Reformation and Consequences: Crash Course European History #7

Reformation and Consequences: Crash Course European History #7

[[TV Window]] Hi I’m John Green, this is
Crash Course European History, and today we’re going to watch religious reform spread, while
states shape up their operations to make them better adapted to governance. And also making war. Mostly making war. As you’ll recall from our last episode,
the Peace of Augsburg was supposed to settle the religious divisions that resulted from
the Protestant Reformation. I mean, it was called the Peace of Augsburg
after all. But, well, Stan, unfortunately we’re going
to have to switch the TV to the religious war graphic. INTRO
[[TV: Religious War]] The 1555 Peace of Augsburg did bring peace to the Holy Roman Empire,
temporarily, at least. Although I guess all peace is temporary. Really, everything is temporary. I’m sorry, what were we talking about? We’ll get to existentialism later, but in
the meantime, there was turmoil almost everywhere else in Europe. For one thing, monarchs were starting to see
the need to centralize and professionalize the exercise of state power. This was necessary because they needed more
money, especially for weaponry, including increasingly lethal cannons, and money for
building roads, harbors, and ships–so they could move war-making stuff around, and also
other goods. To pay for all of this, they used better tax
collection–and also piracy and global expansion. Both Ivan the Terrible in Russia and Suleyman
the Magnificent, the Ottoman sultan, were taking new territory. And moreover, with Protestantism fragmenting
and moving so swiftly in many directions, there was a sense that unifying a state’s
people, notably in religion, would hold kingdoms together and keep citizens prospering instead
of killing one another. European monarchs also employed legal scholars
to help regularize the law and use it to unify their administrations. The monarchs who focused on instituting tight
state organization and expanding royal power are sometimes called the “New Monarchs,”
even though of course now they are quite old. What’s that? Stan informs me that in fact they are not
old, they are all currently deceased. But as these new monarchs sought to consolidate,
new religious sub-groups, or sects, were constantly splintering European communities. As Protestantism evolved, some of these sects
promoted more radical kinds of equality that fanned out from the idea that all people could
have a direct connection to God. and that proved problematic not only for religious
hierarchies, like the Catholic Church, but also for political ones, like aristocracies
and monarchies. Some Anabaptists, for instance, used sola
scriptura to experiment with polygamy, citing the Bible’s command to “be fruitful and
multiply.” And Quakers encouraged women to preach and
engage in religious activism. Now that was radical. Let’s go to the Thought Bubble. 1. The appeal of new sects, and reformers, and
preachers 2. pulled at the fabric of political unity
and secure power that monarchs desperately craved. 3. Jean Calvin of France was foremost among these
reformers. 4. Like Martin Luther, Calvin started by studying
law 5. and, like Luther, eventually dropped it
for theology. 6. Then in 1534, large posters denouncing the
Catholic Church appeared all over Paris 7. —an event called the Affair of the Placards. 8. French authorities rounded up suspected Protestants, 9. executing some of them, 10. and causing others, including Calvin,
to flee. 11. France and the French—even those from the
highest ranks of the nobility 12. –became violently divided among religious
factions for several generations. 13. Meanwhile, from exile in Geneva, Calvin set
up a theocracy— 14. that is, a state based on and run according
to religious doctrine. 15. Calvin’s most important addition to Protestantism
was the concept of predestination. 16. Calvin maintained that God had determined
even before the creation of the world 17. which of its humans would be saved and
which would be damned as sinners. 18. For a variety of reasons, he felt that citizens
needed to be strictly regulated to keep them from falling into sin and to maintain their
godly nature. 19. So, for instance, he imposed fines for drunkenness,
and blasphemy, and dancing, and gambling. 20. But wait a second. Those are all of the major hobbies. Thanks, Thought Bubble. So, Calvin’s theocracy in Geneva came to
be known as the Protestant Rome; it was the epicenter of the Reformed Church,
and Calvin himself was seen as a “father” to the many who left their families to participate
in this experiment too. Calvinism became even more far-flung than
Lutheranism, with communities springing up from the British
Isles to Hungary and other parts of eastern European regions. [[TV: Henry VIII]] so, at the same time, Henry
VIII of England was using Protestantism in an entirely new way–to get divorced and acquire
land. Henry was working to consolidate his kingdom
after a long civil war known as the War of the Roses, and he was married to Catherine
of Aragon, who was the aunt of Charles V, which made her a politically desirable spouse
if not the perfect romantic match. Henry’s circle included famous Christian
humanists like Thomas More, and also the noblewoman Anne Boleyn, who backed religious reform and
with whom Henry was enamored. and that was a bit of a problem, as Henry
was already married. Refused a divorce by the pope, Henry cut his
ties with Rome, divorced Catherine of Aragon, banished her from his royal court, and then
announced himself to be the head of the Church of England. He then gained support for this move by selling
off Church lands, especially monasteries and convents, to aristocrats and other wealthy
allies to keep them on his side. The Church of England or “Anglican” doctrine
was modified slightly from that of the Catholic Church, but the main change was that the power
of the state increased dramatically in England by combining secular and religious authority
in one figure: the king. It also meant that instead of shipping money
to Rome, more wealth flowed into the royal treasury. Plus it meant that Henry could marry Anne
Boleyn, which he did, and then later executed her for purported treason. Thomas More was also executed for refusing
to acknowledge Henry as the head of the church, and although power had been concentrated in
the state, the actual citizenry remained very divided over religion. [[TV: Mary Queen of Scots]] This came to a
