Pune | Wikipedia audio article

Pune | Wikipedia audio article


Pune (Marathi pronunciation: [puɳe]; English:
;), formerly spelled Poona (1857–1978), is the second largest city in the Indian state
of Maharashtra, after Mumbai. It is the ninth most populous city in the country with an
estimated population of 3.13 million. Along with its Industrial twin Pimpri Chinchwad
and the three cantonment towns of Pune, Khadki and Dehu Road, Pune forms the urban core of
the eponymous Pune Metropolitan Region (PMR). According to the 2011 census, the urban area
has a combined population of 5.05 million while the population of the metropolitan region
is estimated at 7.27 million. Situated 560 metres (1,837 feet) above sea level on the
Deccan plateau on the right bank of the Mutha river, Pune is also the administrative headquarters
of its namesake district. In the 18th century, the city was the seat of the Peshwas, the
prime ministers of the Maratha Empire and so was one of the most important political
centres on the Indian subcontinent. Pune is ranked the No. 1 city in India in ‘ease of
living’ ranking index .The city is considered to be the cultural capital of Maharashtra.
It is also known as the “Oxford of the East” due to the presence of several well-known
educational institutions. The city has emerged as a major educational hub in recent decades,
with nearly half of the total international students in the country studying in Pune.
Research institutes of information technology, education, management and training attract
students and professionals from India and overseas. Several colleges in Pune have student-exchange
programs with colleges in Europe. Pune is also an important centre for civil services
training.==Etymology==
The earliest reference to Pune is an inscription on a Rashtrakuta Dynasty copper plate dated
937 CE, which refers to the town as Punya-Vishaya, meaning sacred news. By the 13th century,
it had come to be known as Punawadi (पुनवडी).==History=====
Early and medieval===Copper plates dated 858 and 868 CE show that
by the 9th century an agricultural settlement known as Punnaka existed at the location of
the modern Pune. The plates indicate that this region was ruled by the Rashtrakuta dynasty.
The Pataleshwar rock-cut temple complex was built during this era. Pune was part of the
territory ruled by the Seuna Yadavas of Devagiri from the 9th century to 1327.===Bhosale Jagir and the Maratha Empire===Pune was part of the Jagir (fiefdom) granted
to Maloji Bhosale in 1599 for his services to the Nizamshahi (Ahmadnagar Sultanate).
Pune was ruled by the Ahmadnagar Sultanate until it was annexed by the Mughals in the
17th century. Maloji Bhosale’s grandson, Shivaji, the founder of the Maratha Empire, was born
at Shivneri, a fort not far from Pune. Pune changed hands several times between the Mughals
and the Marathas in the period 1660 to 1705. After the destruction of the town in raids
by the Adil Shahi dynasty in 1630 and again between 1636 and 1647, Dadoji Konddeo, the
successor to Dhadphale, oversaw the reconstruction of the town. He stabilised the revenue collection
and administrative systems of the areas around Pune and the neighbouring Maval region. He
also developed effective methods to manage disputes and to enforce law and order. The
Lal Mahal was commissioned in 1631 and construction was completed in 1640 AD. Shivaji spent his
young years at the Lal Mahal. His mother, Jijabai is said to have commissioned the building
of the Kasba Ganapati temple. The Ganesha idol consecrated at this temple has been regarded
as the presiding deity (Gramadevata) of the city.From 1703 to 1705, towards the end of
the 27-year-long Mughal–Maratha Wars, the town was occupied by Aurangzeb and its name
was changed to Muhiyabad. Two years later the Marathas recaptured Sinhagad fort, and
later Pune, from the Mughals.===Peshwa rule===In 1720, Baji Rao I was appointed Peshwa (Prime
Minister) of the Maratha Empire by Chhatrapati Shahu. He moved his base from Saswad to Pune
in 1728, marking the beginning of the transformation of what was a kasbah into a large city. He
also commissioned the construction of the Shaniwar Wada on the right bank of the Mutha
River. The construction was completed in 1730, ushering in the era of Peshwa control of the
city. Bajirao’s son and successor, Nanasaheb constructed a lake at Katraj on the outskirts
of the city and an underground aqueduct to bring water from the lake to Shaniwar Wada
and the city. The aqueduct was still in working order in 2004.The patronage of the Maratha
Peshwas resulted in a great expansion of Pune, with the construction of around 250 temples
and bridges in the city, including the Lakdi Pul and the temples on Parvati Hill and many
Maruti, Vithoba, Vishnu, Mahadeo, Rama, Krishna and Ganesh temples. The building of temples
led to religion being responsible for about 15% of the city’s economy during this period.
