PBS NewsHour full episode September 25, 2019

PBS NewsHour full episode September 25, 2019


Captioning sponsored byNEWSHOUR PRODUCTIONS, LLC>>WOODRUFF: GOOD EVENING. I’M JUDY WOODRUFF. ON THE NEWSHOUR TONIGHT: THE INQUIRY BEGINS. UNDER MOUNTING PRESSURE, THE WHITE HOUSE RELEASES A SUMMARY OF THE CALL BETWEEN PRESIDENT TRUMP AND THE UKRAINIAN LEADER NOW AT THE HEART OF THE IMPEACHMENT INVESTIGATION. THEN, WAVES TO COME. THE WORLD’S WATER AT A CRISIS POINT AS CLIMATE CHANGE RAVAGES OCEANS, ICE, AND ECOSYSTEMS. PLUS, POWER AND PROSPERITY. ON THE GROUND IN CHINA AS WE KICK OFF OUR NEW SERIES FOCUSING ON THE COUNTRY’S INTERNAL CHALLENGES AND INTERNATIONAL AMBITIONS.>>IN NO OTHER COUNTRY THAN CHINA HAVE YOU HAD SUCH A GREAT AMOUNT OF CHANGE IN SUCH A SHORT AMOUNT OF TIME.>>WOODRUFF: ALL THAT AND MORE ON TONIGHT’S PBS NEWSHOUR.>>MAJOR FUNDING FOR THE PBS NEWSHOUR HAS BEEN PROVIDED BY: ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ MOVING OUR ECONOMY FOR 160 YEARS. BNSF, THE ENGINE THAT CONNECTS US.>>SUPPORTING SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURS AND THEIR SOLUTIONS TO THE WORLD’S MOST PRESSING PROBLEMS– skollfoundation.org.>>THE LEMELSON FOUNDATION. COMMITTED TO IMPROVING LIVES THROUGH INVENTION, IN THE U.S. AND DEVELOPING COUNTRIES. ON THE WEB AT lemelson.org.>>SUPPORTED BY THE JOHN D. AND CATHERINE T. MacARTHUR FOUNDATION. COMMITTED TO BUILDING A MORE JUST, VERDANT AND PEACEFUL WORLD. MORE INFORMATION AT macfound.org>>AND WITH THE ONGOING SUPPORT OF THESE INSTITUTIONS:>>THIS PROGRAM WAS MADE POSSIBLE BY THE CORPORATION FOR PUBLIC BROADCASTING. AND BY CONTRIBUTIONS TO YOUR PBS STATION FROM VIEWERS LIKE YOU. THANK YOU.>>WOODRUFF: QUESTIONS OF IMPEACHMENT CONTINUE TO SWIRL AS NEW DETAILS EMERGE ABOUT PRESIDENT TRUMP’S ACTIONS WITH UKRAINE SHINE A SPOTLIGHT ON THE LIMITS OF EXECUTIVE POWER. IT ALL COMES A DAY AFTER THE SPEAKER OF THE HOUSE ANNOUNCED A FORMAL IMPEACHMENT INQUIRY. OUR LISA DESJARDINS BEGINS WITH THE LATEST.>>DESJARDINS: ANOTHER RAPID- FIRE DAY OF NEWS CENTERING AROUND PRESIDENT TRUMP, WHO WAS AT THE U.N. MEETING WITH WORLD LEADERS TODAY. BUT THE HEADLINES CAME FROM HIS DECISION TO DECLASSIFY AND RELEASE A FIVE PAGE MEMO DESCRIBING A JULY PHONE CALL WITH UKRAINIAN PRESIDENT VOLODYMYR ZELENSKY. THE TEXT IS CRITICAL TO THE FAST-RISING IMPEACHMENT DEBATE. IT SHOWS PRESIDENT ZELENSKY BRINGING UP THE MILITARY, JAVELIN MISSILES HE WANTS TO BUY FROM THE UNITED STATES, IMMEDIATELY FOLLOWING THAT, PRESIDENT TRUMP ASKS FOR WHAT HE SAYS IMMEDIATELY FOLLOWING THAT, PRESIDENT TRUMP ASKS FOR A FAVOR: TO LOOK INTO CROWDSTRIKE THE COMPANY THAT CONCLUDED RUSSIA WAS TO BLAME FOR HACKING INTO DEMOCRATIC PARTY EMAIL IN 2016, A CONCLUSION THE PRESIDENT HAS QUESTIONED. AFTER ZELENSKY RESPONDS, STRESSING THE ETHICS OF UKRAINIAN INVESTIGATIONS, PRESIDENT TRUMP NEXT SAYS HE HEARD ABOUT A UKRAINIAN PROSECUTOR WHO WAS UNFAIRLY SHUTDOWN. THAT MAY HAVE BEEN A REFERENCE TO THIS MAN, VIKTOR SHOKIN, WHOM THE US SAW AS CORRUPT AND JOE BIDEN TRIED TO HAVE FIRED. A FEW SENTENCES LATER MR TRUMP SAYS THERE’S A LOT OF TALK ABOUT BIDEN’S SON, THAT BIDEN STOPPED THE PROSECUTION AND A LOT OF PEOPLE WANT TO FIND OUT ABOUT THAT, SO WHATEVER YOU CAN DO THAT WAS A REFERENCE TO HUNTER BIDEN, WHO SERVED ON THE BOARD OF A GAS COMPANY THAT WAS INVESTIGATED FOR CORRUPTION. THE BIDENS WERE MENTIONED THREE TIMES. ATTORNEY GENERAL BARR WOULD COME UP AGAIN TOO. SMOKEN DLR SO DID THE PRESIDENT’S PERSONAL ATTORNEY RUDY GIULIANI. TRUMP SAID HE WAS GOING TO HAVE ATTORNEY WILLIAM BARR GIVE YOU A CALL AND WE WILL GET TO THE END OF IT. IT.>>UKRAINE UNDERSTOOD EXACTLY WHAT WAS BEING ASKED FROM IT AND THAT THE PRESIDENT OF THE US WOULD INTERFERE WITH OUR NATIONAL SECURITY WITH THE NATIONAL SECURITY OF OUR ALLY, AND DO SO FOR THE ILLICIT PURPOSE OF TRYING TO ADVANCE HIS ELECTION CAMPAIGN, HAVING ALREADY SOUGHT FOREIGN HELP IN HIS FIRST PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN, WOULD NOW ABUSE THE POWER OF HIS OFFICE YET AGAIN, THIS TIME TO SEEK THE HELP OF ANOTHER NATION IN HIS PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN IS THE MOST FUNDAMENTAL BETRAYAL OF HIS OATH OF OFFICE.>>DICKERSON: AS IT HAPPENS, ALSO TODAY–>>TRUMP, HE MADE ME MORE FAMOUS.>>DESJARDINS: –WAS A SCHEDULED IN-PERSON MEETING BETWEEN MR TRUMP AND THE UKRAINIAN PRESIDENT. IN AN EXTRAORDINARY MOMENT, HE WAS ASKED IF HE WAS PRESSURED TO INVESTIGATE BIDEN.>>I’M SORRY BUT I DON’T WANT TO BE INVOLVED TO DEMOCRATIC ELECTIONS OF U.S.A. ELECTIONS OF U.S. NO. WE HAD I THINK GOOD PHONE CALL. IT WAS NORMAL.>>THERE WAS NO PRESSURE. 7.>>Reporter: MR. TRUMP WAS CONFIDENT, POINTING TO POLL NUMBERS. BUT LATER, ZELENSKY, SPEAKING IN HIS NATIVE TONGUE, SEEMED TO CLARIFY THAT HE DID NOT PRESSURE ANYONE IN U.K. AS A RESULT.>>DESJARDINS: IN THE MEANTIME, ANOTHER THREAD OF THE TWO MEN’S JULY PHONE CALL INVOLVED THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE, WHICH ANNOUNCED TODAY THAT THE ORIGINAL WHISTLEBLOWER ACCOUNT RAISED A POSSIBLE CRIMINAL ACT BY THE PRESIDENT ON CAMPAIGN FINANCE CHARGES. BUT ACCORDING TO A JUSTICE DEPARTMENT SPOKESPERSON, AFTER REVIEWING THE CONTROVERSIAL CALL, PROSECUTORS COULD NOT MAKE OUT A CRIMINAL CAMPAIGN FINANCE VIOLATION. THE JUSTICE DEPARTMENT ALSO ISSUED A STATEMENT THAT THE PRESIDENT HAS NOT SPOKEN WITH THE ATTORNEY GENERAL ABOUT HAVING UKRAINE INVESTIGATE ANYTHING RELATED TO FORMER VICE PRESIDENT BIDEN OR HIS SON. ON CAPITOL HILL, MANY REPUBLICANS CIRCLED AROUND THE PRESIDENT.>>FROM MY POINT OF VIEW, TO IMPEACH ANY PRESIDENT OVER A PHONE CALL LIKE THIS WOULD BE INSANE.>>Desjardins: MANY, LIKE SOUTH CAROLINA SENATOR LINDSEY GRAHAM, ECHOED THE PRESIDENT’S CALLS FOR AN INVESTIGATION INTO BIDEN.>>VICE PRESIDENT BIDEN IS A GOOD MAN. I’VE ENJOYED A GOOD RELATIONSHIP. BUT I CAN ASSURE YOU THAT IF ANY REPUBLICAN FAMILY MEMBER WAS ENGAGED IN CONDUCT LIKE THIS, IT WOULD RAISE QUESTIONS. A LOT OF PEOPLE FELT THE GUY WAS CORRUPT. BUT THE ONE THING THAT I THINK HAS TO BE DEALT WITH THERE IS THAT THE SON OF THE VICE PRESIDENT WAS RECEIVING A LOT OF MONEY FROM THE UKRAINE AND SOME OF THE SOURCES OF THE FUNDS WERE UNDER INVESTIGATION BY THE PROSECUTOR. I DON’T KNOW WHAT THE RIGHT ANSWER IS. I JUST HOPE SOMEBODY WILL LOOK AT IT.>>DESJARDINS: THE SPOTLIGHT WILL LIKELY REMAIN ON THE CAPITOL TOMORROW, WHERE THE ACTING DIRECTOR OF NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE JOSEPH MAGUIRE IS SET TO TESTIFY ABOUT THE ORIGINAL WHISTLEBLOWER COMPLAINT.>>WOODRUFF: AND LISA JOINS ME NOW, ALONG WITH OUR WHITE HOUSE CORRESPONDENT YAMICHE ALCINDOR. SO, YAMICHE, THE DECISION BY THE WHITE HOUSE TO RELEASE THIS MEMO BASED ON THAT PHONE CONVERSATION, WHY DID THEY DO THIS?