Point Culture : les figures de style

Point Culture : les figures de style


{TN: This Culture Point shows a lot of text on screen, most of which are examples.} {Considering how fast and important the speech is, every pannel will be translated at the end of the point in a very short moment. The viewer is suggested to pause the video at this moment and read it.} {Some examples don’t make sense when literally translated. For better understanding, they have been changed.} Hi everyone, welcome to this Culture Point which is gonna be shorter than previous ones. It’s about a topic that doesn’t really go well with visual effects: stylistic devices. Stylistic devices are like trigonometry for literature majors, That is to say there’s always a moment when you start high school and think… Uh… I’ll never need to use this… It’s both true and totally false. Why is it true ? Well, if I ask you, “What’s a hypallage?” and you don’t know, it won’t change your life I’ll explain and you’ll forget. [It’s when two words are related though there should be a third one, like in “The night was silent”. The night isn’t silent, the place where you are is. But honestly, do you really give even a tiny fuck?] Similarly, if I ask you what the stylistic device is in “Six savory sausages sizzling”, If you don’t know, you could always answer : “Shut up and eat your fucking sausage.” But why is it false? Well, for 3 reasons. Yeah, call the media, we’ve never seen a ternary rhythm in a Culture Point before. First reason: you look so much smarter when you know the name of the thing you’re identifying! You know, that little awkward moment when your dad calls this a Pikachu or calls this character “Sankukai” Wouldn’t it be much more badass to hear your dad say: “But of course Superman beats San Goku I mean, even in Saiyan God, Son Goku won’t use neither Kryptonite, magic nor red sun The Saiyan code of honor will make him fight a Kryptonian at the peak of his strength And at the peak of his strength Kal-El is virtually invulnerable!” So! What I’m trying to say is that when used at the right time, the proper vocabulary gives you credibility. Reason #2: It helps you realize how you’re being manipulated. Of course, first the authors, but also medias, politicians, commenters… even your teachers and even your favorite YouTubers! Manipulation is a bit of a strong term but if one talks, it’s to say something. And if one wants to say something, there needs to be a way of saying it, and so the way of saying it allows one to direct the message you’re trying to convey a little. Watch what just happened. Ternary rhythm, largely used in argumentation. I begin with an epanorthosis: I employ a term that I correct afterwards It creates the impression that I seek precision But the usage of a slightly sensationalist word like “manipulation” Aims to get your attention ! Once it’s acquired, I soften the remark: here, a pleonasm, it looks like I’m saying the same thing twice, which incites you to accept this proposition, But no, if one talks, it isn’t necessarily to say something “Blafe dafe dafe” Afterwards, we have a somewhat low example of anadiplosis (The start of the proposition reuses the end of the previous proposition) The argumentation is thus a machine with cogs that fit together As if everything was mechanically logical, And this is a mise en abyme (when a movie character goes to see a movie, when a novel character reads a novel, when there’s a work inside a work) Or in this case, an analysis inside the analysis. I illustrate an argument using the argument as an example. And for those who would disagree, we can also point out that here is an ellipsis, There’s a metaphor here, a comparison here, An epanaphora here and finally, an accumulation with a brachylogy here. And reason #3: it makes you conscious about what you say, and it’s silly, but knowing stylistic devices allow you to avoid lousy verbal tics. Like, you’ll know that “Asking a question” is a pleonasm, so you’ll avoid saying it. And you’ll know that, despite very rare examples, and again, that’s debatable, despite how much Proust enjoys them, but Proust’s language is not very fit for oral speech, unless that was intentional, as it is here for example, because in case you didn’t understand, which I doubt, I illustrate my words with examples which might trouble the viewer, though here “hearer” sounds more appropriate, even though, really, you’re watching a video The hyperhypotaxis [T.N.: neologism] (the act of overloading your sentence with subordinates) can be a trap. And need I remind that it’s very clumsy to conclude on a rhetorical question? So here are 20 stylistic devices you can try to remember, And among those 20 devices, about 10 should really help the highschoolers who have literature finals this year. #1 : Litotes and Euphemisms. The two of them are related, but they have opposed effects. Litotes make it seem bigger, while euphemism makes it seem smaller. A litote is to say “not dead” to say “alive” And euphemism is saying [Yeah, he’s tall] to say [he’s 8’2″]. So in the first case, you say the opposite of the opposite of what you mean, and in the second, you use a weaker word. If, on the news, you here them say about some game that “it wasn’t the game of the century”, it doesn’t mean it was almost the game of the century but another was better, no, it means it was a shitty game, And when Kubrick said with “2001 Space Odyssey” that he wanted to make a “nice little sci-fi movie”, it’s a euphemism! Here’s a mnemonic: {TN: menmonics are translated to sound right in English} litotes sound like “light outs” which could be a litote to describe night. I’ll do what I can. And for euphemisms, “don’t say “you a feminist?” (~euphemism) because it sounds violent to some, rather say “are you in favor of gender equality?” ” [Examples of litotes: “Go, I hate you not” (Corneille’s El Cid)