Pune prospered as a city during the reign of Nanasaheb Peshwa. He developed Saras Baug,
Heera Baug, Parvati Hill and new commercial, trading, and residential localities. Sadashiv
Peth, Narayan Peth, Rasta Peth and Nana Peth were developed. The Peshwa’s influence in
India declined after the defeat of Maratha forces at the Battle of Panipat but Pune remained
the seat of power. In 1802 Pune was captured by Yashwantrao Holkar in the Battle of Pune,
directly precipitating the Second Anglo-Maratha War of 1803–1805. The Peshwa rule ended
with the defeat of Peshwa Bajirao II by the British East India Company in 1818.===British rule (1818–1947)===The Third Anglo-Maratha War broke out between
the Marathas and the British East India Company in 1817. The Peshwas were defeated at the
Battle of Khadki (then spelled Kirkee) on 5 November near Pune and the city was seized
by the British. It was placed under the administration of the Bombay Presidency and the British built
a large military cantonment to the east of the city (now used by the Indian Army). The
Southern Command of the Indian Army was established in 1895 and has its headquarters in Pune cantonment.The
city was known as Poona during British rule. Poona Municipality was established in 1858.
A railway line from Bombay to the city opened in 1858, run by the Great Indian Peninsula
Railway (GIPR). Navi Peth, Ganj Peth (now renamed Mahatma Phule Peth) were developed
during the British Raj.====Centre of social reform and nationalism
====Pune was prominently associated with the struggle
for Indian independence. In the period between 1875 and 1910, the city was a centre of agitation
led by Gopal Krishna Gokhale and Bal Gangadhar Tilak. The city was also a centre for social
reform led by Mahatma Jyotirao Phule, feminist Tarabai Shinde, Dhondo Keshav Karve and Pandita
Ramabai. They demanded the abolition of caste prejudice, equal rights for women, harmony
between the Hindu and Muslim communities, and better schools for the poor. Mohandas
Gandhi was imprisoned at the Yerwada Central Jail several times and placed under house
arrest at the Aga Khan Palace between 1942 and 1944, where both his wife Kasturba Gandhi
and aide Mahadev Desai died.===Pune since Indian independence===
After Indian Independence from the British in 1947, Pune saw enormous growth transforming
it into a modern metropolis. The Poona Municipal Council was reorganized to form the Pune Municipal
Corporation (PMC) in 1950. The education sector in the city continued its growth in the post-independence
era with the establishment of the University of Poona (now, Savitribai Phule Pune University)
in 1949, the National Chemical Laboratory in 1950 and the National Defence Academy in
1955.The establishment of Hindustan Antibiotics in 1954 marked the beginning of industrial
development in the Hadapsar, Bhosari, and Pimpri areas. MIDC provided the necessary
infrastructure for new businesses to set up operations. In the 1970s, several engineering
companies were set up in the city, allowing it to vie with Chennai. In the 1990s, Pune
began to attract foreign capital, particularly in the information technology and engineering
industries. IT parks were established in Aundh, Hinjawadi and Wagholi. As a result, the city
saw a huge influx of people to the city due to opportunities offered by the manufacturing,
and lately, the software industries. The breach in the Panshet dam and the resulting
flood of 1961 led to severe damage and destruction of housing close to the river banks. The mishap
spurred the development of new suburbs and housing complexes. To integrate urban planning,
the Pune Metropolitan Region was defined in 1967 covering the area under PMC, the Pimpri-Chinchwad
Municipal Corporation, the three cantonments and the surrounding villages.In 1998 work
on the six-lane Mumbai-Pune expressway began; it was completed in 2001. In 2008 the Commonwealth
Youth Games took place in Pune, which encouraged development in the northwest region of the
city. On 13 February 2010 a bomb exploded at the German Bakery in the upmarket Koregaon
Park neighbourhood in eastern Pune, killing 17 and injuring 60. Evidence suggested that
the Indian Mujahadeen group carried out the attack.==Geography==Pune is situated at approximately 18° 32″
north latitude and 73° 51″ east longitude. The city’s total area is 729 square kilometres
(281 square miles).. By road Pune is 2,063 km (1,282 mi) south-west of Kolkata, 1,173
km (729 mi) south of Delhi, 734 km (456 mi) north of Bangalore, and 149 km (93 mi) south-east
of Mumbai. Pune lies on the western margin of the Deccan
plateau, at an altitude of 560 m (1,840 ft) above sea level. It is on the leeward side
of the Sahyadri mountain range, which forms a barrier from the Arabian Sea. It is a hilly
city, with Vetal Hill rising to 800 m (2,600 ft) above sea level. The Sinhagad fort is
at an altitude of 1,300 metres (4,300 feet). The old city of Pune is at the confluence
of the Mula and Mutha rivers. The Pavana, a tributary of Mula river and Indrayani river,
a tributary of the Bhima river, traverse the northwest suburbs of Pune.===Climate===
Pune has a hot semi-arid climate (type BSh) bordering with tropical wet and dry (type
Aw) with average temperatures ranging between 20 and 28 °C (68 and 82 °F). Pune experiences
three seasons: summer, monsoon, and winter. Typical summer months are from mid-March to
mid-June, with maximum temperatures sometimes reaching 42 °C (108 °F). The warmest month
in Pune is May. The city often has heavy dusty winds in May, with humidity remaining high.
Even during the hottest months, the nights are usually cool due to Pune’s high altitude.
