Nationalism in India| Class 10| CBSE| Eyebot studies

Nationalism in India| Class 10| CBSE| Eyebot studies


Vietnam A socialist Republic nation of today has emerged only since the second half of the 20th century after great hardship and much bloodshed It all began in 1858 when the French troops landed in Vietnam to colonize the nation Colonialism is sense of building and maintaining of colonies in one territory by the people from another territory and Exploiting it economically their belief with was a backward country And it was the responsibility of the French to modernize it China’s still had control over some parts of Vietnam from the dynastic, era but the French wanted maximum power After the French indochina war the french gained control over the regions of Tonkin and unam? Which led to the formation of French, indochina? in 1887 Indochina refers to the region in Southeast Asia in fact countries of Vietnam Cambodia and Laos Formed the Window China had flourished in Old Vietnam and it was linked with the maritime silk route which was favorable for the exchange of goods people and ideas silk route refers to an interconnected network of trade routes that connects Eastern Southern and Western Asia With the Mediterranean world including not Africa and Europe the French Had established economic and military dominance over Vietnam and Exploited its natural resources such as the River mekong of Vietnam to facilitate their trade and Transportation from a business perspective The French wanted to increase cultivation and movement of Goods therefore They built canals that works and grained lands in the mekong Delta using forced labor Vast irrigation developed by the French used to increase the rice production for the international market by 1931 Vietnam became the third largest exporter of rice in the world They also constructed a railway network To connect the Northern and Southern parts of Vietnam with China Another ring we network linked Vietnam with zion or the present-day thailand The concept of Colonialism generated many debates and discussions amongst the intelligentsia writer and Policy maker Paul Barnard Believed that the prime motive behind acquiring colonies was to flourish business and make profits Therefore it was important for France to develop the economy of Vietnam in order to make their business profitable He also suggested that industrialization would ensure sufficient employment The Vietnamese economy was predominantly based on rice and rubber plantations owned by the French and Elites in Vietnam indentured labor or labor based on contract was used in these plantations from the mid 19th century and The French did not want to industrialize the economy did not adopt any measures as suggested by Paul bernard and consequently feudalism increased in Rural Vietnam and standard of living decreased the French colonization, and then growing dominance in the country created tremendous unrest in Vietnam and resulted in Nationalist resistance This was the start of the nationalist movement in indochina, but in the left hand scissors in the right Snip Snip clip clip watch out be careful drop stupid practices down childish things speak Openly and Frankly Study western customs Seems like a harmless song doesn’t it? It has a haircutting chant which ridiculed the Vietnamese tradition of keeping long hair such songs were used by the French schools to Demean natives and popularize Western customs like short hair Western clothing and Sports The French colonists believed in carrying out a civilizing mission under the guise of modernizing the colony and they used a detention as a tool to do so This led to an erosion of cultural beliefs religion and Tradition of Vietnam the French Citizens living in Vietnam called colons Actually wanted an educated labor force But they also feared that educated natives could oppose their domination and replace their jobs bassel Rick ulam very Cleverly and opposed policies that granted full access of French education to the Vietnamese The Elite Vietnamese were very influenced by the Chinese culture influence System of Vietnam was dismantled and a new French education system was introduced There was a lot of debate over the language of instruction in schools Felt like French should be used as a medium of instruction in schools While others suggested teaching Vietnamese in the lower classes and French in the higher classes They also suggested a warning french citizenship to people who learned the french language and culture the school textbooks glorified and justified the French Colonial Rule and Portrayed the Vietnamese people as primitive and incapable of intellectual work the Tontine Free-school started in 1907 was to provide western education and ideas the domination of French country faced opposition and resistance in Vietnam As the number of Vietnamese teachers in lower classes increased They began to question the textbooks They modified the anti Vietnamese text in the books and criticized it one teaching In 1926 a major protest took place in the Saigon native girl school gradually Came in conflict with the French as well as the elite protests against the French education were marked with nationalist feelings by the 1920s students formed various political parties such as the party of Young anan and published nationalist journals like the uh Nummies student opposing the French domination the