“Toto, I don’t think we’re in Kansas anymore” (The Wizard of Oz)
“I am not really your prince charming (For the Best)
“You don’t look good”.
Examples of euphemisms: “He passed away”
“I am tired, boss” (The Green Line)
“I go to the flowers, my soul in peace” (Jacques Brel’s Le Moribond)
“Suicide is dangerous for health”] #2: hyperbole and gradation. These two are very simple. Hyperbole is when you do too much, as opposed to euphemism. And my mnemonic is the same as yours “That game was so good it wasn’t even Superbowl level, it was Hyperbolw level.” Or if you prefer, saying that an actor is a “sacred monster”, that a book is a “must-read”, or, the one I hate the most, saying that you’re in it more than 100%. It annoys me because it devalues the very idea of being 100% in something, which is already an hyperbole. People who do things by 200%, or 500% or 2,000%, I just want to tell them: “Man.” “What stopped you from adding just 10% more? You don’t want to succeed?” [Examples: “You are the Phoenix of these woods” (The Crow and the Fox)
“Our arrows will blot out the sun” (300)
“My dummy face makes the crowds go wild” (The antidote)
“I played Skyrim for like 50,000 hours.”] As for gradation, I think you see what it is, it’s going bigger and bigger. The most well-known example is Cyrano de Bergerac about his nose ”Tis a rock! a peak! a cape!–A cape, forsooth! ‘Tis a peninsular!” But if you enjoy Yours Truly’s videos, I send you back to this extract of the NMT about Renaud. “HE’S A PACHYDERM! A CONTINENT! A CONTINENT, FORSOOTH! HE’S A FUCKING EXOPLANET!” The homage is obvious. But there are other examples. Gradation can go both ways! For example: “Let me become” “The shadow of your shadow” “The shadow of your hand” “The shadow of your dog, but-” It’s a descending gradation. These are pretty simple. [Examples: “Tis a rock! A peak! A cape!” (Cyrano de Bergerac)
“I would follow you, my brother, my captain, my King” (LOTR The Fellowship of the Rings)
“I love you a little, a lot, passionately, to madness” (Caroline)
“I bought an Amiibo. And the game to go with it. And so the Wii U, obviously. And a TV so I can play it. I mean, Amiibos are pretty.”] Not unlike #3: assonance and alliteration. They’re sonorities that strategically come back in a sentence to create an echo effect. The difference is that alliteration is about consonants and assonance is about vowels. I don’t really have a mnemonic here, but if you want, you can remember that Assonances Are often Artistic, while aLLiterations receive LittLe Love out of Letters. It obviously gives rhythm to a text, but it can also be used for imitating harmony. To imitate the sound of the topic. The best known example in France is Andromache’s “For whom are THoSe SnakeS that hiSS on your headS?” The alliteration in S imitates the sound of a snake. And Kaa from The Jungle Book places a lot of importance there. “Is is you, Kaa?” “YeS, mancub. So niCe to See you again. Sss sss sss sss sss.” [Examples of alliterations: “For whom are THoSe SnakeS that hiSS on your headS” (Racine’s Andromache)
“Verily, this Vichyssoise of Verbiage Veers most Verbose Vis-à-Vis an introduction.” (V for Vandetta)
“Whispering Words of Wisdom, let it be” (The Beatles)
“She sells seashells by the seashore”
Examples of assonance: “POetry is Old, gOes far back” (Early Moon)
“HAkunA mAtAtA, whAt a wonderful phrase” (The Lion King)
“I lIe down bY mY sIde for my brIde” (Pink Floyd)
“QuIte nIce whIte mIce”] #4: anaphora Anaphora is a heavy stylistic device. Anaphora is when you repeat an element at the begining of a line. Anaphora intends to place attention to the subject of the speech. Anaphora can also give a rhythm. Anyway. If you follow my videos, you can think (rightly so) about “Je Suis” {I Am} by BigFlo&Oli. And indeed, the title is used in an anaphora. Why? To accentuate the diversity of individuality. But also, in the last verse, to mark rhythm and do a gradation from the individual to the many. But anaphora is fairly easy to explain and never really well hidden. Unlike the chiasmus! [Examples: “ROME! that alone does my affliction prove, ROME! to whom thou hast sacrific’d my Love! ROME! that first gave thee life!” (Corneille’s Horace)
“WE will not go quietly into the night! WE will not vanish without a fight! WE’re going to live on! WE’re going to survive!” (Independence Day)
“WHO SAYS studies says work, WHO SAYS work says money, WHO SAYS money says spending, WHO SAYS credit says debt” (Stromae)
“I LOVE analyses, I LOVE metaphors, I LOVE anaphoras”] #5… Well, chiasmus. Because we’re talking about… chiasmus. As a mnemonic, I suggest you think about the Dancing Chiasmus: ~ Digging the dancing chiasmus! ~ [and I suggest you forget it] Why? Because the chiasmus is an ABB’A’ construction. I mean, A B B’ A’. *sigh* It’s one of my favorite devices, because it’s a bit foppish and very effective. [Ah! Like the band!] It can be grammatical, like “Her eyes were blue and long was her coat”. Not very sexy, we agree, but it’s a chiasmus. It can be phonetic, and much nicer, like: What’s the difference between a fisherman and a lazy schoolboy? One baits his hook, while the other hates his book. It’s a joke, and a phonetic chiasmus. And, much sexier and just as easy, the semantic chiasmus. If you know Victor Hugo: “Snow will do in the North what in the South sand does”. The Legend of the Ages. Read it. It’s good. If you prefer Kariss: “I know the power of love is nothing to the love of power.” And if you prefer my examples: I PEED IN THE SINK BUT IT’S IN THE BATHTUB THAT I POOPED! There! That’s one lively chiasmus example! [Example: “A king sang in the low, in the high died a god” (Hugo)
