I
conducted who are faculty of color involved in graduate admissions noted that
the international piece is a big push and it reflects an international reframing of
diversity that conflates international students of color with domestic student of
color sevens on a lot of campuses if you see that they report thirty forty
percent students of color and a large portion of that
are international students and now. This of these faculty narratives
unveil a change on the participants campuses that highlights
the neoliberal project of capital gain domestic minority communication
community dissolution prestigious increase in global expansion
piece of the international admissions this global project has supported the
recruiting emitting international students particularly those students from Asian
countries such as China and India and South American countries like Brazil some
universities like mine at Iowa State and maybe even this one might even impose
a tuition tax on international students thereby shifting the burden
of supporting students back on to the students themselves rather than
the institutions that recruit in them. A lack of community formation may
lead to the consequence of dropout extended time degree and the continued
dehumanisation of international students see this is a huge issue
on many campuses today. We’re going to go back into our groups
because I want to think about this I think this is one that’s a little
more tangible for people to think about I mean particularly on large research
institutions campuses like this one in mind Iowa state my undergrad which
was Florida State we see this large international increase and we’re we’re not
doing enough to support these students and them to say we are we don’t know so
part of the project is going to be doing something here today and part
of it’s going to be a take home because I think you all probably work in different
areas around the university and interact with international students in different
ways but I think we have to start taking note of the ways that we do work or do not
do work with international students and provide supports or don’t provide
support for international students. So the first question I’m asking are what
are important supports international students need to be successful so this is
some education that we all need to know and how are these different
from domestic student needs and then I love you know you don’t have to do
this obviously I can’t force you to do it but I think it’s good work for us to
think about all of the different pieces of information we have on our campuses
about international students or speak to international students right so
promotional materials websites. Scholarships that we have the curriculums
that we that we teach the various accommodations that we provide in the
offices that interface with or speak to or about international students and
think about how we’re actually framing our understanding of international students
on this campus how does that compare to the lived reality of international
students and how do we even know if that’s the case or not Have we spoken to
international students what kind of data have we collected and think about what’s
spoken and written what’s missing and what do we still need to know and then how
do we start to rectify rectifiers solve some of it is kind of a soul searching
piece right like universities need money but how can we do without
utilising bodies of color international students right after we
treat people as humans on our campuses. So maybe we can just take a few
minutes to do that in our pairs or whoever you’re sitting next to just think
about some of these first questions and then we’ll come back together
in just a few minutes. So hopefully you all can continue these
conversations in your various departments and kind of think more critically
about the ways that international students are treated differently
than domestic students or not treated differently as it might be. So I spent a good time talking you’re off
but I know we need to get down to thinking about how we might do some of this
change work just as white supremacy does it tries to avert our attention away from
the problem and inserts a racial wedge in between and into groups in order to
dissolve important coalitions needed for successful racial justice campaigns. What I’d like to spend a few minutes
talking about is what my colleague Veronica Jones and
I called disengaging whiteness and examining power in campus activism
reuniting communities of color there are critical race analysis
of tempered radicalism. Today students faculty and staff and community members particularly black
individuals are leading campus revolutions aimed at addressing racial injustice
histories of dominating White. This new liberal reorganizing of
institutional policies and practices and a diversity rhetoric that limits
the power of social justice advocates to do such work today’s communities
of color are critically examining the systems of oppression around them and
have taken it upon a critical moment in time to change their campuses even
as white racial solidarity and protection of white liberal and
conservative property rears its head the property value of whiteness is great
and powerful and for many it’s not for sale however a students of color engage
in campus activism they may begin to feel I’m supported by faculty and staff of
color and faculty and staff of color need somebody agree need to better understand
how students of color experience and engage the university many of you might be
thinking this right now and Veronica and I argue that we must analyze how power
commissions and disengages various campus communities for the battle for
racial justice and we have to do this remove a racial wedge between the
two groups and move forward in solidarity. So first we examine students and to this
part I’m talking mainly to faculty and staff the discourse on student gauge it
must be viewed more critically as a theory every step recalling gauge men of
mutual influence between students and the institutional environment itself
predominately white institutions have been historically plagued with white
eyed ideologies that create messages of white privilege and depict people of
color as from a deficit perspective these factors play students
of color outside and dominant norm undoubtedly affecting
not only amount of time and energy that they place into the efforts
but also counter the outcomes of their efforts student satisfaction with
campus engagement opportunities and its correlation with positive outcomes
must also factor into the negative impact of systemic racism within Internet
institutional spaces as a relates to the lived experiences of students of color
we must examine the institutional messages of power and privilege that devalue
the efforts of students of color in order. To disrupt the status quo and create alternate definitions of engagement
the value of social justice lenses in support students and
Chan challenging racial inequities. In conjunction with the ideal of student
engagement as a way to connect students the academic and social networks needed to