plan of the French to strengthen that rule by controlling education at backfired the Vietnamese intellectuals feared that their identity was under threat as their culture was being discounted and people were developing a Master/slave Mindset in the wake of these thoughts schools became a part of the nationalist struggle and supported the larger cause of Independence the same Manner in which Colonization of education backfired on the French so did their measures on health and hygiene? the Rat hunt and bubonic plague of 1903 was a clear indication of the failure in the French civilizing mission It also presented the unique way for the vietnamese to counter colonialism in Day-To-day life Bubonic Plague is a contagious disease often proves fatal and can cause an epidemic This disease is transmitted by the bite of fleas from an infected person or a rodent especially a rat Wanted to develop Vietnam as a modern state for their selfish games and so modernizing Hanoi one of the main cities of Vietnam Came first on their agenda They employed the latest architectural ideas and engineering skills to create the Modern Hanoi The French part of Hanoi was beautified with wide avenues and a well laid out sewer system on the other hand Of quarter was completely ignored as its development. Did not serve any purpose to the French to make matters worse Garbage and sewage from the Old City was directed into the river through sewers So during heavy rainfall or floods it clogged the streets of the natives the sewers in the French part of the City Provided perfect conditions for rats to breathe in and also allowed easy movement throughout the City Such unhygienic conditions, and I became a favorable place for the outbreak of Plague to enter the luxurious houses of the French by sewage pipes to combat the that Manners a rat hunt was started in 1902 French I had vietnamese workers as rat catchers and made them good bounty for interact leaked odd Sin dirty suez the Vietnamese realized the concept of collective bargaining Understood that they could man you played the situation to their advantage and make a lot of money To collect their award from the French Catcher had to show the clipped tail of the Rod as proof that the rat had been killed maximize their games Rat Catchers began clipping the tails of the rats and releasing them so that the rat hunt could go on forever on the other hand began raising rats to earn money To result the French had to Abandon the bounty program Meanwhile the Bubonic Plague continued to affect hanoi during 1903 and the subsequent years the efforts to Modernize Hanoi had backfired and The that punt marked the defeat of French colonizers and an utter failure of their civilizing mission a painting depicting the execution of father body a Catholic Missionary in Vietnam Let’s understand the events that gave rise to such cruel acts French exercised Colonialism not just politically, but socially and culturally as well the culture of any country is influenced by the religion because religion shapes the basic values of people therefore religion naturally became the next target of the French in Vietnam interestingly while religion played pourtant role in strengthening colonial control It also provided ways of resistance Vietnam was a place for many religions such as Lucien ism buddhism practices the Elite in Vietnam were educated in Chinese and Confucianism 1 the peasantry believed in a variety of syncretic traditions that combined buddhism and local beliefs Buddhism is the Village and Philosophy founded by siddhartha gautama Commonly known as buddha or the awakened one the French missionaries had introduced Christianity in Vietnam Felt that the attitude of the Vietnamese to respect and worship the supernatural was backward So it had to be rectified as a result Missionaries successfully converted many people to Christianity which led to serious objections from all quarters the 18th century was marked by significant religious movements against the cultural attack of the French One such Movement was the scholars revolt of 1868 This movement was beheaded by the officials of the imperial court they let the general uprising in nuku an and party end regions where over a thousand Catholics were killed As revolt was crushed by the French, but it inspired many other patriots to revolt in the future in Vietnam Religions was spread by people who claim to have had a vision of God Some of these movements supported the french rule while a few inspired rebellions against them oh, how was one such movement against the French which started in 1939 and became a range in the mekong Delta The man behind this movement was Jim puso French try to suppress the Horror House movement by calling Jim poo So insane and he was put in a mental asylum To get rid of him French exiled him to laos and sent many of his followers to concentration camps Kam’s refer to prisons where people were detained without due process of law During the second world war the Nazis can’t choose in such cams overall religious Movement at a contradictory relationship with Mainstream nationalism While political parties sought their support they were also uncomfortable with their rituals and activities Religious movements were certainly successful in provoking Anti-imperialist ik sentiments Vietnamese nationalism was marked by the opposition of colonialism in all spheres of life The