“Fair is foul and foul is fair” (Shakespeare)
“Man doesn’t go to sea, sea goes to man” (Renaud)
“Chiasmus is when you go to her and she comes to you”] What matters is that you remember, I do what I can. #6: comparisons and metaphors. It may be the simplest stylistic device: it’s when you compare a thing to… another thing. The difference is that a comparison uses an explicit word or phrase to express how the two ideas are related/ There’s a comparee, a comparer, and a comparison tool. Here’s an example: “You’re absent-minded.” With a comparison, it may be: “You look like you’re elsewhere.” You’re not physically elsewhere, it’s an analogy, which I show with the idea of “looking like” A metaphor doesn’t have a tool. It may give “You’re in your own world” or “Your head is in the clouds”. Someone who doesn’t get metaphors will freak out “WHAT DO YOU MEAN MY HEAD IS IN THE CLOUDS” [Examples of comparisons: “The Poet is close to the prince of the clouds” (The Albatross)
“Life is like a box of chocolates.” (Forrest Gump)
“And I live like a rolling flipper ball” (Boule de flipper)
“A comparison is like an image.”
Examples of metaphors: “My youth was all but a dark storm” (L’Ennemi)
“You’re not a special snowflake” (Fight Club)
“Economy is always more wolves in the sheepfold” (MC Solaar)
“A metaphor is an image”.] #7 is generally where highschoolers who don’t give a shit give up, because we’re about to talk about synecdoche and metonymy. And it’s a shame, because they’re very classy devices, and in the end, they’re rather simple. Metonymy is replacing A with B, taking into account the logical link between A and B. Simple example: “Want to drink a cuppa?” “Well, no, but I’d drink the content of a cup.” “Oh, it’s a metonymy.” “My, how comical.” Other example: “Let’s have a foosball game!” “But I’m not quite sure we have the money to own a… “I mean, let’s play foosball with that table here. It’s a metonymy.” “How funny.” [Examples: “Rodrigue, have you a heart?” (=are you brave?) (Le Cid)
“I ate his liver with some fava beans and a nice Chianti” (=wine from Chianti) (The Silence of the Lambs)
“You cry on the leather of your Chrysler” (=the seat) (La Balade de Jimmy)
“Thanks to metonymy, we can be grateful we have a roof over our heads. Without it, we’d lack some walls.”] And a synecdoche is a type of metonymy in which A and B are part of each other, A of B, or B of A. Example: “France won the World Cup in ’98.” It’s a synecdoche. In reality, these guys won the World Cup in ’98. And when you’re aware of these devices, you tend to wince a little when you hear how the media and politicians talk about “the French people”, when they say “the people”, “the French”… When they say “The French people have had enough of-” Ah ah ah, I am French and I have no idea what you’re talking about. When they say “The people was demonstrating in the streets!” and you’re there like “NO I was in my bath, you’re lying!” ANYWAY. [Examples: “Nor the far away sails (=ships) sailing down to Harfleur” (Demain dès l’aube)
“The china (=plates) had never been used.” (Titanic)
“In the end, you’re racist but are you (=your skin) white or brown?” (Stromae)
“My eyes are green. Well, the iris is, other than that my eyes are mostly white.”] #8: oxymoron and antithesis. That is still very simple. Antithesis is when two opposed elements are linked. “Shut your mouth! Tell’em like it is!” [Antithesis] [Examples: “I live, I die, I burn and I drown” (The Old Poets of France)
“Mr Pignon is cute, Mr Brochant is mean” (Le Dîner de Cons)
“Maybe I’ll go to heaven, but on one hell of a train” (Harley Davidson)
“Shut your mouth! Tell’em like it is!”] “THE BLOOD OF YOUR DEAD, YOU’LL EAT!” Oxymoron is a tad more complicated: the two opposed elements are a group. An oxymoron is often an adjective and a noun. Like “an elegant difformity”, “a magnificent catastrophe”, or, let’s say it, “A gentle pain…” My mnemonic is the following: “Oxy” is a prefix that sounds very clever, which you can’t understand if you’re a moron. Yep, it’s simple. [Examples: “This dark light falling from the stars” (Le Cid)
“You are looking for death in the clear night.” (Dellamorte Dellamore)
“I definitely feel like a sad bamba.” (Sad Bamba)
“An ethical butchery”, “a surgical punch”, “a holy war”, “extreme vegans”, “feminazis”, there are plenty of stupid examples] #9: pleonasms A pleonasm is a funny device, it’s about saying two things that mean the same thing. The opposite of an oxymoron, you say? Yes, I guess, but not only. “Going up upstairs” is a pleonasm, but “going up downstairs” is not an oxymoron. You wouldn’t believe the amount of pleonasms we know and use all the time. “I walk on my feet”, yeah, you won’t walk on your Vespa, dickhead. “I saw it with my own eyes”, never seen something with my own ears either. “Nice weather outside”, yeah, the weather inside is more calm, a bit covered by a roof. “Selective sorting”, well, if you don’t select, it’s not easy to sort! “Minors under 15” BECAUSE ADULTS UNDER 15 ARE KIND OF RARE, It’s crazy the number of fouls we allow. But anyway. Always simple, a bit annoying, just pay attention to it. [Examples: “He’s hanging onto life, on the contrary, with all his strength” (The Little Thing)
“I saw Willy Wonka with my own eyes.” (Charlie and the Chocolate factory)
“Scrapping my belly while singing songs” (Trompette de la Renommée)