The highest temperature recorded was 43.3 °C (109.9 °F) on 30 April 1897.The monsoon
lasts from June to October, with moderate rainfall and temperatures ranging from 22
to 28 °C (72 to 82 °F). Most of the 722 mm (28.43 in) of annual rainfall in the city
falls between June and September, and July is the wettest month of the year. Hailstorms
are not unheard of. For most of December and January the daytime
temperature hovers around 26 °C (79 °F) while night temperatures are below 9 °C (48
°F), often dropping to 5 to 6 °C (41 to 43 °F). The lowest temperature recorded was
1.7 °C (35 °F) on 17 January 1935. Due to pollution the city’s winter temperature has
warmed up by 6 degrees.===Seismology===Pune is 100 km (62 mi) north of the seismically
active zone around Koyna Dam. The India Meteorological Department has assessed this area as being
in Zone 3, on a scale of 2 to 5, with 5 being the most prone to earthquakes. Pune has experienced
some moderate – and many low – intensity earthquakes in its history.==Economy==Pune has the eighth largest metropolitan economy
and the sixth highest per capita income in the country. The key sectors of the local
economy are education, manufacturing and information technology (IT).
Pune has historically been known as a center for higher education and has been referred
to as the educational capital of India. In 2006, it was reported that nearly 200,000
students from across India study in Pune at nine universities and more than a hundred
educational institutes.The Kirloskar Group came to Pune in 1945 by setting up Kirloskar
Oil Engines, India’s largest diesel engine company, at Khadki. The group has several
subsidiaries in Pune including Kirloskar Pneumatics and Kirloskar Brothers Limited, one of India’s
largest manufacturers and exporters of pumps and the largest infrastructure pumping project
contractor in Asia. Automotive companies such as Bajaj Auto, Tata Motors, Mahindra & Mahindra,
Mercedes Benz, Force Motors, Kinetic Motors, General Motors, Land Rover, Jaguar, Renault,
Volkswagen, and Fiat have set up greenfield facilities near Pune, leading The Independent
to describe Pune as India’s “Motor City”. According to the Indo-German Chamber of Commerce,
Pune has been the single largest hub for German companies for the last 60 years. Over 225
German companies have set up their businesses here. Serum Institute of India, the world’s
fifth largest vaccine producer by volume, has a manufacturing plant located in Pune.
In 2014-15, the manufacturing sector provided employment to over 500,000 people.The Rajiv
Gandhi Infotech Park in Hinjawadi is a ₹ 600-billion (US$ 8.9 billion) project by the Maharashtra
Industrial Development Corporation (MIDC). The IT Park encompasses an area of about 2,800
acres (11 km2) and is home to over 800 IT companies of all sizes. Besides Hinjawadi,
IT companies are also located at Magarpatta, Kharadi and several other parts of the city.
As of 2017, the IT sector employs more than 300,000 people.Pune has also emerged as a
new hub for tech startups in India. NASSCOM, in association with MIDC, has started a co-working
space for city based startups under its 10,000 startups initiative at Kharadi MIDC. Pune
Food Cluster development project is an initiative funded by the World Bank. It is being implemented
with the help of Small Industries Development Bank of India, Cluster Craft to facilitate
the development of the fruit and vegetable processing industries in and around Pune.The
Meetings, Incentives, Conferencing, Exhibitions trade is expected to be boosted since the
Pune International Exhibition and Convention Centre (PIECC) opened in 2017. The 97-hectare
PIECC boasts a seating capacity of 20,000 with a floor area of 13,000 m2 (139,931 sq
ft). It has seven exhibition centres, a convention centre, a golf course, a five-star hotel,
a business complex, shopping malls, and residences. The US$115 million project was developed by
the Pimpri-Chinchwad New Town Development Authority.===List of companies headquartered in Pune
===The following is a list of some companies
that have their global or country headquarters in Pune or the surrounding area.==Demographics==The city has a population of 3,124,458; while
5,057,709 people reside in the Pune Urban Agglomeration as of the 2011 census. The latter
was c. 4,485,000 in 2005. According to the Pune Municipal Corporation (PMC), 40 % of
the population lived in slums in 2001.Since Pune is a major industrial metropolis, it
has attracted migrants from all parts of India. The number of people migrating to Pune rose
from 43,900 in 2001 to 88,200 in 2005. The sharp increase in population during the decade
1991–2001 led to the absorption of 38 fringe villages into the city. The top five source
areas of migrants are Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, and Rajasthan. The
Sindhis in the city are mostly refugees and their descendants, who came to the area after
the partition of India in 1947. Initially they settled in the Pimpri area, which is
still home to a large number of Sindhi people. However, they are also present in other parts
of the city. As agriculture has dwindled in recent decades, immigration of the erstwhile
rural peoples now accounts for 70 percent of the population growth.Marathi is the official
and most spoken language, while English, Hindi and Kannada are spoken by a large part of
the population. The average literacy rate of Pune was 86.15 % in 2011 compared to 80.45
% in 2001. Hinduism is the dominant religion in Pune. Other religions are Islam, Buddhism,