head after Henry’s death. Initially, Henry’s nine-year-old son became
King Edward VI, but he died, possibly of tuberculosis, at just age 15. After a struggle for power, Henry’s daughter
Mary became Queen of England. Mary wanted to take England back to the Catholic
Church and soon married a Catholic, Charles V’s son, Philip II of Spain. This move might have united England and much
of mainland Europe under one royal family and the Catholic Church, except that Mary
died in 1558, at the age of just 42. [[TV: Elizabeth I]] Mary’s sister Elizabeth,
who’d been persecuted and for a time imprisoned during Mary’s reign, became Queen, and restored
England to Protestantism. Although Mary’s husband Philip wrote that
he “felt a reasonable regret over her death,” he ended up missing Catholic England very
badly–so badly that he launched the famous Spanish Armada to take back England for his
family and the Church. But thanks in part to bad weather, Elizabeth’s
England defeated the armada. Elizabeth built up the royal treasury and
found a more moderate path when it came to religion than either her sister or her father
had found. Philip, meanwhile, managed to bankrupt Spain
despite all the New World gold and silver that was flowing in. One of the great lessons of history is that
wars are expensive, another great lesson of history? Don’t forget about inflation. Philip and his court did not have a great
understanding of inflation, and did not comprehend why the appearance of more gold in Europe
led the price of gold to decline. [[TV: Iconoclasts]] Meanwhile, In France,
the spread of Calvinism tore at the French crown and nobility as it stirred controversy
and conflict in cities. Ideas of Calvinist reformation merged with
social and political resistance in France as city councils and aristocrats began to
fight over the role of both church and state. Did the globe open up? Is there a gnome in there? It’s a statue. And in France at the time, people began smashing
statues of saints and breaking the noses of statues of the Virgin Mary. These people were called iconoclasts–that
is, Literal destroyers of icons Iconoclasm sounds kind of fun. I’m gonna try destroying this icon. I feel powerful. We shall rise up and say no to garden gnomes! Especially in films! Like Gnomeo and Juliet. And the other one. We shouldn’t be making jokes. All this led to Civil War. Gallicanism–a French interpretation of Catholicism–
arose in the cities and towns of southwestern France. Gallicanism held that French political authority—not
the pope in Rome– ruled the Church in France. French Calvinists, meanwhile, became known
as “Huguenots.” Religious wars broke out in 1559. Rival leaders in France, even in the face
of political disaster, refused to come to any agreement. The Catholic-Protestant division increased
until a group of nobles was assassinated in 1572, and then thousands of Huguenots in Paris
and elsewhere were killed in what is known as the St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre later
that year. [[TV: Henry of Navarre]] A Huguenot named
Henry of Navarre narrowly escaped death in the St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre; years
later, he would lead Protestant forces against the Catholic government in the Civil War before
eventually converting to Catholicism, purportedly saying, “Paris is well worth a mass.” And that’s how Henry of Navarre became King
Henry IV of France. But although Henry was now Catholic, he issued
the Edict of Nantes in 1598, which allowed Protestantism in the French Kingdom. Like Elizabeth, Henry was a politically savvy
monarch who found middle paths through difficult conflicts. Those who put aside their personal beliefs
to accomplish political tranquility, especially in France, came to be known as politiques. These days, of course, it seems impossible
that politics could increase tranquility, but imagine how political slickness must have
seemed to a 16th century French or English person. I mean, war beget war beget war–until monarchs
found a different way. And from that perspective, politics is–dare
I say it–magnificent. [[TV: Window]] Across Europe, the conflict
over religion drew in an extensive cast of characters—among them both high-born aristocratic
women and common women rioting in the streets of major cities. Luther himself had argued for the equality
of souls but an inequality in public life, writing, “The dominion of women from the
beginning of the world has never produced any good; as one is accustomed to saying:
‘Women’s rule seldom comes to a good end.’ When God installed Adam as lord over all creatures,
everything was still in good order and proper, and everything was governed in the best way. But when the wife came along and wanted to
put her hand too in the simmering broth and be clever, everything fell apart and became
wildly disordered.”[1] Still, the “Protestant Reformation” had
a lot of appeal for many women. The idea of a direct relationship with God
via scripture encouraged common people, including women and girls, to learn to read. Protestant women set up schools for Protestant
girls. And of course in England, a woman ruled both
the nation and the church. Now even with the reign of Queen Elizabeth,
and the Edict of Nantes, the century-long lethal struggles over religion were not entirely
over, but several momentous changes had occurred: new ideas about human spirituality had been
born and taken hold across Europe; people so fervently believed in these reformed religions
that they left home and family to create new communities; new-style monarchs had aimed
for earthly power and begun to consolidate government, in part to pay for instruments
of religious warfare; Spain under Charles V and Philip II had gone from riches to rags
in order to enforce Catholicism. Next time, we’ll turn our attention to the
less political revolutions taking place in 16th century Europe–revolutions in commerce,
and agriculture, and urban development, as well as a transcontinental system of slavery
that created vast wealth for some, and absolute devastation for many others. Thanks for watching. I’ll see you next time. ________________
[1] Quoted in Luther on Women: A Sourcebook, Susan C. Karant-Nunn and Merry Wiesner-Hanks,
eds. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003)
121, 123, citing Luther’s Works, 55 vols. (Concordia Publishing Company, Muhlenberg
Press, Fortress Press, and Augsburg Publishing Company, 1955. “Lectures on Genesis,” Vol. I. ed. Jaroslav Pelikan, 1968, p. 137; “Table Talk
I,” no. 1046, p. 528.