“I made a pleonasm by saying the same thing twice.”] But since we’re talking about annoying stylistic devices… #10: enallage Ah! A word we don’t here often! Enallage is about swapping a grammatical form for another. In other words, it’s almost a voluntary grammar mistake. Though one could think that going to L’Ena would make you avoid making mistakes! Mnemonic. It’s one of those devices that can’t be subtle. It can be, going from the formal “you” to the informal “you”, from past to present, replacing an adjective with an adverb, like in the trailer of the now infamous Suicide Squad: “I’m just gonna hurt you…” “Really, really bad.” Badly. It’s “badly”. He just told her he’d hit her violent. You don’t say that. But in the current slang of French people, it’s very much the fashion! Sorry. I just slapped myself. Sorry. Reflex. [If only I had hands…] But, voilà, that’s an enallage too. In French, we kept a few phrases that are enallages. “Chanter faux” (to sing off-key) : we should say “faussement”. “Parler cru” (to be blunt) and to stay in the ‘unbearable ass’ domain: using the third person instead of the second when addressing someone! “So! What does the little lady want?!” Here. Enallage. Unbearable. [Examples: “Thus spoke the fox, and the flatterers to applaud” (Les Animaux Malades de la Peste)
“If I had knowed, I wouldn’t had come.” (War of Buttons)
“When a woman leaves (informal) you, a friendship dies.” (The Injustice)
“I am anger!” (My mom)] #11: apophasis. Veeery often used in politics and journalism (I often put the two together because they have a similar way of speaking) apophasis is when you say you won’t talk about something… while you do. Not very complicated. Whenever you hear someone say: “I don’t have to remind you [this]…” “I don’t want to talk about [that].” “I am not here to talk about [stuff].” “What do you want me to say? You want me to say [thing]? Well, I won’t say it!” All those are apophases. Let’s just say they’re dime a dozen. By the way, in the Second Tour debate (I swear I won’t talk too much about it), Emmanuel Macron begins his answer to Marine Le Pen with an apophasis. “I will not tell you that you are the true heiress, not only of a name, but also of the French extreme-right party.” “I will not tell you that you even claim this legacy,” “since you have carried it since you took the helm of this party,” “and that for 40 years, in this country, we’ve had LePens who are candidates to the presidency.” “Because that does not interest me.” But we’re not here to talk about apophasis, so let’s move on. Yep. You got that one. [Examples: “I will therefore not describe what dark enthusiasm spread in the army.” (Bug-Jargal)
“The first rule of Fight Club is: you do not talk about Fight Club.” (Fight Club)
“I would make love to you on the beach, enjoying every second when my limp body is set aflame until I fall asleep in your arms, but I am a woman, and a woman does not say such things.” (If I were a man)
“Listen, Mr Pujadas, I’m not the one who should tell you that I have a 21-inch penis, no.”] #12: Homeoteleuton Well that word is very… ugly. But the description is rather simple. It’s the repetition of the same syllable (or almost) at the end of a word, line, sentence. So yes, rhymes are a precise form of homeoteleuton. If you like political speeches… “Paris! Paris outraged!” “Paris broken!” “Paris martyred!” “But Paris freed!” It’s a small homeoteleuton. But if you’re like me and you like music better, well, shiver with bliss, for your reward will be great in the Heavens! {I am Rascar Capac, I attack you with my Mac} {Life is a trap, no mercy when lyrics hit!} There. Homeoteleuton. And if you like commercials better: “When you’ve had enough, there’s Malabar”, “No stress, there’s Point S”, “No worries, no blah-blah, blah blah blah” “Gifi, genius ideas”, “The essential is in Lactel”, “Sega is stronger than you”, “Bravo veal” Hemeoteleu- you know what, just remember it. To do so, remember that everyone is gay in TV commercials. “Homo” + “telly”=homeoteleuton. The stylistic device of advertisement. [I’m ashamed of you.] Works for me, maybe you brain is similar. #13: Epanalepsis (way too many syllables in that word!) It’s when you finish a sentence or a phrase with the same you started it with. Example: “Splash, splash, sometimes, life splashes.” It’s an example of epanalepsis. Another example, there again from Victor Hugo, because if you allow me a humble homage, he knew how to fucking write, so, Victor Hugo: “Nothing shall see me now, and I shall see nothing.” Legend of the Ages, “La Conscience”, one of his best poems, fucking read it. In this example, Cain wishes to be locked up in a vault, and the epanalepsis locks the sentence up just like he wants to be. Yes, because if you’re at least in high school, it’s the most important. Just identifying a stylistic device, it’s as if you went to the ER, you were asked where it hurt, you said “here” and the doc answered “Ah! That’s the liver!” We’re missing the essential part of the work, here, why did the author use that stylistic device? Always, always, ALWAYS ask yourself “Why the hell did they say it like that?” Like on social media, cynical kingdom of writing and figures of speech, where every use of them can be summed up in one aim (IMO): sophism. [Sophie who?] The point is not being right, it’s that as many people as possible think you are right. And in case I wasn’t clear enough, sophism can eat this big dick (assonance in i) [Examples: “And a rose, she lived a life of rose.” (Consolations à M. du Perrier)
“Your only real enemy is you.” (Black Swann, fr translation)
“She waits for this strange world to lose itself and for winds to change, inexorably she waits.” (Jean-Jacques Goldman)