>>WELL, THAT QUESTION IS REALLY AT THE HEART OF TODAY. WHY WOULD THE WHITE HOUSE TAKE THE RISK OF RELEASING AT LEAST SOME DETAILS OF THIS CALL BETWEEN PRESIDENT TRUMP AND THE PRESIDENT OF THE UKRAINE? THERE ARE TWO ANSWERS TO THAT QUESTION. THE FIRST IS THE PRESIDENT OBVIOUSLY THINKS THAT THIS CALL HELPS HIM IN SOME WAY. THE SECOND ANSWER IS THAT THERE WAS PUBLIC PRESSURE TO RELEASE THIS CALL, AND THE WHITE HOUSE HAD NO– NO CHOICE BUT TO RELEASE THIS CALL. THE PRESIDENT AT HIS PRESS CONFERENCE TODAY SAID HE HATED TO DO THIS. HE SAID HE FELT HE HAD TO DO THIS BECAUSE THERE’S A LOT OF “FAKE NEWS,” AND HE FELT LIKE DEMOCRATS WERE LYING ABOUT HIM. THE WHITE HOUSE I’VE– THE WHITE HOUSE AIDES I’VE BEEN TALKING TO ALL DAY SAY THIS REALLY EXONERATES THE PRESIDENT. THEY SAY IT’S OKAY FOR THE PRESIDENT TO BRING UP THE BIDENS BECAUSE IT’S PERFECTLY PART OF HIS ROLE AS PRESIDENT. BUT DEMOCRATS ARE REALLY PUSHING BACK ON THAT. BUT THIS IS A CALCULATED RISK BY THE PRESIDENT AND THE WHITE HOUSE. I’VE BEEN TALKING TO SOME PEOPLE CLOSE TO NANCY PELOSI AND CLOSE TO OTHER DEMOCRATS WHO SAY THEY’RE TAKING THEIR OWN RISK BY ANNOUNCING THIS FORMAL IMPEACHMENT INQUIRY. WHAT WE’RE SEEING IS BOTH SIDES TAKING RISK HERE, AND TODAY THE WHITE HOUSE ESSENTIALLY MADE THE DECISION THIS CALL WAS OKAY TO RELEASE AND THAT THE PUBLIC SHOULD SEE IT.>>Woodruff: AND, YAMICHE, WHAT ARE YOU HEARING FROM THE WHITE HOUSE ABOUT HOW THEY SEE THE POLITICAL IMPACT OF THIS, THE REACTION AMONG REPUBLICANS ON THE HILL AND SO FORTH?>>PRESIDENT TRUMP IS REALLY TRYING TO RESET THE NARRATIVE WHEN IT COMES TO THIS CALL. HE’S TRYING TO ARGUE THAT DEMOCRATS WERE OUT TO GET HIM, THAT THIS WAS ALL PLANNED TO RUIN HIS TIME AT THE UNITED NATIONS, AND HE’S BEEN TRYING TO PUSH THAT MESSAGE TO G.O.P. LAWMAKERS. TODAY, EARLY THIS MORNING, THE WHITE HOUSE CALLED SEVERAL SENATORS INTO THE WHITE HOUSE AND THEY HAD FIRST A CONVERSATION ABOUT THE TRANSCRIPT, OR THE SUPPOSED TRANSCRIPT– NOT A VERBAITIN TRANSCRIPT. BUT THEY ALSO HAD A CONVERSATION ABOUT G.O.P. MESSAGING. THEY ACCIDENTALLY E-MAILED THEIR MESSAGING TO DEMOCRATS AND THE DEMOCRATS GOT A LIST OF THINGS THAT THE REPUBLICANS WANT WANTED TO SAY. ON THE LIST WAS THERE WAS NO QUID PRO QUO. THE REAL PROBLEM WAS NOT THE PHONE CALL BUT THE LEAK AND THE FACT WE KNOW ABOUT THE PHONE CALL. IT’S ALSO IMPORTANT TO TALK ABOUT THE POLITICAL IMPLICATIONS, THE TRUMP CAMPAIGN MANAGER FOR THE 2020 ELECTION BID, SAID IN THE LAST 24 HOURS, SINCE NANCY PELOSI ANNOUNCED A FORMAL IMPEACHMENT INQUIRY, THEY’VE RAISED $5 MILLION OFF OF THIS. THEY’RE SAYING THIS IS IT MOTIVATING THEIR BASE AND MOTIVATING FUND RAISERS TO GIVE TO THEIR CAMPAIGN. THIS IS ALL GOING TO BE SOMETHING TO WATCH AS WE GO FORWARD.>>Woodruff: LISA, LET ME COME BACK TO YOU. WE KNOW THAT SPEAKER PELOSI WHEN SHE ANNOUNCED THE IMPEACHMENT INQUIRY, WE DIDN’T GET A LOT OF DETAILS.>>THIS IS STILL FIRMING UP, BUT HERE’S WHAT WE KNOW RIGHT NOW ABOUT THE DEMOCRATS’ IMPEACHMENT PROCESS FIRST. THERE ARE SIX COMMITTEES WHO HAVE NOW BEEN EMPOWERED TO INCLUDE THEIR INVESTIGATION, ALREADY ONGOING, AS PART OF THE IMPEACHMENT PROCESS. THOSE COMMITTEES ARE BEING TASKED WITH MAKING THEIR CASES TO THE HOUSE JUDICIARY COMMITTEE. THAT IS THE COMMITTEE THAT WILL WEIGH THE EVIDENCE IN THE END AND DECIDE WHAT ARTICLES OF IMPEACHMENT MOVE FORWARD. THEN THE HOUSE JUDICIARY COMMITTEE WOULD VOTE ON ANY ARTICLES OF IMPEACHMENT, THEN THE FULL HOUSE. BUT, JUDY, IT’S INTERESTING TODAY WE’RE SEEING SO MUCH NEWS ABOUT THIS KIND OF SUPPOSE ONED TRANSCRIPT, THERE’S MORE AND MORE FOCUS ON IT, JUDY, THAT ACTUALLY I KNOW FROM SOURCES IN THE HOUSE, HOUSE DEMOCRATS ARE NOW CONSIDERING, THEY’RE WEIGHING THE OPTION OF ONLY FOCUSING ON THIS PARTICULAR ISSUE THIS, PHONE CALL, THIS EXCHANGE OF THE PRESIDENT AND WHAT WAS HAPPENING THERE. THEY MAY LEAVE EVERYTHING ELSE ON THE TABLE BECAUSE THEY THINK THIS IS STRONGER THAN ANYTHING ELSE.>>Woodruff: SO THIS COULD HAVE A VERY SIGNIFICANT IMPACT ON THE– ON WHAT THAT INQUIRY LOOKS LIKE, WHAT THEY FOCUS ON.>>THAT’S EXACTLY RIGHT. AND WE SAW JUST IN THE LAST FEW MINUTES, ACTUALLY, HOUSE MEMBERS EXITING FROM READING THE COMPLAINT ITSELF FROM THE WIB, WHICH WAS RELEASED JUST IN THE PAST COUPLE OF HOURS. CONGRESSMEN AND WOMEN HAVE JUST HAD THE CHANCE TO READ IT. DEMOCRATS COMING OUT HAVE BEEN SAYING IT IS SIGNIFICANT, IT DOES RAISE EVEN MORE CONCERNS. AND HOUSE INTELLIGENCE CHAIRMAN ADAM SCHIFF SAID SPECIFICALLY, IT IS WELL WRITTEN AND IT IS WRITTEN IN A WAY THEY NOW HAVE THINGS TO FOLLOW UP ON– MORE WITNESSES AND MORE DOCUMENTS. THEY CAN’T SAY WHO THOSE ARE BECAUSE IT’S CLASS TIED RIGHT NOW. BUT THERE IS MORE INFORMATION GETTING IN THE HANDS OF HOUSE DEMOCRATS AND REPUBLICANS TONIGHT. REPUBLICANS, MEANWHILE, BY THE WAY, MOST OF THEM ARE, AS WE REPORTED, ON THE PRESIDENT’S SIDE. NOT ALL, MITT ROMNEY, SENATOR FROM UTAH, FORMER PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATE, SAID HE FOUND THINGS TO BE CONCERNED ABOUT, THERE WAS CONCERN FOR HIM IN WHAT HE READ OF THAT PHONE CALL THIS MORNING.>>Woodruff: AND WE’LL CECE HOW THEY’RE REACTING AS THIS WHISTLEBLOWER INFORMATION COMES OUT. FINALLY, LISA, WHAT ABOUT THE REST OF THE CONGRESSIONAL AGENDA YOU WERE TALKING TO US ABOUT, HOW THAT IS GOING TO BE AFFECTED BY ALL THIS FOCUS NOW ON IMPEACHMENT?>>RIGHT, THESE ARE THE FOLKS WHO ARE SUPPOSED TO GOVERN US, THE PRESIDENT AND CONGRESS. THERE ARE SEVERAL ISSUES THAT NOW COULD BE IN JEOPARDY BECAUSE OF, OBVIOUSLY, EVEN MORE SENSE TENS RELATIONSHIPS HERE. AT THE TOP OF THAT LIST THE U.S.-MEXICO-CANADA TRADE DEAL, WHICH THE PRESIDENT WOULD LIKE TO GET PASSED, BUT EVEN HE MENTIONED TODAY HE IS NOT SURE THAT WILL GET THROUGH THE CONGRESS. AFTER THAT, GUN VIOLENCE, SOMETHING THE PRESIDENT SAID HE IS INTERESTED IN, BUT, JUDY, HAD NOT ACTUALLY PUT FORTH A PROPOSAL ON YET. AND AFTER, THAT PRESCRIPTION DRUG PRICES. THESE ARE ALL THREE ISSUES THAT THERE WAS TALK ABOUT MAYBE BIPARTISAN NEGOTIATING, PERHAPS A DEAL COMING THROUGH. AND NOW WE HAVE TO WATCH THEM BECAUSE IT SEEMS THAT THOSE ARE ALL GOING TO BE MADE MORE DIFFICULT BECAUSE OF THE ATMOSPHERE OF IMPEACHMENT.>>Woodruff: IT’S FAST MOVING, SO MUCH TO FOLLOW. THANK YOU TO BOTH OF YOU, TO LISA AND TO YAMICHE. WE APPRECIATE IT.>>WOODRUFF: THERE ARE MANY QUESTIONS ABOUT THE ROLE OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IN ALL OF THIS. JOHN YANG IS HERE TO EXAMINE THAT.>>YANG: JUDY, THE INSPECTOR GENERAL HAD ASKED THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE TO CONSIDER IF THE PRESIDENT HAD VIOLATED CAMPAIGN WE ARE JOINED BY DEVLIN BARRETT, WHO COVERS NATIONAL SECURITY AND LAW ENFORCEMENT FOR THE WASHINGTON POST. DEVELIN, LET’S GET RIGHT INTO THIS. WHISTLEBLOWER COMPLAINTS UNDER THE LAW ARE FROM THE INTELLIGENCE COMMUNITY, ARE SUPPOSED TO GO TO CONGRESS. HOW DID THIS ONE END UP AT THE JUSTICE DEPARTMENT?