persist civic engagement has been named as a valued outcome of the collegiate
experience due to the tendency to delineate collegiate outcomes within a
dominant epistomological frame the concept of civic minded engagement needs to be
understood in the context of whiteness in a P.W.I. although most institutions
assert a commitment to providing civically responsible engagement opportunities for
all students the actual objectives and outcomes of engagement might
serve a different capacity for students of color as they’re part of
a marginalized campus group whereas white students often assess Vala to volunteer
ism as an objective a personal development students of color often view an activity
such as activism in line with these same objectives the conundrum of higher
education is evident by the norms of the P.W.I. environment that proclaim
a commitment to equipping students for socially conscious engagement yet
cultivates opposing theories of white privilege and blindness towards the way
campuses themselves cultivate oppression. In order to assess the ways that faculty
and staff and service advocates for students of color we must negotiate the
language of activism is situated within dominant norms engagement definitions
that depict activism as a deleterious act P.W.I. Prince against principles
activism is mainly positive as an effort in commitment to create change around
economic social and political issues these efforts are commonly connected with
actionable techniques such as protests and demonstrations that allow
individuals to utilize voice and to occupy physical spaces to contest
various forms of injustice the contrast between the perception of engagement as
in line with the democratic ideals and mission of a university and
activism viewed as a direct disruptive nuisance to be managed has implications
for the resistance with which students. Color met and when attempting to
change their campuses this resistance ties to the larger social messages of
those protecting capitalistic values of prestigious and privileged versus those
attempting to expose the power structures of their institutions while activism can
be transformative for students of color they’re functioning within a white frame
that works to other people of color as culturally inferior overly emotional the
fear of being characterized as emotional goes beyond labeling for people of color
active resistance against racism can result in material consequences such
as further alienation sanctioning and even official reprimand such as expulsion
students of color bear the weight of not only resisting racist
institutional practices but also providing themselves with the
emotional protection from the very racism they resist in order to avoid those
consequences frameworks that advocate for student activism must challenge
campus leaders to prop problematize their own oppressive
practices but also encourage faculty and staff to increasingly provide the support
students need to be heard and make an impact on campuses the student
faculty as well as student staff relationship particularly
essential for students of color in that people of color who work within structural
constraints of the environment can assist students in navigating these
constraints mentoring has been referenced as having a positive impact on
the experiences of black students as one example while mentoring literature focuses
on the mentoring outcomes of academic and social success for students of color
those interactions ups also serve as socialization into the basic
survival strategies needed to combat the everyday microaggression
of the neoliberal University. Beyond sharing practical understandings
of the structural foundations of higher education faculty and staff and
also service facilitators of student movements in various capacities the role
of faculty and staff who hold higher positions of authority and institutional
higher can aid in activist efforts. Now to faculty and staff while faculty and staff can act as mediators
between students administrators this relationship also needs to be
further contextualized in the battles. A people of color to be seen as legitimate
to those very administrator in the Academy while the system of
support is favorable for campus activism we must first consider
the limitations in which faculty and staff of color a place that might
prevent them from such support and I’m speaking to students here right
faculty of color deal with parallel micro aggressions of racial prejudice in their
everyday institutional experiences just as we problem ties the comparison of being
gaijin of student colors to a dominant norm we must also more critically
assess how these racist manifestations affect the ability of faculty and
staff to support activist efforts. The heterogeneity of strategies that
faculty and staff of color utilize to navigate the systemic barriers of
a racialized bureaucracy can serve as opportunities there which student
if students of color gain insight into the various tools accessible to
stand up against institutional racism. We might even identify and make parallels
to the plantation politics right so can we identify ways in which slaves
resisted in multiple ways their song being be friending whites etc in their model
of tempered radicalism Meyerson and Scully suggests quote individuals
Crimean invisible and and quite clear about their attachments and
identities tempered radicals exist in a figurative values orderly and therefore
temper radicals can be outsiders within can critique the status quo critique
those who wish to move in untempered or more on radical ways and can advocate for
both ways of moving through a system. However critical race theory posits that
race and racism shaped every day human experience and challenges dominant
liberal meritocratic colorblind and neutral ideology rendering this
value neutral modeled problematic so it’s helpful but it’s problematic right so
an extended a little bit and an extension of tempered radicalism is necessary and
begins with understanding how faculty and administrators of color exist at
the intersections of their identities and how power plays into the way that
they make their decisions on campus devoid of consideration
of how race sex gender. Last abilities sexual orientation and
other identities intersect power may reinforce systems of oppression
and create has a modicum normative eighty. Vaillant powers for some people of various
times from all different directions depending on one’s social location
identity salience privilege one may not be able to challenge
institutional norms without risk of harm in changing organizations hold no notes
that people of color will employ logics in various ways depending on an assessment
of environmental factors including safety essentially in each social location
people of color must engage in a cycle of contemplation technologies of
domination such as faculty tenure and promotion hierarchical reporting
structures surveillance police social media or
student assessments may restrict movement. As faculty staff and in histories of color
we often hear critique that we’re not being authentic to our true selves I
ask what is authenticity and who is allowed to be authentic through a C.R.T.