“Sir, I feel like you’re talking shit, sir!”] #14: So, on a pretty drawing evaluating the complexity of the names of devices and what they represent, let’s head for this corner [Complicated name / Simple effect] because the expizeuxis {TN: neoligism} *oooooh* yes, the epizeuxis is a device as simple as its name is complicated. It’s when you repeat a word, or a small group of words. Like: “Journey, journey!” There. Epizeuxis. Then, I could play it the Wikipedia way and say: “Epizeuxis operates on the identical transformation of a phrase or a single word, it is a morpho-syntatic operation bearing on the construction of a sentence: there is an immediate and tight repetition of one word which stands out form the rest of the sentence or the line by the constitution of a notable discursive isl-” It’s just saying the same word twice. It’s… I mean, just… I don’t need to develop or give examples, do I? It’s repeating the same word. Or phrase. “Reise reise”. “Thank you thank you.” “Splash splash, sometimes life splashes”. “Paris, paris, fuck you-” That’s it. [Examples: “Oh sad, sad was my soul” (Forgotten Arias VII)
“I do believe in fairies, I do, I do!” (Peter Pan)
“I love, I love your eyes, I love your smell” (Axelle Red)
“Hole, hole, a cow pissing in a barrel, it’s funny but it’s not pretty” {French counting out game} (and writing it, it’s not even funny either)] #15: the portmanteau! In French, “suitcase-word”. It comes from Through the Looking Glass, the sequel to Alice in Wonderland. But I know who my audience is, so to remember it, one word: A portmanteau is a word composed of two other words. You can remember “thrussy” if you want, it works, but I like Pokémon better. Look: take a suitcase. Open the suitcase, put a “salamander” here, “char” here, close the suitcase, and what’s inside? … a burning salamander, yes, have a fucking heart- Charmander! Here you have a “primate”, here you have an “ape”, and… Primape! Here you have a “mammoth”, her you have a “swine”, and… Mamoswine! Here you have “far”, here you have “fetched”, and… Farfetch’d, because it doesn’t mean shit! [Examples: “Slithy means lithe and slimy” (Through the Looking Glass)
“10 points for Gryffindor!” (Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone)
“This castastrophe is castastrophic!” (Castatroce)
“Electrode, Diglett, Nidoran, Mankey, Venusaur, Rattatta, Fearow, Pidgey, Seaking, Jolteon, Dragonite, Gastly, Ponyta, Vaporeon, Poliwrath, Butterfree” (Pokérap)] #16: the- I KNOW! I know. It’s a pun with the Japanese name. I know. You erase that comment now. Good. #16: Prosopopeia! Friends in highschool, this one is very useful. Everyone uses it. Remember it: prosopopeia is making non-talking stuff talk. For example: a puppet. Prosopuppetia. Mnemonic. It’s when Baudelaire makes his wine talk in “The Soul of the Wine”, because yes, even Baudelaire, when drunk his ass of, thinks his glass talks to him. It’s, with Indochine, when the moon answers to Nicola Sirkis. it’s the animals in La Fontaine’s fables… Very frequent, but not everyone remembers it, so be the Messiah: spread prosopopeia. Yep, homeoteleuton + alliteration, you can’t stop progress. [Examples: “Listen. I am Jean. I saw dark things.” (Ecoutez. Je suis Jean. J’ai vu des choses sombres.)
“The word I’m looking for, I can’t say, because there are preschool toys here.” (Toy Story)
“All the time I’m been waiting in this dark room, I hear fun and songs at the end of the corridor” (La Corrida)
“If Churchill could see this, he’d say>”] #17: Anacoluthon! Such a barbarian word! Anacoluthon is a bit of pain of a device, because it’s very easy to explain, and very hard to understand. HOW CAN THIS BE? So, let me explain: anacoluthon is when there’s a break in the construction of the sentence. Therefore, the end of the sentence doesn’t have the same grammar as it’s beginning. Clearly, it’s when you don’t say what you should. The most well-known example in France: “Cleopatra’s nose, had it been shorter, the whole face of the world would have been changed.” in Pascal’s Thoughts. Indeed, he starts with “Cleopatra’s nose”, so you expect it to be the subject. So: “Cleopatra’s nose, had it been shorter, would have changed the face of the world.” But no! It’s all upside-down! And syntactically speaking, it’s even wrong. Other mundane example: “Waiting for your reply, please accept, Sir, the assurance of my highest consideration.” What’s the subject here? Verb: imperative well, polite imperative, so Sir is the subject! And is Sir waiting for his own answer? Well, no. Anacoluthon. Other example: “THE BLOOD OF YOUR DEAD, YOU’LL EAT!” [Anacoluthon] Anyway. This is very technical and very discreet. Let’s go back to way more not-discreet devices, like my ever favorite: [Examples: “Exiled on the ground for the clouds, his giant’s wings forbid him to walk” (The Albatross)
“And I’m Go Fuck Yourself.” (Children’s games)
“35 students this year, I asked them what they wanted to do for a living” (La sécurité de l’emploi)
“Clumsy as I am, you may not understand this example.”] #18: zeugma! And I’ll pimp out my zeugma by mentioning the syllepsis and antanaclasis, but later. The zeugma is a device I find very funny: it’s about putting 2 semantically different elements on the same plan by linking them through a common word. Example: “He fished for compliments and for trout.” “Fish” has two meanings here. To demand, and to hunt fish. But the idea of not repeating “fished” puts these two elements on the same plan, which makes the sentence funny. Yes it is. Other examples, uh… “The addict kicked the habit and then the bucket.” “John took out the trash, and his wife.” “I uncovered her universe, and she, her shoulders.” Zeugma is sooo cool, because you have to stop, look back, remember the word that links the two elements, and think: “Aaaah… Yeeaaah…” And you can mistake a zeugma for a stylistic syllepsis. Stylistic syllepsis, not to be mixed with grammatical syllepsis, it’s like a