Polish nationalism | Wikipedia audio article

Polish nationalism | Wikipedia audio article


Polish nationalism is the nationalism that
asserts that Poles are a Polish nation, and promotes the cultural unity of Poles. Norman Davies, in the context of Polish nationalism,
defined nationalism in general as “a doctrine … to create a nation by arousing people’s
awareness of their nationality, and to mobilize their feelings into a vehicle for political
action”.The old Polish proto-nationalism of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth based on
the Polish-Lithuanian identity was multi-ethnic and multi-religious, though ethnic Poles were
still the majority and Roman Catholicism was still the most dominant religion amongst the
nation. The nationalist ideology developed soon after
the Partitions was initially free of “ethnic nationalism” of any kind. It was a Romantic movement for the restoration
of the Polish sovereign state. Polish Romantic nationalism was described
by Maurycy Mochnacki as “the essence of the nation” no longer defined by borders but by
ideas, feelings, and thoughts resulting from the past. The birth of modern nationalism under foreign
rule coincided with the November Uprising of 1830 and the subsequent Spring of Nations. However, the defeat suffered by the Poles
also broke the Polish revolutionary spirit. Many intellectuals turned to social Darwinism
of Herbert Spencer, blaming the Romantic philosophy for the loss of their property, mass destruction,
and ultimately the loss of the nation. With the advent of Positivism between 1860
and 1890 Polish nationalism became an elitist cause. Because the partitioning powers could not
have identified themselves with the Polish nation, therefore the ideology became more
restrictive in terms of ethnicity and religion.==History==
The earliest manifestations of Polish nationalism, and conscious discussions of what it means
to be a citizen of the Polish nation, can be traced to the 17th or 18th centuries, with
some scholars going as far back as the 13th century. Early Polish nationalism, or protonationalism,
was related to the Polish-Lithuanian identity, represented primarily by the Polish nobility
(szlachta), and their cultural values (such as the Golden Freedoms and Sarmatism). It was founded on civic, republican ideas. This early form of Polish nationalism begun
to fray and transform with the destruction of the Polish state in the late 18th century
partitions of Poland.Modern Polish nationalism arose as a movement in the late 18th and early
19th centuries amongst Polish activists who promoted a Polish national consciousness while
rejecting cultural assimilation with the regions they then resided in that were partitioned
and conquered by Austria, Prussia and Russia. This was the consequence of Polish statelessness,
as the Polish nationality was suppressed by the authorities of countries which acquired
the territory of the former Commonwealth. It was during that time that Polishness begun
to be identified with ethnicity, increasingly excluding groups such as the Polish Jews,
who were previously more likely to be accepted as Polish patriots. This was also the period in which Polish nationalism,
previously common to both left-wing and right-wing political platforms, became more redefined
as limited to the right-wing, with the appearance of politician Roman Dmowski who renamed Liga
Polska (the Polish League) as Liga Narodowa (the National League) in 1893.Polish nationalism
reached its heights in the second half of the 19th and the first half of the 20th century. Its crucial waves followed the Polish defeat
in the January Uprising in 1864, the restoration of an independent Polish state in 1918 and
the establishment of a homogenous ethnic Polish state in 1945. It has often been pointed out that the period
of partition has a strong significance for Poles as a chapter in Polish history where
the Polish nation survived and became socially and culturally stronger despite the loss of
independence. An important element of Polish nationalism
has been its identification with the Roman Catholic religion, through this is a relatively
recent development, with its roots in the counter-reformation of the 17th century, and
one that became established clearly in the interwar period. Although the old Commonwealth was religiously
diverse and highly tolerant, the Roman Catholic religious narrative with messianic undertones
(the Christ of Nations) became one of the defining characteristics of the modern Polish
identity. Roman Dmowski, a Polish politician of that
era, was vital in defining that concept, and has been called the “father of Polish nationalism.”The
post-World War II human migrations, with the resultant demographic and territorial changes
of Poland that drastically reduced the number of ethnic minorities in Poland, also played
a major role in the creation of the modern Polish state and nationality.In communist
Poland the regime adopted, modified and used for its official ideology and propaganda some
of the nationalist concepts developed by Dmowski. As Dmowski’s National Democrats strongly believed
in a “national” (ethnically homogenous) state, even if this criterion necessitated a reduced
territory, their territorial and ethnic ideas were accepted and practically implemented
by the Polish communists, acting with Joseph Stalin’s permission. Stalin himself in 1944-45 conferenced with
and was influenced by a leading National Democrat Stanisław Grabski, a coauthor of the planned
border and population shifts and an embodiment of the nationalist-communist collusion.==Parties=====
Current===Polish Socialist Party (1892–1948, 1987–present)
Confederation of Independent Poland (1979–present) National Revival of Poland (1981–present)
National Party (1989–present) Self-Defence of the Republic of Poland (1992–present)
National Radical Camp (1993–present) National-Catholic Movement (1997–present)
Law and Justice (2001–present) League of Polish Families (2001–present)
Polish National Party (2004–present) Party of Regions (2007–present)
Forward Poland (2008–present) National Movement (2012–present)
United Poland (2012–present) Free and Solidary (2016–present)===Former===
National Democracy (1886–1947) National-Democratic Party (1897–1919)
Popular National Union (1919–1928) Camp of Great Poland (1926–1933)
National Party (1928–1947) National Radical Camp (1934)
National Radical Camp Falanga (1934–1939) Christian National Union (1989–2010)
Movement for Reconstruction of Poland (1995–2012)==See also==
Politics in Poland Polonization
Polish national songs Citizens of Poland (movement

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