Vietnamese also struggled with questions like what it meant to be modern and nationalists they debated if it was essential to discard Angel traditions and social customs to Become Modern and also questioned whether the West was the perfect example of growth and civilization while one group of intellectuals were in favor of strengthening Vietnamese traditions in order to resist western domination other groups felt that Vietnam could Imbibe the best from the West even while opposing their domination These contrasting views led to a lot of unending debates by the end of the 19th century Fusion Nationalist and Boy Chao Became a prominent figure in the anti-colonial resistance after he formed the revolutionary society do tan hi in 1903 in 1905 and boy chow met the Chinese reformer Yankee Chow in Yokohama Who guided chow in writing his influential book? the history of the Loss of Vietnam With two interconnected themes of loss of Sovereignty of Vietnam and the break of ties with China There were nationalists who desert in opinion with Danboy Ciao Pontchartrain was one such nationalist He was unfriendly towards Manake and was against the idea of resisting the French rule with the help of the court Fact you wanted to establish a democratic republic And shoot ren did not want to reject western Civilization totally Accepted the French revolutionary ideal of Liberty, but accuse the French for not abiding by the ideal early Vietnamese nationalists shed good relations with Japan and China Don’t these countries provided models for change and served as refuge for the people absconded from the French These countries also became the center for revolutionaries to build their network during nineteen hundred and seven and eight about three hundred Vietnamese students visited Japan to get Modern education wanted arms and military help from Japan in order to overthrow the French in Vietnam and re-establish the deposed New Jian Dynasty These students established a branch of the restoration society in tokyo however after 1908 the Japanese Ministry took a tough stand Asked the revolutionaries including and boy chow in Japan and seek exile in China and Thailand in Japan Nationalists were also inspired by developments in China 18:11 the Chinese Monarchy was overthrown by a popular movement under sun, Yat-sen and Thereafter a republic was set up development encouraged Vietnamese students to organize an association for the restoration of Vietnam Which primarily aimed at realizing the objectives put forward by the revolutionaries? This was a dramatic turn in the independence Movement of Vietnam now the objective of the revolutionaries was to establish a democratic republic in Vietnam and not the constitutional monarchy here’s the man who introduced Communism to Vietnamese politics and shamefully independence of Vietnam meet og Men the founder of Vietnamese Communist party The name oh G men means he who enlightens for bringing together different nationalist groups in Vietnam in 1930 Communism is a political ideology that believes in the establishment of equal and classless society Common ownership and control of means of Production are important facets of a communist state It was adopted in Vietnam as an anti-colonial solution Let’s quickly capture the raishin in Vietnam during the nineteen Thirties The Great Depression had led to a sharp fall in prices of Maine agricultural products such as rubber and dries This resulted in the kinds of dads moment risings in Vietnamese provinces of Negi on and heart in These provinces for very poor and prone to rebellions therefore also known as electrical fuses of Vietnam in 1940 Japan Occupied Vietnam in order to make imperial gains in Southeast Asia at this time Penance Vietnam also known as the viet minh with Japan and Recaptured and I in september 1945 you Thereafter the democratic republic of Vietnam was formed oh, Chi minh became its chairman you the New Republic of Vietnam faced a lot of challenges after 1945 In control by using behold I as the puppet King of Vietnam General Henri, Navarre French commander was confident of winning the battle and wanted to attack the Hitman even in their remote bases however his plans failed miserably after eight years of fighting the viet minh defeated the French-Indian, bien phu This defeat thoroughly demoralized the French and crushed their hopes of retaining Vietnam Convinced the Vietnamese of their ability to fight with imperialists through determination and strategic planning after the French to feed associations took place in Geneva Honest -. They’re bruised ego Three to the Vietnamese to accept the division of the country into two parts not Vietnam and South Vietnam Oh, G-Men and the communists – control of not Vietnam While bao dies regime wants to look after South Vietnam vision a series of events ensued Vietnam into a battlefield for a long time In South Vietnam the bao Dai regime was soon overthrown by a coup, Led by the ngO dinh diem solitary you The opposition got united as the now liberation front or NLf Resisted his stick torian rule Nls fought for the unification of the country with the help of the ho chi minh government in North Vietnam The rise of Communism in Vietnam and the adjoining areas threatened the us In order to intervene in the developing situation the u.s. Sent its troops to Vietnam This was the beginning of the catastrophe u.s., Vietnam war