zeugma, except it doesn’t use figurative sense. It plays on the polysemy of word (when a work has several meanings). Example: Putin/Poutine is both a Russian politician and a Québecois meal. If I say “Funny, I went to Canada this summer, I loved the poutine, but last year in Russia, not so much.” That’s a syllepsis. The difference between the two is a bit technical, but wait for the antanaclasis. Antanaclasis works like syllepsis, except you repeat the word instead of keeping it silent. Example: “The heart has its reasons that the reason ignores.” The same word is repeated, but with two different proper meanings. In this example, the first “reasons” means “justifications” and the second means “common sense”. To sum up, draw this little thing in your head when in doubt. Is the word repeated with a different meaning each time? [Antanaclasis] Does the non-repeated but implied word have different proper meanings? [Stylistic syllepsis] And, are the two meanings semantically different but treated in parallel? And making this schema, I realize that UhUHuh I was wrong. Indeed, in the NMT about BigFlo&Oli, I say that the sentence “I arrived by boat but most importantly by miracle” is an antanaclasis… “That’s an antanaclasis.” I got troubled by the repetition of the word “by”, but that word actually has the same meaning, it’s just a proposition, so it’s a zeugma, since a boat and a miracle are not on the same semantic plan. I don’t often have the occasion to correct myself, so I do it now. [And with all the bullshit you spit out…] And forgetting Surcouf on the Culture Point about pirates was unforgivable too. [Examples: “Dressed in candid probity and white linen” (Hugo)
“You are free to execute your laws, and your citizens” (Star Trek)
“So she goes to eat a pizza with bacon and with a friend” (~ Le Retour de Pépette)
“Did the dinner with my daughter go well?” “Sure, I took desert, and your daughter too.”] #1- also that’s an allosaurus, not a T-rex- #19! Antonomasia, that’s easy, that’s when you use a noun as a name or a name as a noun. It’s when {in French} you call someone a Tartuffe to call them a hypocrite, that they’re an Adonis to say they’re pretty hot, and the name of the device comes from the Irish linguist Anton O’Masia, who coined the phrase! That’s not real at all. Mnemonic. Antonomasia is also using the name of a brand to call the product it makes. Like Kleenex, Frigidaire, Scotch-tape, Sopalin… But you can add to this list the units of measurements! Blaise Pascal’s pascal, André-Marie Ampère’s ampere, James Watt’s watt, Nikola’s tesla, Isaac’s newton… But that’s not all! That’s antonomasia from name to noun! The opposite also exists! You can use a periphrasis to call someone or something. [What’s that?] It’s when you use plenty of word where one would be enough, like: “the creator of Culture Point” to say Linksthesun. But we can talk about the Arc of Triumph! There are hundreds of arcs of triumph. But when I talk about the Arc of Triumph without specifying, you see which one I’m talking about. Same for the Forbidden City, the Dark Knight, the Phocean City {Marseille}, etc. All of this is antonomasia. [Examples: “It is boredom to see myself, three years and more, like a Prometheus nailed to the Aventine” (Ce n’est que le fleuve)
“Have you no pity, Melanie, bringing to me your Don Juan of a brother to break my poor country dweller’s heart?” (Gone with the wind, fr translation)
“From behind a Kleenex, I would know better how to tell you farewell” (Comment te dire adieu)
“Antonomasia was invented by Anthony “Anton” O’Masia.”] And finally, #20, hang on to your genitals, whatever they be, let’s talk about metalepsis! It’s a *type* of metonimy. I remind you, metonimy: replacing A with B and hoping the reader/viewer/audience will make the link between B and A. Metalepsis is a metonimy in which A and B have a consequential link. And as always, it’s better with examples, so here we go: “Why is Francis not at the office this morning?” “Because he drank too much yesterday.” That’s a metalepsis. The reason why Francis is not at the office is not that he had too much too drink the night before, but the consequences of this! That is to say, he’s sleeping it off, probably the head in his toilet! So, he can’t be both in his toilet and in his office! Unless his toilet is in his office… But then, why would anyone ask? [Too long…] why he’s not in his office… Alright, other example. When your great-aunt says “HE GREW UP SO MUCH” instead of “You’re old”, because she notices the consequence of you growing up. Or if you prefer, doctors in TV shows telling families that the patient died by saying: “I am so sorry… There was nothing we could do. It was too late.” Consequence, cause, cause! “I’m sorry” because your husband is dead, “There was nothing we could do” so he snuffed it, “It was to late”, so you’re SO a widow! Examples: “When can I, through a modest dust, follow with my eye a cart fleeing through the field” (Racine’s Phaedra)
“Tonight, we dine in Hell!” (300)
“Others make business with the devil and their tomb is quickly flowered” (MC Solaar)
“The problem of Suicide Squad is the reshoots. Well, the problem is that it’s bad. But that’s because of the reshoots. Among other things.”] I leave you on this joyful example. So here, 20 stylistic devices, remember, if you have finals it can get you some points, and if you don’t, it’s still pretty cool. Knowing figures of speech allows your to listen better, to read better, to express yourself better. Today, in the era of the rule of writing and appearances, the quill, more than ever, is mightier than the sword. So learn how to fight, and most importantly, how to defend yourself. See you next time, people. Ciao!