>>WELL, IT’S A PRETTY COMPLICATED PATH, BUT ESSENTIALLY WHAT HAPPENS IS ONCE THE COMPLAINT IS MADE, FOLKS IN THE INTELLIGENCE COMMUNITY QUESTION WHETHER THIS IS A VALID WHISTLEBLOWER COMPLAINT BECAUSE THE PRESIDENT, OBVIOUSLY, IS NOT A MEMBER OF THE INTELLIGENCE COMMUNITY. HE’S NOT AN EMPLOYEE OF ONE OF THOSE AGENCY. SO WHAT HAPPENS IS THEY GET LEGAL ADVICE FROM THE JUSTICE DEPARTMENT. AND WHAT THE JUSTICE DEPARTMENT SAYS IS THAT NO, THIS IS NOT A VALID LEGAL COMPLAINT BECAUSE THE WHISTLEBLOWER RULES DON’T REALLY APPLY TO CONDUCT OF THE PRESIDENT. BUT INTERESTINGLY, AND IN SOME WAYS MORE IMPORTANTLY, THE JUSTICE DEPARTMENT SAYS BUT THERE MAY BE A CRIMINAL VIOLATION HERE, SO WE NEED TO LOOK AT THAT, SO WE’RE– WE, THE JUSTICE DEPARTMENT, ARE GOING TO TAKE A LOOK AT WHAT HAPPENED HERE AND SEE IF THERE’S REASON TO PURSUE A CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION.>>CRIMINAL VIOLATION OF WHAT?>>CAMPAIGN FINANCE LAW. THE QUESTION THAT WAS IMMEDIATELY PRESENTED BY THE WHISTLEBLOWER’S COMPLAINT IS, IS THE PRESIDENT SEEKING A THING OF VALUE IF A FOREIGN ENTITY, WHICH IS A VIOLATION UNDER CAMPAIGN FINANCE LAW? AND THAT QUESTION QUICKLY TURNED INTO COULD YOU CHARACTERIZE AN INVESTIGATION BY A FOREIGN GOVERNMENT AS A THING OF VALUE? AND THAT’S THE QUESTION THEY WERE WRESTLING WITH.>>AND WHAT WAS THE TIMING OF ALL THIS? WHEN DID IT GET TO JUSTICE AND WHEN DID THE FOLKS IN PUBLIC INTEGRITY CLEAR– SAY THERE WAS NO VIOLATION?>>SO IT GETS TO THE JUSTICE DEPARTMENT IN LATE AUGUST, AND, YOU KNOW, DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE JUSTICE DEPARTMENT GET READ IN AND GET INVOLVED AT DIFFERENT TIMES. BUT, ESSENTIALLY, YOU’RE TALKING ABOUT THE PUBLIC INTEGRITY SECTION WITH SOME INPUT FROM THE CRIMINAL DIVISION AT THE JUSTICE DEPARTMENT AND THE NATIONAL SECURITY DIVISION. BUT ESSENTIALLY, THEY LOOK AT THIS QUESTION AND BY LAST WEEK, WE’RE TOLD– AND THAT’S IMPORTANT BECAUSE, OBVIOUSLY, A LOT WAS HEAPING ON THIS ISSUE PUBLICLY LAST WEEK– BUT LAST WEEK, WE’RE TOLD THE JUSTICE DEPARTMENT DECIDED THERE WAS NOT A CRIMINAL CASE TO PURSUE HERE.>>AND WHAT DO WE BEEN ATTORNEY GENERAL BARR’S ROLE IN ALL THIS? THE JUSTICE DEPARTMENT SAID IN A STATEMENT THAT THE PRESIDENT AND THE ATTORNEY GENERAL NEVER DISCUSSED THE BIDEN INVESTIGATION, BUT WHAT DO WE KNOW ABOUT WHAT ROLE HE PLAYED IN THIS?>>SO, WE’RE TOLD BY SENIOR JUSTICE DEPARTMENT OFFICIALS THAT BARR WAS AWARE OF THE LEGAL QUESTION THAT CAME IN TO THE JUSTICE DEPARTMENT EARLY ON IN THIS PROCESS. THAT IS, IS THIS A VALID WHISTLEBLOWER COMPLAINT? CAN THIS BE TREATED IN THE NORMAL COURSE OF, YOU KNOW, WHISTLEBLOWER COMPLAINT HANDLING? SO BARR WAS AWARE, ROUGHLY, THAT THAT WAS GOING ON. HOWEVER, THEY ALSO SAY THAT BARR WAS NOT INVOLVED, ONCE THE QUESTION BECAME A CRIMINAL QUESTION ABOUT CAMPAIGN FINANCE LAW, THAT BARR DID NOT PARTICIPATE IN THOSE DISCUSSIONS AND HE WAS NOT A PART OF THAT.>>ARE THERE ANY OTHER QUESTIONS OF LEGAL QUESTIONS ARISING FROM THIS? OF COURSE WE KNOW IMPEACHMENT IS A POLITICAL PROCESS. BUT ARE THERE ANY OTHER LEGAL QUESTIONS ARISING FROM ALL THIS?>>WELL, I THINK THERE’S GOING TO STILL BE– OBVIOUSLY, THERE’S A HEARING TOMORROW, AND THERE WILL BA I LOT OF, I THINK, TOUGH BACK-AND-FORECAST ABOUT EXACTLY WHAT INDIVIDUAL OFFICIALS, WHAT OPINIONS DID THEY TAKE ON SOME OF THESE ISSUES? BUT AS A LEGAL MATTER, THE JUSTICE DEPARTMENT SAYS THIS IS, FOR THEM, CASE CLOSED. I DON’T KNOW THAT, FRANKLY, DEMOCRATS AND THE CONGRESS ARE GOING TO TAKE THAT AS AN IMMEDIATE ANSWER. BUT THE JUSTICE DEPARTMENT VIEWS THIS AS NOT A CRIMINAL ISSUE FOR THEM TO RESOLVE.>>DEVLIN BARRETT OF “THE WASHINGTON POST.” THANK YOU VERY MUCH.>>THANKS.>>WOODRUFF: AND NOW, FOR MORE ON THE MEMORANDUM OF THE PHONE CONVERSATION BETWEEN PRESIDENT TRUMP AND UKRANIAN PRESIDENT ZELENSKY, I AM JOINED BY LARRY PFEIFFER, FORMER SENIOR DIRECTOR SENATOR MURPHY, THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR JOINING US. GIVEN YOUR LONGTIME KNOWLEDGE, FAMILIARITY WITH UKRAINE, WHAT IS YOUR REACTION TO THIS MEMO WE ARE NOW SEEING OF THE CONVERSATION BETWEEN PRESIDENT TRUMP AND THE PRESIDENT OF UKRAINE IN JULY?>>IT’S ABSOLUTELY DEVASTATING. WITHIN MOMENTS OF ZELENSKY ASKING THE PRESIDENT FOR MORE HELP FOR INCREASED WEAPONRY TO FIGHT RUSSIA, THE PRESIDENT ASKS ZELENSKY TO INVESTIGATE ONE OF THE PRESIDENT’S POLITICAL OPPONENTS, JOE BIDEN, AND MAKE SOME VAGUE SUGGESTION THAT VICE PRESIDENT BIDEN WAS BRAGGING ABOUT GETTING A PROSECUTOR– STOPPING A PROSECUTION IN UKRAINE, WHICH IS FUNDAMENTALLY NOT TRUE. THERE’S NO WAY TO COME AWAY FROM THAT PHONE CALL WITHOUT THE IMPRESSION THAT A PRIORITY OF THE PRESIDENT’S IS TO TAKE PART IN HIS POLITICAL CAMPAIGN FOR RE-ELECTION IN THE UNITED STATES. AND, OF COURSE, THIS PHONE CALL DOESN’T STANDOTS OWN. RUDY GIULIANI’S NAME IS BROUGHT UP SEVERAL TIMES. AND WE KNOW THAT GIULIANI, AND PERHAPS OTHERS, WERE REPEATEDLY TRYING TO GET THE UKRAINIANS TO OPEN UP THESE INVESTIGATIONS TO POLITICALLY DESTROY ONE OF THE PRESIDENT’S RIVALS. I DON’T THINK WE’VE EVER SEEN ANYTHING LIKE IT. ARE YOU NOT ALLOWED TO TRADE AWAY THE CREDIBILITY OF THE UNITED STATES IN ORDER TO SCORE POLITICAL POINTS OR DESTROY YOUR POLITICAL RIVALS. AND I THINK IT UNDERSCORES THE NEED FOR THE INQUIRY THE HOUSE BEGAN YESTERDAY.>>Woodruff: SENATOR, AS YOU KNOW, THOUGH, THE WHITE HOUSE IS SAYING THIS IS JUST AN EFFORT, AN OPEN EFFORT BY PRESIDENT TRUMP TO ENCOURAGE THE UKRAINIANS TO CLEAN UP CORRUPTION IN THEIR– IN THEIR GOVERNMENT.>>WELL, THAT WOULD BE MADE MORE CREDIBLE IF THE PRESIDENT HAD MENTIONED ANY OTHER CORRUPTION INVESTIGATION OVER THE COURSE OF THAT CALL. THERE ARE, YOU KNOW, LIKELY DOZENS OF DIFFERENT CORRUPTION MATTERS THAT THE PRESIDENT COULD HAVE PRESSED THE UKRAINIANS ON, IF HIS ACTUAL CONCERN WAS CLEANING UP CORRUPTION IN UKRAINE. HE ONLY MENTIONED ONE, AND IT HAPPENED TO BE REQUESTING AN INVESTIGATION, WHICH IS NOT PRESENTLY HAPPENING, AGAINST HIS LIKELY 2020 CAMPAIGN OPPONENT. SECOND, IF HE WAS REALLY INTERESTED IN CORRUPTION, HE WOULD HAVE TOLD ZELENSKY TO TALK TO THE EMBASSY. HE DIDN’T. HE TOLD ZELENSKY TO TALK TO RUDY GIULIANI, WHO IS THE PRESIDENT’S POLITICAL FIXER, WHO IS A REPRESENTATIVE OF THE PRESIDENT’S CAMPAIGN, WHO IS NOT IN CHARGE OF ROOTING OUT ANTICORRUPTION IN UKRAINE. THAT’S THE DUTY OF THE U.S. EMBASSY. SO THE PRESIDENT GAVE AWAY HIS PRIORITY IN THE CONTEXT OF THIS CALL. HE WAS TRYING TO ENLIST ZELENSKY IN HIS POLITICAL OPERATION.