100 thoughts on “Reformation and Consequences: Crash Course European History #7

  1. Really great episode (!), but there is one thing that bugs me… If Jean Calvin believed in predestination, why go to trouble of devising a system of laws? Surely if all our destiny is pre-written, nothing that you do will change people's actions (such as forbidding gambling). Just some food for thought:)

  2. Fun fact: the Monarch in the U.K. is STILL head of state, the church AND the armed forces. The U.K. is a constitutional monarchy and regarded as the birthplace of parliamentary democracy but it’s also technically a theocracy! Weird.

    One thing I’d like to know: how much were previously extant means of organising tax collection and the state’s laws more generally (for example, the Corpus Iuris Civilis that Justinian compiled, or Roman models of tax collection) revived and adopted during this period?

  3. My dd has a friend whose brother's name is John Calvin ______. The family is hard-core Lutheran, but their china cabinet is to die for (along with everything else that goes with that)and they actually have guests for 4pm Tea. Suburbs. Minnesota. I think I may have botched things a bit when I told them I practiced yoga… until I told them I did it precisely at 2pm every day.

  4. Henry could have just had lovers, like the French kings… But no, he had to be "righteous" and divorce his wifes… XD

  5. Also, spain has bankrupted several times, so realy, it wasn't as much of a problem, because spain was still powerfull and prosperous at the time…

  6. Carsh Course : A protestant England had a queen to rule their country!
    Isabelle of Castille & Leon : Am I a joke to you?
    Urraca of Castille : Am I a joke to you?
    Berengaria of Castille : Am I a joke to you?
    Maria Theresa : Am I a joke to you?
    Jadwiga of Poland : Am I a joke to you?
    Matilda of Tuscany : Am I a joke to you?


  7. Actually Lutherans and Calvinist and those thousands of other fringe groups are not protestants. A protestant is someone who protests the only true Christian Church but does not leave it. See if you are a true faithfull Christian you cannot just leave the Church that was created by the God you worship himself.

  8. Two episodes on religion in Europe and not a single word about Polish Lituanian Commonwealth where Catolics, Protestants, Ortodoxs, and Jews lived in peace. Also not a single word about the Ottomans who were introducing Islam to Europe.

  9. A very interesting approach to Protestantism was done by Max Weber. He analysed how the shift from condemning riches and obscene luxury led to the condemning of idleness and laziness. Work was seen as a key, worthy value that still very much shapes American culture. From Meritocracy to the American Dream, it all seems to stem from this idea of "work good, laziness bad". It may seem obvious to some of you but it's really not, you could imagine an epicurian doctrine of "enjoy life, take it easy". In some ways that doctrine is what shapes Southern Europe, and to some extent the Scandinavian ideas of "Lagom", "Hygge", that roughly represents an ideal of moderation and balance. Not too much, not too little.