analysis race and racism are forwarded and understood as endemic to everyday life and
therefore embedded within an analysis of authenticity this begs the question
then how is an individual who is deeply embedded within an affected by
systems of racism on a daily basis able to act in a tempered manner
when the value of racial justice so central to their personal value system if
a person of color is authenticity reveals itself as anger toward a situation sadness
or fear there’s a true risk for them is being seen as a threat weak incapable of
capable of making decisions or subjective. Authenticity is reserved only for
the privileged and those who engage in a project
of maintaining whiteness. The ability to be authentic is directly
linked to one’s being civil or Cleave you’ll within the literature and
faculty of color the effects of being viewed as civil and cleave you’ll
have potential impacts on the tenure and promotion process the core mechanism for
retaining employment as a faculty member the rhetoric of civility and clearly ality
is the technology of domination that silences people of color before
they can express an opinion if. One’s wellbeing is
predicated on employment and keeping that employment secure is of the
utmost importance the tension highlights a class assumption abetted within
the tempered radicalism framework and is often lobbied by students but it must be revealed these are critiques
of the North normative system and how rhetoric constricts but this rhetoric
also has a very real hold on faculty and staff a few other points for people to
consider one organizational position ality with an institution is important to
understand as there are certain levels of formal power one has in each location for
instance faculty members are understood to hold high levels of decision making power
and also certain levels of protection from retribution the statement comes with the
understanding that colorblind policies and ideologies can still disproportionately
negatively affect faculty of color however compared to the student affairs or support staff counterparts there is
still a relative sense of security and ability to act that comes from holding
a faculty position particularly one that’s tenured Additionally student
affairs administrators are hired to provide support and programming for
students but also enforce the policies of the university this dichotomy
places them in a literal bind when they wish to support students
of color while also having to enact policies that may aim to silence students. Mediating position personality position
ality as one’s knowledge around equity in campus change engaging in change
efforts require certain forms of cultural social and educational and
potentially economic capital. How people of color engage in these
efforts may be affected by one’s ability to engage in discourse on
the topic of racism white supremacy and neo liberalism to package an argument
in a way that is understandable by appropriate audiences and to follow
up with support around these efforts one’s racial literacy may dictate the ways
in which one chooses to engage lack of racial saliency may influence the ways in
which one aligns with the racial justice pop Racial Justice Project in solidarity
with communities of color and does their work as an educational administrator
and lastly students may have particular perceptions of faculty and staff of color
leading them to expect certain behaviors. Occur and if those behaviors don’t occur
there may be continued are high in disconnect discontent faculty and
staff should work with students not only provide opportunities for students to
engage with their activist identities but they must also engage in conversations
about how change occurs on campus when students understand the various mechanisms
for change there may be stronger more trust driven relationships that form
is that just education doesn’t require that students completely change tactics or
that students should be tempered in their own activism rather that there’s a more
nuanced understanding of the student role and the faculty staff role within
this context there’s also a need for each constituency to try to understand
the lived experiences of the other before blaming each other students have different
constraints as do staff and faculty. Students of color who are actively
involved in distracting campus inequity face reprimand and further
marginalization just as faculty and staff color must avoid the negatives
consequences of speaking out against racialized practices in the Academy while
both groups may ultimately challenge the same system the discourse and tactics
tactics they use are not always comparable students most often stage
resistance invisible and overt ways most commonly known through material
physical acts such as protests and marches our faculty and staff because of
the position ality within the system and the professional repercussions of overtly
criticizing inequalities might choose to work behind the scenes to
partner with student activists therefore increased awareness of the
heterogeneity of resistance can perhaps build a better understanding for students
who may perceive that they lack support individuals who function from a broader
framework of activism conceptualized that overt collective an outward
expression to create meaningful change however the framework doesn’t consider
the emotional labor and decision making process through which individuals
decide to work to co-opt and that are often co-opted within a white frame
resistance is not a dichotomy is act. So taking you through a series of theater
theoretical frames to better understand both the modern formation of higher ed and
the current culture within which are situated I look forward to engaging
you around these topics in our last few. And it’s but before I go I’d like you just
to consider one last framework that I’m trying to learn more about and
it’s thinking about fascism right so there’s many scary parallels that are
being made between the early one thousand hundreds and today and I think it’s
really easy to see some of the through lines there which shadow slavery period
and how the world is formed today so I urge you all to do your own reading and
I’m going to keep doing my own reading and think about how this fits into higher
ed literature that’s one of the best one one last quote from Grace Lee Bob’s
who’s a civil rights activists and I think the very apt to the way that
we think about today’s situation and she writes history is not the past it
is the stories we tell about the past how we tell these stories triumphantly
yourself critically metaphysically or dialectically has a lot to do with whether
we cut short or advance our evolution as human beings I look forward to advancing
our evolution together Thank you.

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