Jainism, Christianity and Zoroastrianism.==Urban Structure==The modern city of Pune has many distinct
neighbourhoods. These include the numerous peths of the old city on the eastern bank
of the Mutha river, the cantonment areas of Khadki and Pune Camp established by the British,
and numerous suburbs. The industrial growth in the Pimpri, Chinchwad and nearby areas
allowed these areas to incorporate as the separate city of Pimpri-Chinchwad.The Pune
Metropolitan Region (PMR), initially defined in 1967, has grown to 7,256.46 km2 made up
of the ten talukas of the Pune district. The twin cities of Pune and Pimpri-Chinchwad along
with the three cantonment areas of Pune, Khadki and Dehu Road form the urban core of the PMR,
which also includes seven municipal councils and 842 villages.Rapid industrialisation since
the 1960s has led to large influx of people to the city. Housing supply has not kept pace
with demand, causing the number of slum dwellings to increase. Approximately 36% of the population
lives in 486 slum areas. Of these, 45% of slum households do not have in-house toilet
facilities and 10% do not have electricity. One third of the slums are on mixed ownership
land. The living conditions in slums varies considerably, depending on their status (formal/informal)
and in how far Non-governmental organizations (NGOs), Community organizations (CBOs) and
government agencies are involved and committed to improving local living conditions.Since
the 1990s a number of landmark integrated townships and gated communities have been
developed in the city such as Magarpatta, Nanded, Amanora, Blue Ridge, Life Republic
and Lavasa. They also offer business opportunities and access to infrastructure. According to
the PMC, six townships with up to 15,000 housing units existed in Pune in 2012 and 25 more
were in the planning process.The Mercer 2017 Quality of Living Rankings evaluated living
conditions in more than 440 cities around the world and ranked Pune at 145, second highest
in India after Hyderabad at 144. The same source highlights Pune as being among evolving
business centres and as one of nine emerging cities around the world with the citation
“Hosts IT and automotive companies”. The 2017 Annual Survey of India’s City-Systems (ASICS)
report, released by the Janaagraha Centre for Citizenship and Democracy, adjudged Pune
as the best governed of 23 major cities.===Peths in Pune===Peth is a general term in the Marathi language
for a locality in Pune. Seventeen peths are located in Pune, which today constitute the
old city of Pune. All were established during the Maratha empire era under the Maratha and
Peshwa rule of the city in the 18th century, before the arrival of the British. Seven of
them are named after the days of the week in Marathi: traders and craftsmen in a peth
mainly conducted business on that day of the week. Other peths are named after their respective
founders.==Government and public services=====
Civic administration===Pune Municipal Corporation (PMC) is the civic
body responsible for local government. It comprises two branches, the executive branch
headed by the Municipal Commissioner, an IAS officer appointed by the Government of Maharashtra,
and an elected deliberative branch, the general body, headed by the Mayor. Municipal elections
are held every five years to elect councillors, commonly known as “corporators”, who form
the general body. The current general body of the PMC elected in February 2017 has 162
corporators representing 41 wards (39 with 4 corporators each and 2 with 3 each). The
general body, in turn, elects the Mayor and the Deputy Mayor. The Mayor has a ceremonial
role as the first citizen and ambassador of the city while the actual executive power
lies with the Municipal Commissioner. For policy deliberations, corporators form several
committees. Perhaps the most important of these is the 16-member Standing Committee,
half of whose members retire every year. The Standing Committee and the 15 ward committees
are in charge of financial approvals. PMC was ranked 8th out of 21 Indian cities for
best governance and administrative practices in 2014. It scored 3.5 out of 10 compared
to the national average of 3.3.The Pune City Police Department is the law enforcement agency
for the twin cities of Pune and Pimpri-Chinchwad. It is a division of the Maharashtra Police
and is headed by the Police Commissioner, an officer of the Indian Police Service. The
Pune Police Department reports to the State Ministry of Home Affairs. A separate police
commissionerate was announced for Pimpri-Chinchwad in April 2018 to be carved out of Pune Police
Department. The new commissionerate will take charge on 15 August 2018.Pune Metropolitan
Region Development Authority (PMRDA) was formed on 31 March 2015 and is responsible for the
integrated development of the PMR. Currently its jurisdiction extends over 7,256.46 km2
(2,802 sq mi) and includes two municipal corporations, three cantonment boards, seven municipal councils,
13 census towns and 842 villages.===Utility services===
The PMC supplies the city with potable water that is sourced from the Khadakwasla Reservoir.
There are five other reservoirs in the area that supply water to the city and the greater
metropolitan area.The city lacks the capacity to treat all the sewage it generates, which
leads to the Mutha river containing only sewage outside the monsoon months. In 2009 only 65%
of sewage generated was treated before being discharged into the rivers. PMC is also responsible
for collecting solid waste. Around 1,600 tons of solid waste is generated in Pune each day.