    Now the best part of all of this, is looking at how the "dogma of predestination" still plays a role, although diffusely, in meritocracy and the American Dream. It may be a stretch, but I think that concept is at least hearable. You'd have two main drives for success: work and worthiness. The tip of the iceberg is that you have to work, on the basis that everyone who succeeded was working hard. However, not all those who work hard succeed. Some fail despite working hard. Well, meritocracy, as it postulates that "if you work hard enough you succeed", teaches us that those who fail didn't work enough. Or were not touched by grace, were not predestined to succeed.

    The issue of that is legitimising inequalities that have nothing to do with work, or worthiness. Ironically, as he set off to destroy the inequalities, Luther set a path for an even more structured, systemic unequal game.

  10. It wasn't gold that declined dramatically in price, it was silver! Silver being produced in such quantities at the Cerro Rico (the Rich Hill) in Potosí, Bolivia, that it gave Argentina (the Silvered one) and the river north of Buenos Aires, the Rio de la Plata (the River of Silver) their name.

  11. Please add any suggestions. It's not like Crash Course needs new ideas lol, but just putting it out there and feel free to comment what your preferred next topic would be – and once it's mentioned vote with likes.

    Coding logic
    Non-human Sociology
    Astrophysics (as a follow up to Astronomy and Cosmology)
    hehe – Maths (split up into 3, 4, 5 thematic parts?)

    Non-human Linguistics

    African History (imo from the first human settlements)
    Urbanism and Urban Planning
    Political Theory
    Geopolitical Theory

    Game Design
    Non-scenic visual arts History (I'm sure there's a better name)? Or just History of Art (music maybe only being brought up in relation to the themes it covers, like how it relates to the wider Romantic movement etc)
    Acoustics and Sound Engineering
    Music History – possibly split up into
    _________________Written Western Music History
    _________________World Popular Music History
    _________________Asian Written Music History
    _________________World Written Music History
    Music Theory – possibly split up into
    _________________Tonal Music Theories
    _________________Greek, Medieval and Renaissance Western Music Theories
    _________________African Music Theories
    _________________Music Theory (others, like Indian, dodecaphonic, Messiaen etc)

  12. And ever since the wars were over, religion in Europe has been in an agonizingly slow decline.

  13. Hey John. I remember the video you made on Reagan and his economical reforms and so on. I was wondering could you do one on Margaret Thatcher? I would realy appreciate it. Best of luck to you and crash course.

  14. Anyone else sad John is a grown up now? I miss his light funny self. He is John Green now, but not Johnny Green. RIP young man Johnny

  15. Read the Great controversy and Daniel & revelation then you 'll know the true facts about Christian history till present day.

  16. I would really like to compliment you on stating that Anne supported religious reform. She wasn't just the other woman. She was fiercely intelligent! Please dig deeper on this! This topic could fill a course on it's own. I would love to see a popular youtuber such as yourself cover Anne a little more thoroughly.

  17. It's all horseshit from top to bottom. Tax these swindlers just like you would the tobacco companies or the liquor interests!

  18. Spain spend all their money? Wait until you guys see what our king D. João V did with money pouring in from all over the world. So stupid it hurts….

  19. Reformed evangelicals place Lither and Calvin on pretty much the same level as Jesus and adopt their judicial interpretation of text as authority. Though they won't admit that. But when you celebrate "Reformation Day" every late October, you kind of give yourself away. Just so so lucky to have been born in their posterity weren't you? How convenient.

  20. Thank you for this packed review. It shows (again) with all clarity how the Christian "religion" was alway about politics – at least from Constantine and onwards – and religion war just a pretext for power, war, rivalry, taxation, control of private and family life, theft of property and land etc. – well, politics.

  21. Yeesh, this episode certainly gave Elizabeth the first a soft touch, especially compared to Philip.

  22. The one thing this video forgot to mention was why Henry declared himself head of the church… Because the Pope was a puppet of the HRE who had invaded the Papacy a year or two prior and would have to forbid Henry from divorcing his wife because she was his cousin. Prior to that Henry was actually a very pious man and gave lots of money and support to the church. He was actually counted as a friend by the Pope and give the title "defender of the faith". They were also married for 22 years and she had yet to bare the king a son(which was actually legal grounds for a divorce at the time).

    I can only assume why one would ignore this rather important factor is because they were taking a Catholic bias. As for why Henry wanted a son so badly he was willing to kill? Well with a daughter the line of succession wasn't clear and there was a large risk of civil war in England after he died. Having basically ruled just after the War of the Roses and not really wanting to start another war he kind of made it his life goal to establish a clear line of succession otherwise all his work rebuilding the country would have been in vain. Fortunately for England, we have always had great female rulers.