>>Woodruff: WELL, IF YOU READ THE MEMO, IT COMES ACROSS AS IF PRESIDENT ZELENSKY IS AGREEING TO DO WHAT PRESIDENT TRUMP ASKED HIM TO DO. HE SOUNDS LIKE HE’S AGREEING TO WORK WITH RUDY GIULIANI AND TO WORK WITH THE ATTORNEY GENERAL BARR. WHAT DO YOU MAKE OF THAT? YOU– YOU’VE MET WITH PRESIDENT ZELENSKY.>>I HAVE MET WITH PRESIDENT ZELENSKY, AND I RAISED THIS GENERAL ISSUE WITH HIM. AT THE TIME I DIDN’T KNOW THE PRESIDENT HIMSELF HAD MADE THESE DEMANDS OF ZELENSKY. I DID KNOW AT THE TIME THAT GIULIANI HAD MADE CERTAIN DEMANDS. THE PRESIDENT WITH MY MEETING WITH HIM, PRESIDENT ZELENSKY, SAID HE HAD NO INTEREST IN GETTING INVOLVED IN A U.S. ELECTION. I THINK YOU CAN PERHAPS UNDERSTAND THAT A NOVICE POLITICIAN, A NEW PRESIDENT WHO HAS NEVER DONE THIS BEFORE, IS ATTEMPTING TO, YOU KNOW, SET A GOOD RELATIONSHIP WITH A U.S. PRESIDENT WHO IS CLEARLY MAKING REQUESTS THAT ARE OUT OF BOUNDS. AND SO, YES, YOU READ THAT TRANSCRIPT, AND IT LOOKS AS IF ZELENSKY HAS AN INTEREST IN DOING BUSINESS WITH TRUMP. IT’S POSSIBLE HE WAS TRYING TO GET OUT OF THAT PHONE CALL WITHOUT A CONFRONTATION. WE DON’T HAVE ANY EVIDENCE THAT ZELENSKY ACTUALLY WENT AND ORDERED THAT PROSECUTION. IN FACT, IT APPEARS THAT HE DID NOT, THAT THE NEW PROSECUTOR THAT HE BROUGHT IN HAS MADE A DECISION THAT THERE’S NO MERIT TO PURSUING THIS.>>Woodruff: SENATOR, WE KNOW THAT YOU AND OTHER DEMOCRATS HAVE BEEN CALLING ON THE WHISTLEBLOWER IN THIS CASE, OTHERS IN THE INTELLIGENCE COMMUNITY, TO STEP FORWARD TO TESTIFY BEFORE CONGRESS. WE NOW KNOW THAT THE ACTING DIRECTOR OF NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE IS GOING TO TESTIFY TOMORROW MORNING BEFORE THE HOUSE INTELLIGENCE COMMITTEE. WHAT WOULD YOU WANT TO KNOW FROM HIM?>>WELL, I MEAN, I’M CONCERNED THAT THIS INFORMATION IS ONLY GOING TO FLOW TO THE MEMBERS OF THE INTELLIGENCE COMMITTEE. I’VE GOT TO GO BACK AND CHECK THE STATUTE. BUT I JUST SAW THE REVELATION THAT THE WHISTLEBLOWER COMPLAINT WILL BE PRESENTED TO THE INTELLIGENCE COMMITTEE. REMEMBER, THAT’S ONLY A HAND FULL OF SENATORS. AND ULTIMATELY, IF THIS IS THE SUBJECT OF AN IMPEACHMENT INQUIRY, THEN EVERYONE WHO IS GOING TO VOTE ON IMPEACHMENT EITHER IN THE HOUSE OR THE SENATE NEEDS TO SEE THIS WHISTLEBLOWER COMPLAINT. SO THAT’S THE FIRST THRESHOLD WE NEED TO CROSS. BUT THEN, OF COURSE, ON SUBSTANCE, I DON’T KNOW ANYTHING THAT’S IN THIS COMPLAINT. SO IT MAY HAVE TO DO WITH UKRAINE. IT MAY HAVE TO DO WITH RUSSIA. THAT’S WHY ALL OF US NEED TO SEE THIS AS SOON AS POSSIBLE, NOT JUST THE INTELLIGENCE COMMITTEE.>>Woodruff: SENATOR CHRIS MURPHY OF CONNECTICUT, WHO IS ON THE FOREIGN RELATIONS COMMITTEE, THANK YOU, SENATOR.>>THANKS.>>Woodruff: AFTER THAT CONVERSATION, IN A PRESS CONFERENCE, PRESIDENT TRUMP ACCUSED SENATOR MURPHY OF THREATENING UKRAINE’S LEADER WITH REVOKING DEMOCRATIC SUPPORT IN CONGRESS. IT WAS ONE OF SEVERAL UNSUBSTANTIATED CLAIMS MADE BY MR. TRUMP TODAY. SENATOR MURPHY’S OFFICE THEN SENT US THIS STATEMENT:>>Woodruff: AND NOW, TO TAKE A CLOSER LOOK AT THE MEMORANDUM RELEASED BY THE WHITE HOUSE OF THE PHONE CONVERSATION BETWEEN PRESIDENT TRUMP AND UKRAINE’S PRESIDENT ZELENSKY. I’M JOINED BY LARRY PFEIFFER, FORMER SENIOR DIRECTOR OF THE WHITE HOUSE SITUATION ROOM DURING THE OBAMA ADMINISTRATION, AND CHIEF OF STAFF TO THE DIRECTOR OF THE C.I.A. DURING THE BUSH ADMINISTRATION. HE’S CURRENTLY SERVING AS THE GRERKT OF GEORGE MASON’S UNIVERSITY HAYDEN SENATOR FOR INTELLIGENCE, POLICY, AND INTERNATIONAL SECURITY. LARRY PFEIFFER, THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR BEING HERE.>>THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR HAVING ME.>>Woodruff: SO AS SOMEBODY WHO HAS WORKED IN THE WHITE HOUSE, IN THE SITUATION ROOM, SAT IN ON A NUMBER OF PHONE CALLS BETWEEN THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES, LEADERS OF OTHER COUNTRIES, HOW NORMALLY WOULD A WHISTLEBLOWER COMPLAINT BE HANDLED AROUND SOMETHING LIKE THIS?>>OH, GOSH, I DON’T KNOW IF THERE’S A NORMAL REALLY HERE. WE HAVE PHONE CONVERSATIONS THAT ARE BEING TRANZIEBED, THAT A MEMORANDUM IS BEING WRITTEN TO CAPTURE THAT TRANSCRIPT AND BE SOMETHING AS EXPLICIT AS WE SAW TODAY, OR IT COULD BE SOMETHING SUMMARIZING THE CONVERSATION. SO THE TRANSCRIPT TODAY, YOU KNOW, CLEARLY WAS PRETTY EXPLICIT IN WHAT THE PRESIDENT WAS SAYING. AT ONE LEVEL YOU HAVE TO APPLAUD THE PRESIDENT FOR PUTTING THIS VERY EXPLICIT DOCUMENT OUT.>>Woodruff: BUT IN YOUR EXPERIENCE IN– LET ME JUST BACK UP FOR JUST A SECOND. IN RECORD AGO IT’S NOT RECORDED. THERE’S NO AUDIO RECORDING OF THESE CONVERSATIONS.>>RIGHT.>>Woodruff: SO THERE ARE INDIVIDUALS THERE TAKING NOTES.>>RIGHT.>>Woodruff: AS FAST AS THEY CAN.>>THEY’RE ACTUALLY LISTENING TO THE CONVERSATION LIVE, AND THEY’RE TYPING FURIOUSLY ON THEIR COMPUTERS TRYING TO CAPTURE EVERY SINGLE WORD AND NUANCE OF THE CONVERSATION.>>Woodruff: THEN WHAT IS DONE WITH THAT?>>SO WE HAVE THREE INDIVIDUALS. THEY WORK UP THREE SEPARATE TRANSCRIPTS. THEY THEN GET TOGETHER AND RECONCILE THEM INTO A UNIFIED DRAFT. THAT IS THEN PROVIDED BY THE SITUATION ROOM TO THE N.S.C. DIRECTOR RESPONSIBLE FOR THE CALL– IN THIS CASE IT WOULD HAVE BEEN EUROPE. AND AN N.S.C. SENIOR DIRECTOR OR DIRECTOR WOULD REVIEW, THAT APPLY SOME EXPERTISE TO PERHAPS CORRECTING SOME OF THE MATERIAL, AND THEN THEY WOULD ULTIMATELY DECIDE IN WHAT FORMAT THAT FINAL MEMO WOULD BE, WOULD IT BE AN EXPLICIT TRANSCRIPT OR MORE OF A SUMMATION? IN THIS CASE IT LOOKS LIKE THEY WENT WITH THE VERBAITIN TRANSCRIPT.>>Woodruff: BUT AGAIN IT WASN’T RECORDED.>>NO.>>Woodruff: IT’S WHATEVER THEIR NOTES WERE.>>ABSOLUTELY.>>Woodruff: BUT HOW MANY PEOPLE, ROUGHLY– OBVIOUSLY, THINGS ARE DONE DIFFERENTLY FROM ONE ADMINISTRATION TO THE NEXT.>>SURE.>>Woodruff: ROUGHLY, HOW MANY PEOPLE ULTIMATELY WOULD HAVE ACCESS TO THAT DOCUMENT?>>SO THE DOCUMENT ITSELF, THERE WOULD BE THE INDIVIDUALS IN THE SITUATION ROOM. THERE WOULD BE THE INFORMATION IN THE THE DIRECTORATE. THAT WOULD BE ANYWHERE FROM ONE TO THREE OR FOUR PEOPLE IN THE DIRECTORATE. THAT MEMO IS THEN PROVIDED TO THE NATIONAL SECURITY ADVISER’S FRONT OFFICE, UNDER NORMAL SITUATIONS. THERE COULD BE A FEW PEOPLE THERE. AND THEN IT IS PROVIDED TO THE EXECUTIVE ERKT OF SECRETARY OF THE NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL FOR FILING AND DISTRIBUTION. SO ANOTHER COUPLE OF PEOPLE. AND FENDING WHERE IT IS– DEPENDING ON WHERE IT IS DISTRIBUTED, IT COULD BE ANOTHER HANDFUL OF PEOPLE.>>Woodruff: WEARING YOUR HAT AS SOMEONE WHO WORKED IN THE INTELLIGENCE COMMUNITY, AND WE TALKED ABOUT YOUR EXPERIENCE WORKING IN A WHITE HOUSE, IF ONE OF THOSE INDIVIDUALS EITHER HAD TO– IS THE WHISTLEBLOWER HIMSELF OR HERSELF, OR SHARED THAT INFORMATION WITH SOMEONE WHO HAS NOW SEEN THIS AND DECIDED IT WAS CONCERNING ENOUGH TO BRING IT FORWARD.