The waste consists of 53% organic, compostable material; and 47% inorganic material, of which
around half is recyclable. The unrecovered solid waste is transported to the dumping
grounds in Urali devachi.The state owned Maharashtra State Electricity Distribution Company Limited
supplies electricity to the city. Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL), owned by the central
government, as well as private enterprises such as Vodafone, Bharti Airtel, Reliance,
Idea Cellular, Aircel, Tata DoCoMo, Tata Teleservices, Virgin Mobile, and MTS India, are the leading
telephone and cell phone service providers in the city.==Transport=====
Public transport===Public transport in Pune includes Pune Suburban
Railway, bus services operated by PMPML and auto rickshaws. Online transport network companies
such as Uber and Ola Cabs also provide rideshare and taxi services in the city. Construction
of Pune Metro, an urban mass rapid transit system, is underway as of 2018.====Rail====Pune Suburban Railway (electric multiple units)
(popularly called local trains) connect Pune to the industrial city of Pimpri-Chinchwad
and the hill station of Lonavala. Daily express trains connect Pune to Mumbai, Chennai, Delhi,
Hyderabad, Jaipur, Nagpur, Thiruvananthapuram, Kochi, Coimbatore, Bangalore, Allahabad, Kanpur,
Howrah, Jammu Tawi, Darbhanga, Goa, Gwalior, Varanasi, Bhubaneswar, Ranchi, Patna, and
Jamshedpur. At Pune, there is a diesel locomotive shed and an electric trip shed. Pune Railway
Station is administered by the Pune Railway Division of Central Railways.====Bus service====Public buses within the city and its suburbs
are operated by Pune Mahanagar Parivahan Mahamandal Limited (PMPML). PMPML operates the Rainbow
BRTS system, the first of its kind in India, in which dedicated bus lanes were supposed
to allow buses to travel quickly through the city. The project has turned out to be a failure,
receiving little patronage from the local citizenry. Maharashtra State Road Transport
Corporation runs buses from stations in Shivajinagar, Pune station, and Swargate to all major cities
and towns in Maharashtra and neighbouring states. Private companies also run buses to
major cities throughout India.====Metro====Pune Metro, a mass rapid transit system, is
under construction and is expected to be operational by 2021. The detailed project report was prepared
for the initial two lines by Delhi Metro Rail Corporation which was approved by the State
government in 2012 and by the central government in December 2016. Two lines, Line 1 from Pimpri-Chinchwad
to Swargate and Line 2 from Ramwadi to Vanaz, with a combined length of 31.25 kilometres
(19.42 mi), are being constructed by MahaMetro, a 50:50 joint venture of the State and central
governments. Line 1 will run underground between Swargate and Range Hills be and elevated until
Pimpri-Chinchwad. Line 2 will be completely elevated and will intersect Line 1 at the
Civil Court interchange station in Shivajinagar.Line 3 between Hinjawadi and Civil Court, Shivajinagar
was approved by the state and central governments in January and March 2018, respectively. This
23.3-km line is being implemented by PMRDA on a public-private partnership basis.===Road transport===Pune is well-connected to other cities by
Indian and state highways. National Highway 4 connects it to Mumbai, Bangalore and Kolhapur.
National Highway 65 to Hyderabad, Suryapet, Vijayawada and National Highway 50 to Nashik.
State highways connect Pune to Ahmednagar, Aurangabad and Alandi. Pune is served by three
intra-city highways: Old Mumbai–Pune Highway; Pune–Satara Highway and Dehu Road–Katraj
bypass, all part of National Highway 4. The Mumbai-Pune Expressway is India’s first
six-lane high-speed expressway, and it was built in 2002. Only four wheeled vehicles
are allowed on it. This expressway has reduced travel time between Pune and Mumbai to a little
over two hours. A ring road is planned.====Personal transport====Once known as the “cycle city of India”, Pune
has experienced a rapid growth in the number of motorised two wheelers replacing the bicycle.
In 2005 the city was reported to have one million two wheelers. The report also stated
that the increase in vehicular and industrial activity had led to a 10-fold increase in
particulate pollution in some areas of the city. A report published in 2016 estimated
the number of two wheeler users in Pune at 3.5 million. In 2018 the number of vehicles
in the city has exceeded its population with 3.62 million total vehicles, 2.70 million
being two wheelers. In the fiscal year 2017–18 alone 300,000 new vehicles were registered
in the city, two-thirds of them two wheelers.A revival of cycling in Pune with 130 kilometres
(81 mi) of cycle tracks built was attempted as a part of the BRT system under the Jawaharlal
Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission in 2004. However, a 2011 report revealed that only
88 kilometres (55 mi) of tracks were actually built and most were unusable at the time of
the report. Under the Smart Cities Mission, app based cycle sharing schemes have been
launched in the city since late 2017. The PMC has devised the Pune Cycle Plan with 470
kilometres (290 mi) of cycle tracks planned. Cycles are also seen as a possible way of
improving last mile connectivity for the metro system.===Air===Pune International Airport is an international
Airport at Lohegaon, operated by the Airports Authority of India. It shares its runways
with the neighbouring Indian Air Force base. In addition to domestic flights to all major
Indian cities, the airport has international direct flights to Dubai, operated by Air India
Express, and Frankfurt, operated by Lufthansa.A new international airport has been proposed
, due to the limited capacity of the existing airport. A location in the Chakan-Rajgurunagar
area was chosen for the airport, but non-availability of land delayed the project for over a decade.