  23. That battle of the Spanish Armada was fought by the English navy sailing burning boats into the Spanish war fleet. The Spanish could not sail out to harms way thus catching fire.

  24. Lil fun fact: Henry stated he was the head of the church in England! It was Elizabeth I who claimed the title Head of the Church Of England! In fact, it was Elizabeth who cemented and established this new title and branch of Christianity (at the time she called herself 'Supreme Governor' of the church of England !)

  25. Fun fact for Hunchback of Notre Dame, the line in Hellfire "Its Not my fault, its in Gods plan, he made the devil so much stronger than a man!" Reveals Claude Frollo to be a Calvinist. Of course, he spends the whole song trying to tell Saint Mary what to do which sums up his character quite nicely.

  26. I study History in Belgium, and these explanations about the catholic church etc. really help me!! thank you SO much!

  27. Mystery religion initiates, all…and I wonder about Alexander VI and Michaelangelo. I never believe cover stories.

  28. all what matter is Protestanism leads to developed society that embrace democracy and republic system, while catholic countries still leads to monarchy. thats just fact.

  29. Calvinism makes no sense. If you are predestined to go to Hell, then why stop sinning . Same goes for the people who are predestined to go to Heaven, they can sin all day long.

  30. The top left guy in the 'new style monarchs', is Henry VII, father of Henry VIII, who died in 1509, 18 years before Luther's 95 Theses. I don't think he was 'new style' in the sense his son and granddaughter were.

  31. I can send cnv in green when he talks about the Spanish Empire. calling a bankruptcy is like saying that the United States is already in bankruptcy so that's not exactly specific. you know with all that power you would figure that there would be more Liberty for the women. but the bottom line is that's not what they practice because that's not what they preach. You can complain about Spain all you want but at least a Senora can attain property without the Rays of their husband. Hilarious. No wonder we were an Empire and Britain was a merchant endeavor. We were already on the Age of Exploration by this time. And much love to the British because they were there the hearing green talk about it like the British is on his side we're trying to take one this hilarious. Were the Spanish hard on people including their sailors yes are they one of the most important Global empires of all-time most definitely. The only European power to conquer the Capitol in Native American culture and then still keep the culture Zoe dominating into as you put it, the native religion and language still exist unlike a lot of other tribes what not wiped out by Americans. I don't deny my history. But I don't know imagine trying to pick teens when there was no America yet and you're so proud of it on 4th of July. That's what I mean about that's hilarious. I love mr. Green so you can totally senses like a history teacher. Lol.

    He should really look up more intimate relationship between England and Spain. And not just through the monarchs because this is actually the culture that produces the United States. British and Spanish. Throwing the indigenous and Bam you have America. Everyone else came later or in very low amounts with. I like Captain Cook too but those stories aren't with discovered America and those stories are not what explored the world. We're not bitter it's over so you shouldn't be envious that has happened. Histologist nice I guess. I think the US Constitution is the greatest but I'm biased. Also Spain was a military State at War and was not bankrupt as it was bankrolled by the same country as it was descending not invading unless they were allied with the sultan at the time or some other Rogue state. Before Britain was The Equalizer of Europe during the polian's time the era belongs to Spain. Which is why even though the Armada was sent it was only sent once seriously. The other three times or more like Expeditions probing the coast which in reality was sometime still Trading. Spain and England weren't always at War and those of wars were intense they were short and the loss of a relationship was more depressing than the games of battle especially during the Spanish Civil War during Napoleon where Britain really felt the missing space of old Royal Spain. Especially since Napoleon turned on Spain to acquire legitimacy to become emperor I'm only bringing but stand there. But never forget the Spanish Rebels. Star Wars stuff guys Star Wars stuff. You were always painted as the villains so we were your dark Knights. before we were Infantería, which is infantry which comes from Infamous or nefarious ones, in ancient times arrows or Eros which is where we derive the word hero plural Heroes like Eros and Aero… what I'm saying is that is the culture of Great Britain and Imperial Spain are the foundations of the United States of America man.

  32. Technically Henry the VIII did not divorce Catherine of Aragon, but had the marriage annulled. As a matter of fact Anglicanism did not allow remarriage after divorce till the 20th century.

  33. while everyone was fighting over slight variations over the same religion what was happening with all the other religions in europe?

  34. Deep talks, I dig the topics… amazing how many Protestants sects there are and most Protestants don't know s*** about any of them

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