>>RIGHT.>>Woodruff: BUT YOU WERE JUST SAYING A MOMENT AGO, THIS IS NOT A NORMAL THING, CLEARLY.>>NO, NOT– I MEAN, TO SEE SOMETHING SO EGREGIOUS THAT ONE WOULD PUT HIS CAREER ON THE LINE TO DO A WHISTLEBLOWER COMPLAINT SUGGESTS TO ME THAT THEY HAVE MORE THAN JUST ONE PHONE CALL, AND THEY HAVE SOME FAIRLY COMPELLING INFORMATION TO PROVIDE.>>Woodruff: AND IN FACT THAT’S THE INFORMATION THAT HAS BEEN– THAT HAS BEEN REPORTED OUT. WE ARE JUST NOW STARTING TO SEE REACTION FROM MEMBERS OF CONGRESS WHO HAVE SEEN– AND OUR LISA DESJARDINS MENTIONED THAT– WHO HAVE SEEN WHAT THE WHISTLEBLOWER COMPLAINT IS. AND SOME OF THEM ARE SAYING IT’S DISTURBING, INCLUDING REPUBLICAN SENATOR BEN SASS OF NEBRASKA.>>RIGHT, I’M NOT SURPRISED. I WAS FULLY ANTICIPATING THAT THIS WHISTLEBLOWER COMPLAINT WOULD BE– WOULD BE MORE COMPLETE, MORE– HAVE MORE INFORMATION THAT WILL ULTIMATELY REQUIRE ADDITIONAL DISCLOSURES. PERHAPS HE REFLECTS CONVERSATIONS THAT HE PARTICIPATED IN– HE OR SHE PAYMENTED IN. PERHAPS IT REFLECTS EMAILS OR OTHER DOCUMENTS THAT RELATE TO WHAT WAS GOING ON WITH THE UKRAINE PROBLEM.>>Woodruff: AND JUST A VERY QUICK QUESTION BASED ON YOUR EXPERIENCE IN THE INTELLIGENCE COMMUNITY, IS IT– IS IT EXPECTED THAT THE PRESIDENT, THAT THE WHITE HOUSE WOULD KNOW THE IDENTITY OF THE WHISTLEBLOWER?>>NO, THE WHISTLEBLOWER SHOULD BE BEING PROTECTED BY THE I.C. INSPECTOR GENERAL, AN THE INTELLIGENCE COMMUNITY. SO THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES SHOULD NOT KNOW THE WHISTLEBLOWER’S NAME, UNLESS THE WHISTLEBLOWER DECIDES THEY WANT THEIR NAME TO BE DISCLOSED.>>Woodruff: ALL RIGHT, LARRY PFEIFFER, DIRECTOR OF THE HAYDEN CENTER AT G GEORGE MASON UNIVERSITY. THANK YOU.>>THANK YOU VERY MUCH, JUDY.>>WOODRUFF: IN THE DAY’S OTHER NEWS, IRANIAN PRESIDENT HASSAN ROUHANI USED HIS SPEECH AT THE U.N. GENERAL ASSEMBLY TODAY LARGELY TO CONDEMN US REGIONAL INTERVENTION. ROUHANI DENOUNCED THE TRUMP ADMINISTRATION’S WITHDRAWAL FROM THE 2015 IRAN NUCLEAR DEAL AND BLASTED US SANCTIONS AGAINST HIS COUNTRY. HE SAID IRAN WOULD ONLY COME TO THE NEGOTIATING TABLE IF THOSE SANCTIONS ARE LIFTED.>>(translated): I HAIL FROM A COUNTRY THAT HAS RESISTED THE MOST MERCILESS ECONOMIC TERRORISM. THE US GOVERNMENT WHILE IMPOSING EXTRA TERRITORIAL SANCTIONS AND THREATS AGAINST OTHER NATIONS HAS MADE A LOT OF EFFORT TO DEPRIVE IRAN FROM THE ADVANTAGES OF PARTICIPATING IN THE GLOBAL ECONOMY. THIS IS THE OF THE IRANIAN NATION: LET’S INVEST IN HOPE TOWARDS A BETTER FUTURE RATHER THAN IN WAR AND VIOLENCE.>>WOODRUFF: BUT THE WHITE HOUSE IS SHOWING NO SIGNS OF LIFTING THOSE SANCTIONS ON IRAN. US SECRETARY OF STATE MIKE POMPEO THREATENED TOUGHER PENALTIES ON THE ISLAMIC REVOLUTIONARY GUARD CORPS– OR I.R.G.C.– WHEN HE SPOKE TODAY IN NEW YORK.>>THE MORE IRAN LASHES OUT, THE GREATER OUR PRESSURE WILL AND SHOULD BE.>>AS LONG AS IRAN’S MENACING BEHAVIOR CONTINUES, SANCTIONS WILL NOT BE LIFTED. THEY WILL BE TIGHTENED.>>Woodruff: LATER POMPEO SAID HE WOULD LIKE TO SEE A PEACEFUL RESOLUTION WITH IRAN, BUT IT WAS UP TO THE IRANIANS TO MAKE THAT DECISION. BENJAMIN NETANYAHU HAS NOW BEEN CISION TO ME.ENT MADE THATNEW FORM BENNY GANTZ FAILED TO BROKER A UNIT GOVERNMENT. NEITHER OF THEIR PARTIES WERE ABLE TO SECURE A MAJORITY IN PARLIAMENT IN LAST WEEK’S ELECTION. NETANYAHU NOW HAS UP SOTO SIX WEEKS TO FORM A COALITION. HE FAILED TO DO THAT AFTER THE FIRST ELECTION IN APRIL. BRITISH LAWMAKERS RETURNED TO PARLIAMENT TODAY A DAY AFTER BRITAIN’S SUPREME COURT RULED THAT PRIME MINISTER BORIS JOHNSON’S SUSPENSION OF THE BODY AHEAD OF THE BREXIT DEADLINE WAS ILLEGAL. THE PRIME MINISTER ADDRESSED THE HOUSE OF COMMONS AND TOOK AIM AT THE OPPOSITION LABOR PARTY AND ITS LEADER JEREMY CORBYN. JOHNSON CHALLENGED THEM TO TRY TO OUST HIM WITH A NO-CONFIDENCE VOTE, IN HOPES OF BREAKING THE GRIDLOCK OVER BREXIT.>>THEY SEE EVERMORE ELABORATE LEGAL AND POLITICAL MANEUVERS FROM THE PARTY OPPOSITE. WHICH IS DETERMINED TO SAY WE KNOW BEST AND THUMB THEIR NOSES AT THE 17.4 MILLION PEOPLE WHO VOTED TO LEAVE THE EUROPEAN UNION.>>AFTER YESTERDAY’S RULING, THE PRIME MINISTER SHOULD HAVE DONE THE HONORABLE THING AND RESIGNED. YET MR. SPEAKER, HERE HE IS, FORCED BACK TO THIS HOUSE TO RIGHTFULLY FACE THE SCRUTINY HE TRIED TO AVOID>>WOODRUFF: JOHNSON PLANS TO WITHDRAW FROM THE EUROPEAN UNION BY OCTOBER 31ST WITH OR WITHOUT A WITHDRAWAL AGREEMENT. BUT THE OPPOSITION SAID IT WON’T BACK A NEW ELECTION UNLESS A NO- DEAL BREXIT IS RULED OUT. THE TRUMP ADMINISTRATION HAS REACHED A DEAL TO SEND ASYLUM SEEKERS AT THE US MEXICO BORDER TO HONDURAS, ONE OF THE WORLD’S MOST VIOLENT NATIONS. THE U.S. HAS ALREADY SIGNED SIMILAR PACTS WITH EL SALVADOR AND GUATEMALA. MANY OF THE DETAILS REMAIN UNCLEAR, BUT IT’S PART OF A BROADER STRATEGY TO DETER MIGRANTS FROM ENTERING THE US FROM MEXICO. PUERTO RICO AND THE U.S. VIRGIN ISLANDS ESCAPED THE WORST OF TROPICAL STORM KAREN. BUT AUTHORITIES DID REPORT MINOR POWER OUTAGES AND FLOODING. KAREN IS NOW MOVING AWAY FROM THE ISLANDS. BUT FORECASTERS WARNED THE HEAVY RAIN COULD LINGER ACROSS THE NORTHEASTERN CARIBBEAN. MEANWHILE, JERRY WAS DOWNGRADED TO A POST-TROPICAL CYCLONE AS IT PASSED NEAR BERMUDA, WITH SUSTAINED WINDS AROUND 40 MILES PER HOUR. AND, STOCKS BOUNCED BACK ON WALL STREET TODAY, AFTER PRESIDENT TRUMP SIGNALED A TRADE DEAL WITH CHINA COULD COME SOON. ALTHOUGH ASKED FOR DETAILS BY A REPORTER LATE IN THE AFTERNOON, HE SAID HE HAD NOTHIN THE DOW JONES INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE GAINED 163 POINTS TO CLOSE ABOVE 26,970. THE NASDAQ ROSE MORE THAN 83 POINTS AND THE S&P-500 ADDED 18. STILL TO COME ON THE NEWSHOUR: THE STAGGERING DAMAGE CLIMATE CHANGE IS ALREADY WREAKING ON THE WORLD’S OCEANS. ON THE GROUND IN AFGHANISTAN AS THE MILITARY STRUGGLES TO ROOT OUT TALIBAN FIGHTERS. PLUS, POWER AND PROSPERITY — AN INSIDE LOOK AT MODERN CHINA.>>WOODRUFF: THE WORLD’S OCEANS AND THE WORLD’S ICE ARE INCREASINGLY FEELING THE EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE AND THE RISKS OF DIRE CONSEQUENCES ARE GROWING. THAT’S THE MESSAGE OF A NEW REPORT OUT FROM THE U.N.’S INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE, OR THE I.P.C.C. SCIENTISTS SAY IT’S VIRTUALLY CERTAIN THE OCEANS AND SEAS HAVE ALREADY ABSORBED AN ENORMOUS AMOUNT OF EXCESS HEAT IN OUR CLIMATE SYSTEM. BUT IF CURRENT EMISSIONS DON’T CHANGE, THE RISKS FOR MARINE LIFE AND FOR PEOPLE LIVING NEAR THE COASTS WILL GET SIGNIFICANTLY WORSE. WILLIAM BRANGHAM IS HERE WITH MORE. PART OF OUR REGULAR COVERAGE OF THE LEADING EDGE OF SCIENCE.