100 thoughts on “Point Culture : les figures de style

  1. En soit les mineurs de moins de 15 ans c'est un pas tant un pléonasme jdirait par ce que c'est pour préciser qu'on parle pas des mineurs de 15 à 18 ans

  2. 1:54 "Regardez ce qu'il vient de se passÉ" mdr
    Ça vaut le coup de nous parler d'anadyplose et d'hyperhypotase quand on sait même pas accorder

  3. J'ai rien compris compris a la vidéo et au vidéograme mais c'était bien bien que si elle aurais était plus courte ta terre entière aurais appris de son existence mais la place tout les français son décendu dans la rue

    (HUM)

  4. Bah sinon comme moyen mémotechnique assonance ça fini par un E c'est les voyelle, alliteration fini par un N c'est les voyelle

  5. Mdr Tennant qui se pointe au moment de antonomase en mode "et si je dis docteur vous pensez à Tennant". Bah raté, moi je pense Matt Smith

  6. "J'ai pissé dans le lavabo mais c'est dans la baignoire que j'ai chié"…. Cette phrase m'a sauvé pendant mon éval…. Cet exemple est génial 😂😂😂

  7. Bon alors pour embêter un peu un mineur de moins de 15 ans est une qualification juridique il y abune difference entre moins de 15 et moins de 18 ans. C'est une subdivision dans la catégorie des mineurs

  8. Petit moyen mnémotechnique pour Assonance et Allitération : assonance se termine par une voyelle (e) et allitération par une consonne (n). Voilà ^^

  9. Aaaah le bon vieux temps où Sangoku n'avait pas encore atteins l'Ultra Instinct et où on pouvait effectivement se dire que Superman au plus haut de sa puissance était bien invincible. Ça rendrait presque nostalgique.