children running helplessly on the streets chemical bomb attack naked and shrinking for help This heart-wrenching picture is one of the most devastating wars of the 20th century the u.s., Vietnam war It was a long-drawn war with massive disasters on both sides from 1965 to 1972 A staggering 34 million Us service personnel served in Vietnam Despite its advanced technology and excellent medical facilities the u.s. Suffered huge losses in the war they need brutal attacks on Vietnam using chemical weapons such as Agent Orange napalm and phosphorous bombs These weapons wiped out Villages and race down forests Over 40% – viet Nam’s Farmland was affected by this poison and continues to affect people till today dixon element of Agent Orange causes cancer deformities and bring damage in children even today The u.s. Decision to intervene in Vietnam was criticized vehemently University Graduates and the Elite were waived off from compulsory military service and The youth belonging to Working-class families were sent to war Common masses began to question the government’s decision to send young people to war During this time the us media both supported and criticized the war propagandist films like Green Berets by John Wayne Supported the war and inspired the youth to join it While Francis Ford Coppola’s movie apocalypse now criticized the War and Explode the confusion that the war had cost in the us The us had completely underestimated the strength and determination of Nationalist Vietnamese people The Vietnamese fought for the independence and honor of their country against the technologically advanced us They used their limited resources To gain Maximum advantage over the us The ho chi minh trail is a perfect example of Vietnamese Enterprise This trail was a massive network of put thoughts and roads used to transport men and materials from North to South Vietnam Support bases and hospitals were made along the trail supplies were transported by trunks But mostly they were carried by porters of whom 70 to 80% were women The us regularly bombed the Trail to disrupt supplies But the tree was managed efficiently and it was rebuilt quickly Determination and strategic planning Vietnam Bravely combated the u.s. Attack and eventually got freedom in 1975 A rosy-cheeked woman Here I am fighting side-by-side with you men The Prison is my school The Sod is My child The gun is my husband These limes aptly reflect the college and a termination of women who actively participated in the Vietnam war Vietnamese women made significant contributions to Nationalist causes since ancient times additionally particularly from the lower classes And enjoyed an equal status in Vietnam However, they were not decision-makers and did not play any role in public life With the growth of the nationalist movement the idea of a new woman gained impetus? during this time Literature and thinkers celebrated the women who broke away from the traditional social mold writers and artists priests the rebel women from the past in 1913 Man-Boy Chou wrote a play based on the lives of the drum sisters Who had fought heroically? against the Chinese domination during 39 to 43 seee Another celebrated woman from the past was true ow from the third century ce II Who organized a large Army and opposed the Chinese rule? these heroic stories of Rebel women were used by the nationalists to motivate common folk to fight for Vietnam during the Vietnamese war Women were also represented as workers Carrying a rifle in one hand and a hammer in the other They were projected as selfless fighters working for the cause of a nation newspapers and magazines carried out many stories about the unmatched bravery of business women for example nig un t jean A woman soldier was known to have shot down a jet with just 20 bullets Women formed seventy to eighty percent of the total youth workers on the ho chi minh trail Approximately 1.5 million were a part of the regular army they carried thousands of kilograms of Cargo weapons and food and guarded 2,500 Key points on the Trail they also Build air strips and neutralized numerous bombs many women actively participated in the resistance movement They acted as nurses and helped in constructing underground rooms and Tunnels With the beginning of peace talks in 1970s women came out of the role of warriors They took up the role of new-age workers in agricultural cooperatives Factories and other production units the Vietnam War got prolonged beyond the imagination of the us and Yet, it was not able to crush the Vietnamese opposition the war received a lot of criticism around the world and in the u.s. As numerous people had been killed on both sides They were people who sympathized with Vietnam Writers such as Mary McCarthy and Actor Jane Fonda visited Vietnam and brought the Vietnamese struggled to the notice of the international community Luanne Chomsky an eminent American Linguist Philosopher and political activist called the Vietnam war the greatest threat to peace of National self-Determination and to international cooperation such widespread criticism of the war and the us government policies paved the way for negotiations in july 1974 a peace settlement was signed in Paris the North liberation front Occupied the presidential palace in South Vietnam on the 13th of April 1975 and Vietnam got unified

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