>>BRANGHAM: JUDY, THE REPORT IS FILLED WITH SOME VERY SPECIFIC AND VERY SOBERING ASSESSMENTS. AMONG THEM, IF GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS AREN’T REDUCED, SEA LEVEL RISE COULD HIT THREE FEET BY THE END OF THE CENTURY, DRIVEN IN LARGE PART BY THE MELTING OF THE ICE SHEETS AND GLACIERS ON GREENLAND AND ANTARCTICA. EVEN IF EMISSIONS ARE LOWERED, THE REPORT SAYS COASTAL CITIES ONE OF THE LEAD AUTHORS ON THIS REPORT JOINS ME NOW. MICHAEL OPPENHEIMER IS A PROFESSOR OF GEOSCIENCES AND INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS AT THE WOODROW WILSON SCHOOL AT PRINCETON UNIVERSITY. HE AUTHORED THE CHAPTER ON SEA LEVEL RISE. PROFESSOR OPPENHEIMER, ALWAYS GOOD TO SEE YOU HERE ON THE NEWSHOUR. LET’S DIVE RIGHT INTO THE SECTION THAT YOU AUTHORED. THIS PREDICTION OF SEA LEVEL RISE IF CURRENT TRENDS DON’T CHANGE SEEMS INCREDIBLY STARK.>>YES, WELL, SEA LEVEL IS RISING, AND IT’S RISING AT AN ACCELERATING PACE, AND THE REASON FOR THAT IS– YOU SAID IT– THE GREENLAND AND ANTARCTIC ICE SHEETS ARE LOSING ISLE FASTER AND FASTER. THEY’RE DUMPING INTO THE OCEAN AND THAT’S A MAJOR CAUSE OF SEA LEVEL RISE, AND ALSO BEHIND THAT, LARGELY, IS HUMAN-CAUSED WARMING OF THE EARTH. THE SECOND THING TO BE CONCERNED ABOUT IS THAT SEA LEVEL RISE IS PROJECTED TO CAUSE A LARGE CHANGE IN THE FREQUENCY OF OCCURRENCE OF EXTREME WATER LEVELS AT THE COASTS, AND THESE ARE THE THINGS THAT CAUSE BIG FLOODS– FOR INSTANCE, WHEN A STORM LIKE HURRICANE SANDY COMES ALONG, AND THERE’S A STORM SURGE, IF IT’S RISE RIDING ON TOP OF A HIGHER SEA LEVEL, IT JUST PUSHES THE WATER TO A HIGHER LEVEL IN THE PLACES INLAND WHERE PEOPLE LIVE. AND THE THIRD THING THAT WE HAVE TO KNOW ABOUT THIS PROBLEM IS THAT WE BASICALLY FACE AT THE EXTREMES TWO TYPES OF FUTURES. THE CHANGES CAN KEEP ACCELERATING BECAUSE UNDER THE “BUSINESS AS USUAL” SCENARIO, THAT’S WHAT HAPPENS– SEA LEVEL JUST KEEPS RISING AND RISING AT A FASTER PACE THROUGH 2300. THAT’S THE FURTHEST WE WENT OUT– THE YEAR 2300. AN ALTERNATIVE IS TO START THE KIND OF STRONG EMISSIONS REDUCTIONS THAT WERE AGREED TO IN THE PARIS AGREEMENT IN 2015. AND IN THAT CASE, THE RATE OF ACCELERATION OF SEA LEVEL SLOWS. SEA LEVEL EVENTUALLY– LONG, CENTURIES YOU OUT– STABILIZES. AND THAT MEANS THAT WE BUY TIME. THAT WOULD GIVE US A CHANCE TO ADAPT TO THE PROBLEM. IF WE DON’T SLOW IT DOWN, IT’S GOING TO BECOME UNMANAGEABLE.>>I THINK THE REPORT DETAILED HOW WHAT WE USED TO CONSIDER THESE ONCE-IN-A-CENTURY TYPE FLOODING EVENTS, BY 2050 IF WE DON’T MAKE ANY OF THE CHANGES YOU’RE DESCRIBING COULD BE HAPPENING EVERY SINGLE YEAR. I MEAN, THAT KIND OF AN IMPACT ON COASTAL COMMUNITIES DOESN’T STRIKE ME THAT THOSE COMMUNITIES ARE PREPARED FOR THAT KIND OF FLOODING.>>THEY’RE REALLY NOT PREPARED. THERE ARE VERY FEW PLACES IN THE WORLD– THE NETHERLANDS IS ONE– WHICH IS PREPARED FOR A HIGHER SEA LEVEL, UP TO MAYBE A COUPLE OF METERS HIGHER. BUT THE TROUBLE IS THAT MOST OF THE WORLD HASN’T PAID ATTENTION TO THIS PROBLEM. IN FACT, IN MOST PLACES, THEY DON’T COPE VERY WELL WITH THE CURRENT RISK. AND YOU CAN SEE THAT IN THE UNITED STATES WHERE EVERY TIME THERE’S A BIG STORM THAT COMES ALONG, THERE’S LOSS OF PROPERTY, LOSS OF MONEY, AND IN MANY CASES, LOSS OF LIFE. WE HAVE TO UP OUR GAME WITH REGARD TO ADAPTATION, OR IT’S GOING TO GET OUT OF CONTROL. AND THAT’S MUCH EASIER TO DO IF WE’RE WORKING IN A WORLD WHERE EMISSIONS ARE GOING DOWN, RATHER THAN A WORLD WHERE EMISSIONS ARE GOING UP.>>THE REPORT ALSO DETAILS A LOT OF THE SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE THAT THE OCEAN IS WARMING BECAUSE IT IS ABSORBING THE HEAT THAT WE HAVE BEEN BUILDING UP IN OUR ATMOSPHERE, AND THAT THE ACIDITY LEVELS OF THE OCEAN ARE GOING UP. WHAT DOES A WARMING, MORE ASIDDIFYING OCEAN DO?>>WHEN THE OCEAN WARMS, PARTICULARLY WHEN IT’S SUBJECT TO MARINE HEAT WAVE, YOU GET PATCHES OF THE OCEAN THAT LOSE THEIR OXYGEN. THAT’S BECAUSE OXYGEN TENDS TO DISAPPEAR FROM WARM WATERS. IT’S ALSO BECAUSE POLLUTION IS CAUSING ALGAE BLOOMS WHEN THOSE BLOOMS SINK IN THE OCEAN, THEY DECAY, AND DECAY MEANS BASICALLY THE ORGANISMS OR THE DEAD MATERIAL, EATS UP OXYGEN. WHEN OXYGEN DISAPPEARS FROM PARTS OF THE OCEAN, ORGANISMS THAT ARE SUPPOSED TO BE ALIVE AND PROVIDE US FOOD THROUGH FISH, FOR INSTANCE, THEY DISAPPEAR. SO WE’RE UNDERMINING THE ABILITY OF THE OCEAN TO FEED THE ORGANISMS IN THE OCEAN AND, THEREFORE, TO FEED US BY WARMING IT AND ASIDDIFYING IT AT THE SAME TIME.>>I’D LIKE YOU TO TAKE OFF YOUR I.P.P.C. HAT FOR A SECTION. I WANT TO ASK YOUR QUESTION ABOUT POLITICAL WELL. FIVE DAYS AGO WE SAW FOUR MILLION PEOPLE ON THE STREET DEMANDING ACTION. WE SAW WORLD LEADERS RELATIVELY MINOR COMMITMENTS TO FIGHT CLIMATE CHANGE DO YOU THINK THIS EVIDENCE IS GOING TO BE ENOUGH TO MOVE THE NEEDLE?>>SCIENCE IS NEVER ENOUGH. SCIENCE CAN SET THE BASIS FOR SOLVING THE PROBLEM, BUT IT’S PEOPLE WHO HAVE TO DECIDE THEY WANT IT SOLVED, AND THEY HAVE TO TELL THEIR LEADERS THAT THEY WANT IT SOLVED. THAT’S MY PERSONAL OPINION. I.P.C.C. DOESN’T CRITICIZE OR COMMENT ON GOVERNMENTS. SO IT’S VERY ENCOURAGING TO SOMEONE LIKE ME WHO HAS WORKED ON THIS PROBLEM FOR 35 YEARS TO SEE THE YOUNG PEOPLE IN THE STREETS DEMANDING ACTION. MY GENERATION DIDN’T SOLVE THE PROBLEM. NOW IT’S GOING TO BE ON THEIR SHOULDERS. THEY KNOW IT, AND THEY’RE ANGRY ABOUT IT AND I THINK THIS IS GOING TO RESULT IN POLITICAL CHANGE– NOT FAST ENOUGH, BUT I THINK IT’S COMING. BUT A PART OF THE PROBLEM I’M REALLY WORRIED ABOUT IS YOU CANNOT SOLVE THE COASTAL PROBLEM JUST BY REDUCING EMISSIONS. THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT DOESN’T GIVE MUCH, IF ANY MONEY FOR PLANNING AND ADAPTING, DOING THINGS LIKE BUILDING BUILDINGS S THAT ARE ON STILTS, BUILDING SEA WALLS. THEY JUST DON’T GIVE MUCH FOR THIS KIND OF THING IN ADVANCE. BUT AFTER A BIG STORM, SURE, THEY COME IN, THEY FIX UP THE SITUATION, THEY PAY BILLIONS OF DOLLARS. BUT IT’S TOO LATE BY THEN. IT WOULD BE MUCH CHEAPER TO FIX IT IN ADVANCE BEFORE PEOPLE DIE, BEFORE BILLIONS ARE LOST IN PROPERTY.>>AS ALWAYS, MICHAEL OPPENHEIMER, A PLEASURE TO HAVE YOU ON.>>THANKS FOR HAVING ME.>>Woodruff: AFGHANISTAN’S GOVERNMENT IS TRYING TO REACH A PEACE DEAL THE U.S. WAS UNABLE TO DELIVER EARLIER THIS MONTH WHEN PRESIDENT TRUMP CANCELED TALKS WITH THE TALIBAN. BUT THATE UGH MORE FIGHTING. SPECIAL CORRESPONDENT JANE FERGUSON TRAVELED TO GAZ ME PROVINCE, AND TALKEDDED TO LEADERS IN BOTH THE AFGHAN GOVERNMENT AND THE TALIBAN ABOUT THE WAY FORWARD.>>REPORTER: THE ONLY SAFE WAY TO TRAVEL TO AFGHANISTAN’S GHAZNI PROVINCE IS BY AIR. HELICOPTERS CARRIED US THERE WE WENT THERE WITH TOP GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS, INTO AREAS, UNTIL RECENTLY, CONTROLLED BY THE TALIBAN. NOT LONG AGO THIS WOULD HAVE BEEN A DEADLY PLACE TO LAND, WITH THESE FIELDS FULL OF TALIBAN FIGHTERS. EVEN TODAY, IT’S A RISKY TRIP FOR AFGHANISTAN’S NATIONAL SECURITY ADVISOR DR HAMDULLAH MOHIB. HE’S HERE TRYING TO REASSURE PEOPLE THAT GOVERNMENT FORCES ARE IN CONTROL.