In September 2016 the location was changed to Purandar, c. 20 kilometres (12 mi) south
of the city.==Healthcare==Healthcare in the PMR is provided by private
and public facilities. Primary care is provided by practitioners of western as well as traditional
alternative medicine (i.e.Ayurved, Homeopathy and Unani). For minor and chronic ailments,
people in the region have preference for practitioners of the traditional medicine.The PMR is served
by three government hospitals: Sassoon Hospital, Budhrani and Dr. Ambedkar Hospital. There
are also a number of private hospitals such as Sahyadri, Jahangir Nursing Home, Sancheti
Hospital, Aditya Birla Memorial Hospital, KEM Hospital, Ruby Hall and Dinanath Mangeshkar
Hospital.==Education and research==Pune has over a hundred educational institutes
and more than nine deemed universities apart from the Savitribai Phule Pune University
(SPPU; formerly University of Pune), which is the second largest University in the country
based on total number of affiliated colleges. Higher education institutes attract international
students mainly from the Middle Eastern countries such as Iran, and United Arab Emirates, and
also African countries such as Ethiopia and Kenya. Pune is the largest centre for Japanese
learning in India. Other languages taught in the city include German, which is taught
at the Goethe-Institut, and French, which is taught at Alliance Française.===Basic education===The PMC runs 297 primary schools and 30 secondary
and higher secondary schools. While it is mandatory for the PMC to provide primary education
under state law, secondary education is an optional duty. In the rural and suburban areas
of the PMR, public primary schools are run by the Pune Zilla Parishad. Private schools
are run by education trusts and are required to undergo mandatory inspection by the concerned
authorities. Private schools are eligible for financial aid from the state government.
Public schools are affiliated to the Maharashtra State Board of Secondary and Higher Secondary
Education (State Board). The language of instruction in public schools is primarily Marathi, although
the PMC also runs Urdu, English and Kannada medium schools. Along with these languages,
private schools also offer instruction in Hindi and Gujarati. Private schools vary in
their choice of curriculum and may follow the State Board or one of the two central
boards of education, the CBSE or CISCE.===University education===
Most colleges in Pune are affiliated to the SPPU. Nine other universities have also been
established in the city. Pune also hosts the Military Intelligence Training School which
offers diploma courses in counter intelligence, combat intelligence, aerial imagery and interpretation,
among others.The College of Engineering Pune, an autonomous institute of the government
of Maharashtra founded in 1854, is the third oldest engineering college in Asia. The Deccan
Education Society was founded by local citizens in 1884, including social and political activist
Bal Gangadhar Tilak, who was also responsible for founding Fergusson College in 1885. The
Indian Law Society’s (ILS) Law College is one of the top ten law schools in India. The
Armed Forces Medical College (AFMC) and B. J. Medical College are among the top medical
colleges in India. The AFMC consistently ranks among the top five medical colleges in India.
The Film and Television Institute of India, one of only three Indian institutions in the
global CILECT film school network, is located on Law College Road. The Lalit Kala Kendra
is an undergraduate department of Music, Dance and Drama on the SPPU campus that has been
operational since 1987. This department features a combination of gurukul and formal education
systems.Symbiosis International University operates 33 colleges and institutions in the
city, including the Symbiosis Institute of Business Management, the Symbiosis Institute
of Management Studies, the Symbiosis Centre for Management and Human Resource Development,
the Symbiosis Law School and the Symbiosis Institute of International Business. They
are ranked among the top management and law institutes in the country. The Symbiosis Institute
of Computer Studies and Research is one of the few colleges in India that promotes open
source technology.===Research Institutes===Pune is home to a number of governmental and
non-governmental research institutes focusing on a wide range of subject areas from the
humanities to the sciences. The Ministry of Defence also runs a number of defence related
education, training and research establishments in and around the city. Major research centers
include: Agharkar Research Institute (ARI)
Armament Research Development Establishment (ARDE)
Army Institute of Technology (AIT) Automotive Research Association of India (ARAI)
Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute (BORI) Central Institute of Road Transport (CIRT)
Central Water and Power Research Station (CW&PRS) Centre for Development of Advanced Computing
(C-DAC) Defence Research and Development Organisation
(DRDO) Defence Institute of Advanced Technology (DIAT)
National Defense Academy (NDA) Gokhale Institute of Politics and Economics
High Energy Materials Research Laboratory (HEMRL)
Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Pune (IISER, Pune)
Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM) – scientists at IITM has made significant
achievements in tropical weather Inter-university Centre for Astronomy & Astrophysics
(IUCAA) National Centre for Cell Science (NCCS)
National Centre for Radio Astrophysics (NCRA) National Chemical Laboratory (NCL) – one
of the leading chemical research establishments in India
National Informatics Centre (NIC) National Institute of Bank Management (NIBM)
National Institute of Construction Management and Research (NICMAR) – India’s most reputed
institute for Construction Management National Institute of Virology (NIV)
National School of Leadership (NSL) National Insurance Academy (NIA)
Tata Research Development and Design Centre (TRDDC)==Culture=====
Architecture===Historical attractions include the rock-cut
Pataleshwar cave temple, Aga Khan Palace, Shaniwarwada, Lal Mahal and Sinhagad fort.