  10. Pour l'assonance et l'alliteration. Assonance se termine par une voyelle et allitération se termine par une consonne… Voilà pour le moyen memotechnique bien sympathique

  11. Grace à toi j’ai réussi mon contrôle sur les figures de styles après 5 ou 6 visionnage de cette tierce video 👌🏻

  12. Mais Du coup c est quoi la différence entre une homeotemeute et les assonnances et les allitérations?
    Et entre l'enalage et l'anacolute?

  13. J'ai passé mon bac de français l'an dernier, j'avais regardé ta vidéo au moins 5 fois, et si j'avais suivis tous tes conseils, j'aurais sûrement pris un commentaire de texte au lieu de prendre la dissert et faire un hors-sujet. J'ai eu 6. Bonne soirée.

  14. Moyen mnémotechnique pour l'assonance et l'alliteration :
    L'assonance se termine par un "e" donc ça concerne les voyelles.
    L'alliteration se termine par un "n" donc c'est pour les consonnes !
    Voilà j'avais galéré au bac alors…

  15. à chaque fois que je regarde cette vidéo je me rappelle de la chance que j'ai eu qu'elle soit sortie PILE l'année de mon bac français x)

  16. En fait "les mineurs de moins de 15 ans" serait plus un genitif partif en grec (ou latin). Je sais pas comment ca s appelle en français, mais c est pas vraiment un pléonasme…
    Et puis "animaux d applaudir", c est pas un enallage, mais de l infinitif de narration… Oui, j ai conscience d etre une chieuse

  17. 11:10 Dans le premier exemple, applaudir n'est pas vraiment un énallage, c'est juste un infinitif de narration (mais bon l'exemple reste clair, je pinaille ^^)

  18. Très cher Links, on peut dire qu'on se donne à plus de 100% dans le cas où on est malade, en somatique ou en psychologie.

    Ça relève beaucoup de l'opinion, mais voilà.

  19. J'ai 11 ans. Je m'en fou totallement parce que j'ai pas encore appris les figure de style. Mais j'ai trouvé ça intéraissant.

  20. Je ne comprends pas le nombre de dislike ???
    Il y a des gens qui n'aime pas les figures de styles.
    On peut ne pas apprécier mais ne pas aimer ???
    Je ne comprends pas ce nombres de dislike.

  21. Je suis le seul à ne pas être d'accord sur l'une des définitions du pléonasme ? Effectivement, en quoi "Mineur de moins de 15 ans" est un pléonasme ?

    En effet, je pense plutôt que "Mineur de moins de 18 ans" aurait été plus approprié puisque on aurait simplement pu dire "Mineur", sans préciser l'âge. Pour "Mineur de moins de 15 ans", en revanche il y a des cas où il est nécessaire de préciser l'âge de la personne, parce que certains mineurs, en dessous d'un certain âge, ne peuvent pas faire les mêmes choses que ceux plus âgés. J'ai pas vraiment d'exemple concerts à présenter mais je pense que l'idée est là. On se doute qu'un mineur à moins de 18 ans, comme on se doute qu'on ne marche pas en Vespa, comme on se doute qu'on ne tourne pas en parallélépipède rectangle.

    Et pour reprendre ta formulation: "Parce que des majeurs de moins de 18 ans, c'est quand même vachement rare !"

    PS: Excellente vidéo au passage 😉

  22. 5:47 : Pour les intéressés, j'ai un moyen mnémotechnique. Il suffit de prendre la derniere lettre de "Assonance" et "Allitération", pour "allitération" c'est un "n" qui est une consonne, cette figure s'applique donc aux consonnes. Quant à "assonance", c'est un "e" qui est un voyelle. Voili voilou :3

  23. Moi en français : oh tiens j'avais vu cette figure de style dans la vidéo de linksthesun c'est quoi déjà ?

  24. Ta vidéo est géniale! Par contre pour la fée je ne suis pas d'accord… Les fées dans l'ancien temps n'étaient pas des petites choses volantes et fragiles sortie de chez Disney, les gens en avaient peur et les vénéraient pour s'attirer leurs bonne grâce et ne pas les contrarier. C'étaient des créatures détentrice de pouvoir et de "secrets magiques" puissants qui pouvais parfois initier les humains ou les prendre sous leur protection. Donc dire que Morgan est une fée n'est pas un Euphémisme (si on l'emploie dans le sens ancien ce qui est la cas quand on parle de Morgane) c'est juste que la représentation des "fées" à évoluer au cours du temps et que nous n'en avons pas la même vision aujourd'hui.

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