>>THEIR MAIN CONCERN IS WHAT IF THIS IS ONLY TEMPORARY? WHAT IF WE ARE NOT ABLE TO MAINTAIN WHAT HAPPENS TO THEM?>>REPORTER: THAT’S BECAUSE ALL ACROSS AFGHANISTAN, THE TALIBAN ARE LAUNCHING ATTACKS ON POLICE AND GOVERNMENT FORCES AND EVEN POPPING UP IN TOWNS AND CITIES TO AUDACIOUSLY GRAB GROUND MOMENTARILY. THE AFGHAN GOVERNMENT IS KEEN TO SHOW OFF AREAS LIKE THIS THEY HAVE JUST RECENTLY RE-TAKEN USING THE ELITE SPECIAL FORCES. THIS AREA OF GHAZNI, AND I’M STANDING NOW IN THE MIDDLE OF AN OLD POLICE HEADQUARTERS, WAS HELD BY THE TALIBAN FOR OVER FIVE YEARS. THE BIGGEST CHALLENGE WILL BE TO MAKE SURE GOVERNMENT FORCES CAN HOLD THEIR GROUND HERE AND THEY DON’T HAVE TO KEEP SENDING IN THE SPECIAL FORCES TIME AND TIME AGAIN. AND THAT THREAT IS NEVER FAR AWAY. THESE SOLDIERS TOLD US TALIBAN FIGHTERS ARE LESS THAN THREE MILES FROM THIS SPOT, AND SURELY WATCHED US ARRIVING. FOR SOME, NOT EVEN THE ARMY CAN HELP. SIRAJ KHAN IS THE GOVERNOR OF A NEIGHBORING PROVINCE THAT FELL TO THE TALIBAN 12 YEARS AGO. ANY HOPE HE HAD OF A MILITARY RESCUE HAS LONG FADED. THEY CANNOT REMOVE THEM, HE TOLD US. THE TALIBAN ARE VERY STRONG THER AFGHAN COMMANDO UNITS ARE KEPT BUSY, CHASING OUT THE ENEMY. BUT THEN THEY HAVE TO MOVE ON TO THE NEXT, INEVITABLE TALIBAN ADVANCE ELSEWHERE. THE REGULAR FORCES WHO REPLACE THEM ARE WEAK AND ILL EQUIPPED, AND THEY STRUGGLE TO HOLD ON. IT’S THE SAME PROBLEM AMERICAN FORCES FACED HERE FOR YEARS. NOW, MORE THAN NINE MONTHS OF INTENSIVE NEGOTIATIONS BETWEEN THE US AND THE TALIBAN HAVE FALLEN APART, ON THE CUSP OF A DEAL FOR WITHDRAWING AMERICAN TROOPS. THAT DEAL WOULD HAVE BROUGHT AMERICAN SOLDIERS HOME, BUT LEFT THE AFGHAN GOVERNMENT TO LARGELY FEND FOR ITSELF, WITH JUST PROMISES FROM THE TALIBAN TO NEGOTIATE WITH PRESIDENT ASHRAF GHANI IN KABUL. THE PROBLEM WITH THAT– THE TALIBAN REFUSES TO RECOGNIZE THE AFGHAN GOVERNMENT, CALLING IT AN AMERICAN PUPPET. AFGHANISTAN’S MINISTER OF DEFENSE ASADULLAH KHALID STILL BELIEVES HIS FORCES CAN GET THE TALIBAN TO NEGOTIATE WITH THE KABUL GOVERNMENT BY HITTING IT EVEN HARDER WITH MILITARY OFFENSIVES.>>IN SOME CASES WE DOUBLED OUR OPERATION AND IN SOME CASES WE MADE IT TRIPLE, TO PUT MORE PRESSURE ON TALIBAN TO PUSH THEM TO COME TO THE TABLE.>>REPORTER: WHICH NEGOTIATING TABLE IS THAT?>>AFGHAN GOVERNMENT.>>REPORTER: AND SO, THE COUNTRY’S SPECIAL FORCES KEEP RAIDING TALIBAN STRONGHOLDS. IN THE CAPITAL KABUL WE JOINED THEM ON A LATE NIGHT SEARCH ON THE OUTSKIRTS OF TOWN. SEVERAL DOZEN SOLDIERS STORMED THE NEIGHBORHOOD IN THE MOONLIGHT, ON THE HUNT FOR A TALIBAN COMMANDER. THE FORCES ARE HEADING INTO THE HOUSE NOW. WITH SO MANY MAJOR ATTACKS HAPPENING IN KABUL THAT KILL CIVILIANS, RAIDS LIKE THIS ARE ALL THE MORE ESSENTIAL. THIS TIME, ALL THEY FOUND WAS THE MAN’S FATHER AT HOME. HE WAS QUESTIONED AND LET GO. WITH FEW OPTIONS ON THE TABLE OTHER THAN INTENSIFIED FIGHTING, CASUALTY RATES IN THIS WAR ARE STAGGERING. PRESIDENT GHANI ANNOUNCED IN JANUARY THAT 45,000 AFGHAN NATIONAL DEFENSE AND SECURITY FORCES, CALLED THE A.N.D.S.F., HAVE BEEN KILLED SINCE HE TOOK OFFICE IN 2014. THAT’S AROUND 1,000 DEAD EVERY MONTH.>>IT IS DEFINITELY NOT SUSTAINABLE WHETHER IT’S THE CIVILIAN CASUALTIES, WHETHER IT’S THE A.N.D.S.F. CASUALTIES OR WHETHER IT’S THE TALIBAN CASUALTIES.>>REPORTER: FOR FORMER DEPUTY DEFENSE MINISTER TAMIM ASEY, THE NUMBERS HAUNTED HIM DURING HIS TIME IN OFFICE.>>I WOULD GO HOME AND SLEEP WELL FOR FOUR OR THREE HOURS ON A DAY THAT I WOULD COUNT THAT IN EVERY HOUR I DON’T LOSE TWO OR THREE PEOPLE. SO THAT WOULD BE MY BEST DAY. BECAUSE IN EVERY HOUR ON AVERAGE WE USED TO LOSE ONE OR TWO A.N.D.S.F. AND 24 HOURS IS WE ARE TALKING ABOUT 24 PEOPLE, OR 40 PEOPLE, OR 48 PEOPLE.>>REPORTER: IF AMERICA WANTS TO WITHDRAW ITS TROOPS FROM THIS COUNTRY WITHOUT LEAVING IT IN TOTAL CHAOS, THEN THE TRUMP ADMINISTRATION WILL ALSO HAVE TO DEAL WITH AFGHANISTAN’S NEIGHBORS. PAKISTAN HAS LONG GIVEN SAFE HAVEN AND SUPPORT TO THE TALIBAN ACROSS THE BORDER. AND, ACCORDING TO ASEY, IRAN IS INCREASINGLY HELPING THE GROUP TOO.>>SOMETIMES THE IRANIANS HAVE BEEN VERY BLUNT: IF THEY PRESSURE US WE PRESSURE YOU HERE.>>REPORTER: THEY BEING THE AMERICANS?>>YES.>>REPORTER: ANY DEAL TO TRY TO END THIS WAR IS A MULTI- DIMENSIONAL MINEFIELD?>>SO WHEN THE BALANCE OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE US AND RUSSIA, US AND IRAN, US AND SOME OTHER COUNTRY EVEN PAKISTAN CHANGES, UNFORTUNATELY AND SADLY WE SEE THE CONSEQUENCES HERE IN AFGHANISTAN.>>REPORTER: EVEN IF PEACE IN AFGHANISTAN CAN BE ACHIEVED, IT LEAVES THE QUESTION OF WHAT TO DO WITH THE THOUSANDS OF TALIBAN FIGHTERS. IF THEY REMAIN ARMED, PEACE WOULD BE FRAGILE, YET THE LIKELIHOOD OF THEM VOLUNTARILY SURRENDERING THEIR WEAPONS IS VERY LOW.>>WE WOULD HAVE TO INTEGRATE THEIR RANK AND FILE AS WELL. AND WE ARE LOOKING AT THESE PLANS THAT WE ARE MAKING IN THESE DISTRICTS TO UTILIZE THEIR FIGHTERS TO SECURE SOME OF THESE AREAS IF WE WERE ABLE TO.>>REPORTER: BACK IN KABUL, WE SAT DOWN WITH NATIONAL SECURITY ADVISOR DR MOHIB IN HIS OFFICE AT THE PRESIDENTIAL PALACE. HE SAYS HE IS PLANNING FOR ALL SCENARIOS.>>NOW WE WOULD HAVE TO BE VERY CAREFUL. WE CANNOT INTEGRATE THEM INTO THE A.N.D.S.F. RIGHT AWAY BECAUSE WE WOULD BE CREATING A TROJAN HORSE. WE HAVE TO BE CAREFUL AT WHAT PERCENTAGE WE WOULD ARE ABLE TO DO THIS AND MAINTAIN THE SECURITY FORCES INTEGRITY WHILE WE DO IT.>>REPORTER: FLYING UP TO REMOTE BADAKHSHAN PROVINCE, WE HEADED OUT TO MEET WITH THIS GROUP OF DOZENS OF TALIBAN FIGHTERS. THEY HAD JUST SURRENDERED TO GOVERNMENT FORCES AS THE FRONT LINE SHIFTED. UNBOWED, THEIR COMMANDER WAS CONFIDENT THE AMERICANS WILL SOON BE GONE.>>(TRANSLATED): ALL THE FOREIGNERS SHOULD LEAVE>>REPORTER: DO YOU STILL VIEW AMERICA AS AN ENEMY?>>(TRANSLATED): ALL THE FOREIGNERS SHOULD LEAVE AFGHANISTAN, WHETHER THEY ARE FROM AMERICA, CANADA OR ANYWHERE ELSE.>>REPORTER: THESE FIGHTERS ARE OUT OF THE WAR, AT LEAST FOR NOW. BUT ACROSS THE COUNTRY, COMBAT RAGES. MORE CIVILIANS HAVE BEEN KILLED BY THE AFGHAN GOVERNMENT AND US FORCES IN THE FIRST HALF OF THIS YEAR THAN BY THE TALIBAN. AND THE TALIBAN CONTINUE TO KILL AND MAIM CIVILIANS BY THE DOZENS IN SUICIDE ATTACKS IN THE CAPITAL KABUL AND ELSEWHERE. PEOPLE LIKE SHAFIQULLAH, A TAILOR, INJURED BY AN EXPLOSION WHILE ON HIS WAY HOME FROM WORK, FIND THEIR HOMES ON THE FRONT LINE OF THIS INTRACTABLE WAR. WITH PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS COMING UP, THE VIOLENCE, ALREADY HORRIFIC, IS INTENSIFYING.