Shinde Chhatri, located at Wanowrie, is a memorial dedicated to the great Maratha sardar,
Mahadaji Shinde (Scindia). The city is also known for its British Raj bungalow architecture
and the Garden Cities Movement layout of the Cantonment from the early 20th century. Landmark
architectural works by Christopher Charles Benninger surround the city, including the
Mahindra United World College of India, the Centre for Development Studies and Activities,
the YMCA Retreat at Nilshi and the Samundra Institute of Maritime Studies.===Museums, parks and zoos===Museums in Pune include the Raja Dinkar Kelkar
Museum, Mahatma Phule Industrial Museum, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Museum, Joshi’s Museum
of Miniature Railway and the Pune Tribal Museum. Pune also houses Blades of Glory Cricket Museum
which is the biggest cricket museum in the world. The College of Military Engineering
has an archive and an equipment museum; this includes a rail exhibit with a metre-gauge
train.The Aga Khan Palace, where Mahatma Gandhi was interned during the Quit India movement,
has a memorial dedicated to his wife, Kasturba Gandhi who died here during the internment.
Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Museum of Indian History,a private museum built by frenchman
Francois Gautier opened its first phase in 2012.
Parks and green spaces in the city include the Kamala Nehru Park, Sambhaji Park, Shahu
Udyan, Peshwe Park, Saras Baug, Empress Gardens, and Bund Garden . The Pu La Deshpande Udyan
is a replica of the Korakuen Garden in Okayama, Japan. The Hanuman hill, Vetal hill, and Taljai
Hills are protected nature reserves on hills within the city limits.
The Rajiv Gandhi Zoological Park is located in Katraj. The zoo, earlier located at Peshwe
Park, was merged with the reptile park at Katraj in 1999.===Performing arts===
Both experimental and professional theatre receive extensive patronage from the Marathi
community. The Tilak Smarak Ranga Mandir, Bal Gandharva Ranga Mandir, Bharat Natya Mandir,
Yashwantrao Chavan Natya Gruha, and Sudarshan Rangmanch are prominent theatres in the city.
Ganesh Kala Krida Rangamanch is the largest indoor theatre in the city, with a seating
capacity of 45,000. The Sawai Gandharva Sangeet Mahotsav, one of the most prominent and sought-after
Indian classical music festivals in India, is held in Pune every year in December. It
commemorates the life and achievements of Sawai Gandharva. The concept of Diwāḷī
Pahāṭ (lit. Diwali dawn) originated in Pune as a music festival on the morning of
the festival of Diwali.===Religious establishments and spirituality
===The city is home to numerous religious establishments
and places of worship for all religious groups residing in the city. These include Hindu
temples, Jain temples, gurdwaras, Buddhist viharas, mosques, churches, Jewish synagogues
and Zoroastrian fire temples.Of the many Hindu temples in the city, the temples on Parvati
Hill and at least 250 others date back to the 18th century. These temples were commissioned
by the Peshwas, who ruled the city at the time, and are dedicated to various deities
including Maruti, Vithoba, Vishnu, Mahadeo, Rama, Krishna and Ganesh. The historic temples
of Kasba Ganapati, the Red Jogeshwari and the Dulya Maruti are considered the guardian
deities of the city. Pune area has two of the most important pilgrimage centres of the
Varkari sect of the Bhakti movement in Maharashtra. These are the towns of Alandi where the samadhi
of 13th century Saint Dnyaneshwar is located and Dehu where the 17th century Saint Tukaram
lived. Every year in the Hindu month of Ashadh (June/July), the Paduka (symbolic sandals)
of these saints are carried in a pilgrimage, the Vari, to meet Vithoba. The procession
makes a stopover in the city on its way to Pandharpur attracting hundreds of thousands
of Varkaris and other devotees. Other important Hindu pilgrimage sites in PMR or the district
include Jejuri, and five of ashtavinayak Ganesh temples. The Shrutisagar Ashram houses the
Vedanta Research Centre and a unique temple of Dakshinamurthy.
Prominent mosques include Chand Tara Masjid, Jama Masjid, and Azam Campus Masjid. Chand
Tara Masjid, located in Nana Peth, is one of the biggest and most important mosques
in Pune as it is the city headquarters (markaz) for the Tablighi Jamaat. Pune is also the
birthplace of Meher Baba, although his followers usually travel to Meherabad to visit his tomb.
Hazrat Babajan, identified by Meher Baba as one of the five perfect masters, has a shrine
(Dargah) erected in her honour under a neem tree in Pune Camp. The city has several churches
dedicated to different christian denominations including St. Anthony’s Shrine, Dapodi Church,
etc. St. Patrick’s Cathedral built in 1850 is the seat of the bishop of the Roman Catholic
Diocese of Poona. Pune has Jain temples dating back to the Peshwa era. At present, there
are more than one hundred Jain temples in PMR with the one at Katraj being the largest.
Pune has over 20 Gurdwaras, with Gurdwara Guru Nanak Darbar in Pune Camp and Gurdwara
Shri Guru Singh Sabha in Ganesh Peth being the ones situated in the heart of the city.
The 19th-century Ohel David Synagogue, known locally as Lal Deval, is said to be one of
the largest synagogues in Asia outside Israel. The Sir Jamsetjee Jejeebhoy Agiary is a prominent
Zoroastrian temple. Pune has been associated with several significant
recent spiritual teachers. The controversial Guru Osho, formerly the self-styled Bhagwan
Rajneesh, lived and taught in Pune for much of the 1970s and 1980s. The Osho International
Meditation Resort, one of the world’s largest spiritual centres, is located in Koregaon
Park and attracts visitors from over a hundred countries. The meditation resort organizes
music and meditation festival every year during monsoon, known as Osho Monsoon Festival. Number
of well known artists around the world participates in the event.==Media==
A number of Marathi-language newspapers from the British era continued publishing decades
after independence. These included Kesari, Tarun Bharat, Prabhat and the politically
neutral Sakal. Sakal has remained the most popular Marathi daily. Kesari is now only
published as an online newspaper. Mumbai based Maharashtra Times, Loksatta and Lokmat have
all introduced Pune based editions in the last fifteen years. The Mumbai-based popular
English newspaper the Indian Express has a Pune edition. Its rival the Times of India
introduced a tabloid called Pune Mirror in 2008. Mid Day, Daily News and Analysis and
Sakaal Times are other local English newspapers. The English-language newspaper The Hindu has
launched a Pune edition covering local as well as national news.The government owned
All India Radio (AIR) has been broadcasting from Pune since 1953. Savitribai Phule Pune
University broadcasts programmes focusing on its different departments and student welfare
schemes on its own FM radio channel called Vidyavani. A number of commercial FM channels
are also received in the city. The city receives almost all of the television channels in India
including broadcast, cable and direct-to-home TV.==Sport==As a matter of historic interest, early on,
the game of badminton was also known as Poona or Poonah after the then British garrison
town of Poona where it was particularly popular and where the first rules for the game were
drawn up in 1873. (Games employing shuttlecocks have been played for centuries across Eurasia,
but the modern game of badminton developed in the mid-19th century among the British
as a variant of the earlier game of battledore and shuttlecock. “Battledore” was an older
term for “racquet”.) Popular games and sports in Pune include athletics, cricket, basketball,
badminton, field hockey, football, tennis, kabaddi, paragliding, kho-kho, rowing, and
chess. The Chhatrapati Shivaji Stadium in Mangalwar Peth is the venue for wrestling
and other traditional sports. The Royal Connaught Boat Club is one of several boating clubs
on the Mula-Mutha river. Pune has basketball courts at the Deccan Gymkhana and at Fergusson
College. Pune Skatepark is a skateboarding park built in Sahakarnagar, consisting of
an eight-foot bowl in a 3,000 square foot flatground. Other prominent sporting institutions
in Pune include the Nehru Stadium, the PYC Hindu Gymkhana, the Poona Golf Club and the
Poona Cricket Club. The Pune International Marathon is an annual
marathon conducted in Pune. The National Games of 1994 and the 2008 Commonwealth Youth Games
were held in the city at the Balewadi Stadium. The Deccan Gymkhana has hosted Davis Cup matches
on several occasions. The 37,000 seating capacity Maharashtra Cricket Association Stadium has
hosted international cricket – T20s, One Day Internationals, and a test match. The
National Education Foundation organises Enduro3, a cross country adventure race in Pune. It
is a two- or three-day event with activities including cycling, trekking, river-crossing
and rifle shooting. Pune Race Course was built in 1830 on 118.5 acres (0.480 km2) of land
and is managed by the Royal Western India Turf Club. The course has two training tracks
and two racing surfaces. The racing season is from July to October every year and includes
major racing events the Pune Derby, the RWITC Invitational, the Independence Cup and the
Southern Command Cup. The city has also hosted the 2009 FIVB Men’s Junior World Championship.===Teams===
The Maharashtra cricket team, one of the three teams of the Maharashtra Cricket Association
that compete in interstate matches and leagues such as the Ranji Trophy, is based in the
city. Pune Warriors India (2011-2014) and Rising Pune Supergiant (2016-2017) were the
two teams based in Pune to play in the Indian Premier League. Poona District Football Association
(PDFA) was established in 1972 and currently has more than 100 registered teams. FC Pune
City is an Indian Super League football club in Pune. Established in 2014, FC Pune City
became the only professional football club in India to have teams which participated
at all levels of professional football; Senior Team (ISL), U-18 Team (I-League U-18), U-
16 Team, U-14 Team and the Women’s Team. The city is home to the Pune Peshwas, runners-up
in the 2015 UBA Pro Basketball League season. Pune also has an American football franchise,
called the Pune Marathas, which began playing in the inaugural season of the Elite Football
League of India in 2011 and which plays at the Balewadi Stadium.==International relations==
World Trade Center (WTC) Pune is a 1.6 million sq. ft. infrastructure to foster international
trade. WTC Pune is part of the World Trade Centers Association.Twin towns and sister
cities San José, CA, United States (1992) Vacoas-Phoenix, MauritiusInformal relationship Bremen, Germany==See also==Culture of Pune
List of people from Pune List of tourist attractions in Pune
Pune Mahanagar Parivahan Mahamandal Limited Pune Metro
Chhatrapati Sambhaji Raje International Airport

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