>>YOU KNOW TALIBAN ARE NOT ALL LOOKING TO MAKE PEACE. THERE ARE CERTAIN ELEMENTS WITHIN THAT MAY WANT TO MAKE PEACE BUT THE REST OF THEM ARE LOOKING TO CONTINUE FIGHT UNDER OTHER BANNERS. THEY MAY NOT BE UNDER TALIBAN BUT PERHAPS UNDER ISIS OR RENAME AND REBRAND THEMSELVES IN OTHER WAYS AND CONTINUE.>>Reporter: FOR MOST WARS TO END COMMUNITIES OFTEN HAVE TO CHOOSE PEACE OVER JUSTICE. UNTIL THERE IS AN END TO THIS CONFLICT, AFGHANISTAN’S PEOPLE WILL GET NEITHER. FOR THE PBS NEWSHOUR, I’M JANE FERGUSON IN KABUL, AFGHANISTAN.>>WOODRUFF: BEGINNING TOMORROW, WE WILL LAUNCH A 10-PART SERIES EXPLORING TODAY’S CHINA AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH THE US FOREIGN AFFAIRS CORRESPONDENT NICK SCHIFRIN, SPECIAL CORRESPONDENT KATRINA YU, AND PRODUCERS AROUND THE WORLD CONDUCTED MORE THAN 70 ON-CAMERA INTERVIEWS IN EIGHT CHINESE CITIES AND ACROSS SEVEN COUNTRIES. WHY HAVE WE DEDICATED SO MANY RESOURCES TO REPORTING ON CHINA? NICK SCHIFRIN IS HERE WITH A PREVIEW OF OUR SERIES, CHINA: POWER AND PROSPERITY.>>THE TWO MOST IMPORTANT COUNTRIES IN THE WORLD ARE CHINA AND THE U.S., AND WHERE THEIR RELATIONSHIP HEADS WILL HELP DETERMINE THE FUTURE OF BOTH ECONOMIES. GLOBAL COMMUNICATIONS AND TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION, AND WHAT KIND OF WORLD WE LIVE IN. FOR DECADES, U.S. COMPANIES HAVE WORKED WITH CHINESE SUPPLIERS TO INCREASE PRODUCTIVITY AND PROFITS. BOTH SIDES BENEFITED, AND CHINA WANTS THE INTEGRATION TO CONTINUE SAYS FORMER AMBASSADOR.>>COOPERATION IS THE ONLY CORRECT CHOICE FOR THE UNITED STATES. THE UNITED STATES IS REGARDED AS CHINA’S PARTNER.>>THE ERA OF ECONOMIC SURRENDER IS OVER ROARKS BUT THE TRUMP ADMINISTRATION AND BIPARTISAN SUPPORTERS HAVE COME TO REJECT CHINESE ECONOMIC PARTNERSHIPS AND ARE NOW TRYING TO CONFRONT CHINESE TECHNOLOGY AND INFLUENCE. JAKE PARKER IS VICE PRESIDENT OF THE U.S.-CHINA BUSINESS COUNCIL>>WE’VE SEEN THE OPTIMISM OF THE BUSINESS COMMUNITY SLOWLY DECLINE OVER TIME. AND AS THAT OPTIMISM HAS DECLINED, IT’S BEEN REPLACED BY THE STRATEGIC VOICES, BY THE INTELLIGENCE COMMUNITY, BY MILITARY, WHO SEE A STRATEGIC RIVALRY BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND CHINA.>>Reporter: AND IN THAT RIVALRY, IT’S NOT ONLY THE U.S. THAT HAS BECOME MORE COMBATIVE. THE GREAT WALL WAS BUILT OVER CENTURIES BY MULTIPLE DYNASTIES, AND CHINESE LEADERS WHO TOOK A DEFENSIVE STANGS USED IT FOR PROTECTION. TODAY, CHINA LOOKS OUT OVER THE WALL AND PROJECTS ITS POWER WITH AN AMBITIOUS AND EXPANSIVE FOREIGN POLICY. CHINA’S BELT AND ROAD INITIATIVES SPENDS HUNDREDS OF BILLIONS OF DOLLARS IN INFRASTRUCTURE AROUND THE WORLD. CHINESE COMMUNICATION GIANTS, INCLUDING HUAWEI, EXPORT A PACKAGE OF SURVEILLANCE AND CITY MANAGEMENT CALLED “SMART CITIES.” AND THE CHINESE MILITARY HAS UNDERGONE ONE OF THE FASTEST EXPANSIONS IN HISTORY. FOR THE CHINESE, PRESIDENT XI JINPING IS THE SYMBOL OF A NEW NATIONALISM AND STRENGTH, SAYS CENTRAL COMMUNIST PARTY SCHOOL PROFESSOR:>>( translated ): XI JINPING’S NEW ERA IS TO REALIZE THE GREAT REJUVENATION OF THE CHINESE NATION.>>Reporter: BUT THE U.S. FEARS CHINA’S EXPANSION. CHINA CREATED A NETWORK OF MORE THAN 200 MILLION CAMERAS, TARGETING MUSLIM… AND CRACK DOWN ON ALL DISSENT, SYMBOLIZED BY POLICE TACTICS IN HONG KONG. XI JINPING DOES FACE CHALLENGES. AFTER TARGETING HIS POLITICAL OPPONENTS, HE HAS INTERNAL CRITICS. ECONOMIC GROWTH WAS SLOWING EVEN BEFORE THE TRADE WAR. AND THE COUNTRY IS THE WORLD’S LARGEST EMITTER OF GREENHOUSE GASES. BUT CHINA’S CENTRAL PLANNERS ARE DRIVING AHEAD TO CREATE THE WORLD’S LARGEST ELECTRIC VEHICLE MARKET, AND THE COUNTRY’S WEALTH HAS ALLOWED FOR THE RETURN OF WHAT IT CALLS “CULTURAL ARISTOCRACY.” SO AS CHINA’S POSITION ON THE WORLD STAGE GROWS, MODERNIZATION WILL ONLY SPEED UP, SAYS THE WOMAN KNOWN AS CHINA’S MILLENNIAL MARKET STEWART, 34-YEAR-OLD SARAH JANE HO.>>IN NO OTHER PART HAVE YOU HAD SUCH A GREAT AMOUNT OF CHANGE IN SUCH A SHORT AMOUNT OF TIME.>>Woodruff: NICK, WE KNOW CHINA DOES NOT HAVE A FREE PRESS. HOW HARD WAS IT TO DO THIS REPORTING? THE FIRST STEP WAS JUST TO GET VIS AS, WE HAD TO TALK TO THE CHINESE GOVERNMENT, SHARE SOME OF THE DETAILS OF OUR STORIES. INSIDE CHINA, MANY OF OUR INTERVIEWS WERE SET UP BY AN ORGANIZATION THAT’S INSIDE THE GOVERNMENT, INSIDE THE INFORMATION MINISTRY. AND DURING THOSE INTERVIEWS, WE HAD A GOVERNMENT MINDER WITH US DURING MOST OF THE INTERVIEWS. AND SO NOT ONLY DID WE REPORT FROM CHINA, BUT WE ALSO FELT LIKE WE NEEDED TO GO OUTSIDE OF CHINA, AND THAT’S WHY WE REPORTED FROM ALL OVER THE WORLD.>>Woodruff: WAS THERE ONE KIND OF CENTRAL MESSAGE THAT WAS COMING THROUGH FROM THE CHINESE IN ALL YOUR REPORTING?>>STICK WITH COOPERATION, DROP THE TRADE WAR, IT DOESN’T HELP EITHER SIDE. , AND ALSO, FROM THEIR PERSPECTIVE, THEY TALK ABOUT HOW THEIR INFRASTRUCTURE PROGRAM, THE TECHNOLOGY, IT IS NOT A THREAT TO THE WORLD, AS THE U.S. IS DESCRIBING IT. THEY SAY THAT IF WE COOPERATE, IF THE U.S. AND CHINA COOPERATE, THE WORLD CAN IMPROVE. AND WHEN IT COMES TO HONG KONG, AS WE TALKED ABOUT IN THERE, AND ALSO WILL TALK ABOUT, THEY SAY THAT’S ABOUT SECURITY AND STABILITY INSIDE CHINA.>>Woodruff: AND THAT’S A VERY DIFFERENT STORY THAN YOU HEAR FROM THE CRITICS.>>YEAH, TALK ABOUT HONG KONG, THEY TALK ABOUT SUPPRESSION AND DISSENT, NOT ALLOWING ANY KIND OF DISSENT. MUSLIMS CRITICS ARE TRYING TO TALK ABOUT A CAMPAIGN TO CRITICIZE MUSLIM CULTURE AND IDENTITY. AND THE U.S., WHEN IT COMES TO CHINESE TECHNOLOGY, CHINESE INFRASTRUCTURE PROGRAMS, AND GENERAL FOREIGN POLICY OF CHINA, THEY REALLY SEE THAT AS A THREAT AND WANT U.S. IS TRYING TO COMBAT IT AND REALLY SEES IT AS AN IDEOLOGICAL BATTLE RIGHT NOW.>>Woodruff: WELL, IT IS A VERY SIGNIFICANT SERIES. WE LOOK FORWARD TO IT. IT STARTS ON THE NEWSHOUR TOMORROW NIGHT. WHAT IS IT, EIGHT, 10 IN A ROW?>>10 NIGHTS IN A ROW.>>Woodruff: 10 NIGHTS IN A ROW. NICK SCHIFRIN WE LOOK FORWARD. AND THAT’S THE NEWSHOUR FOR TONIGHT. I’M JUDY WOODRUFF. JOIN US ONLINE AND AGAIN HERE TOMORROW EVENING. FOR ALL OF US AT THE PBS NEWSHOUR, THANK YOU AND SEE YOU SOON.>>MAJOR FUNDING FOR THE PBS NEWSHOUR HAS BEEN PROVIDED BY:>>YOU CAN DO THE THINGS YOU LIKE TO DO WITH A WIRELESS PLAN DESIGNED FOR YOU. WITH TALK, TEXT AND DATA. CONSUMER CELLULAR. LEARN MORE AT nsumercellular.tv>>FINANCIAL SERVICES FIRM RAYMOND JAMES.>>AND WITH THE ONGOING SUPPORT OF THESE INSTITUTIONS AND INDIVIDUALS.>>THIS PROGRAM WAS MADE POSSIBLE BY THE CORPORATION FOR PUBLIC BROADCASTING. AND BY CONTRIBUTIONS TO YOUR PBS STATION FROM VIEWERS LIKE YOU. THANK YOU.Captioning sponsored byNEWSHOUR PRODUCTIONS, LLC Captioned byMedia Access Group at WGBH access.wgbh.org

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *