Nationalism in Europe Part II

Nationalism in Europe Part II

in part two we're going to talk about how nationalism was both the unifying dividing force in Europe during the 1800s we're gonna go into a little bit more detail about that and that is our essential question how was it a unifying dividing force in Europe during the 1800s and it really came down to what the makeup of your empire was when it came to cultural identities if you were the Austrian Empire the Russian Empire the Ottoman Empire nationalism was a dividing force it tore your country apart because you had many different cultural identities and they weren't really all working for the same team in fact they wanted to be their own country and a lot of these examples let's take the Austrian Empire for our first example here in the Austrian Empire we saw that countries the country is big its enormous it's it's somewhat powerful but it has a lot of different people in it so Austria in itself let me get a better color here Austria in itself the part of Austria where people were actually spoke Austrian and had an Austrian cultural identity was this big right here now that's just a tiny piece of this bigger Empire look at for example there's actually a larger part of this Empire that considers itself Hungarian then actually those Austrian and you have Croatians and Slavonia –nz down here you have Bosnians and herzegovinian x' you have Transylvanians and Romanians over here plus a nians Bohemians which were kind of a different kind of German over here you get the idea of each one of the different colors on this map represents a different cultural identity where they might have spoken a different language than German they might have different customs than the Austrians and they don't necessarily want to be told by the Austrian Emperor what to do and how to live their life if given the choice any one of these parts right here in a different coat color would rather have their own country so when the Austrian Emperor tells these parts of the Austrian Empire to get behind him and join the army and follow his lead nobody really wants to do that because they don't really feel a connection they don't feel like they owe any allegiance to the Austrian Emperor and that is a problem for this Empire the same thing in Russia let's look at the Russian Empire once again each one of these colors is a different culture identity or a different territory controlled by the Russian czar which is the same thing as an emperor in Russia so for example we have in the yellow all the areas of Russia so I wrote that all the areas of Russia that were actually Russian right here not a huge one you could count this whole big area of Siberia but to be honest with you not a lot of people lived there it's cold it's not an enjoyable place so even though a lot of the Russian Empire was considered to be Russian not everybody was we've listened to civilians as Finlandia because Finland was part of the Russian Empire Finland the Finns did not speak Russian they resented the Russians they didn't want to be part of it same thing over here this area right here Poland these are poles polish is their language they have a different cultural identity they don't want to be part of the Russian Empire over here parts of modern-day China called Manchuria or under Russian control Russians controlled the Turkmenistan area the kyrgyzstan area again different cultural identities different language different history different culture and even parts right up around the Ottoman Empire Georgia Albania over here in this area right here but you get the idea each one of these parts liked Austria a different cultural identity didn't really want to be part of the Russian Empire didn't really feel an allegiance to the Russian czar so the Russian czar has a very hard time controlling all these different people is actually pretty brutal to them because of that because he needs to crack down and get them to do what he says and the Ottoman Empire is a third example here again each one of these different colors a different type of person different type of cult of identity within the same Empire Turkey is the main controlling part of the Empire but over here if you live in modern-day Iraq you speak Arabic instead of Turkish you're probably a different sect of Islam than the Muslims in Turkey and you don't really feel a lot of loyalty a lot of love for the Sultan here in Turkey same thing for Egyptians down here same things for two nations for the in modern day Libya right here Libyans and then even up in Europe Greece until 1830 was part of the Ottoman Empire they spoke Greek they were Greek Eastern Orthodox Christians very different from Turks Albanians Serbians Romanians Bulgarians same deal each one a different cults of a day so in all these situations on all three of these maps if you're a different color then the part of the empire that controls everybody else you didn't really want to be part of that empire and that's where these revolutions seem to pop up more often so how was nationalism good for some countries it was good for Italy in Germany I put that in quotations for a reason we'll talk about that in a second Great Britain and France Great Britain in France Great Britain for the most part with some exceptions like the Irish and sometimes the Scots all felt allegiance to the British Empire they were very proud of the fact they were British and that helped them grow stronger French people seemed saying 95% 99% of people in France are French have a French cultural identity so they were all working for the same team and not against each other but Italy Germany is an interesting thing because like the other empires we just looked at they were broken up into many different parts but they kind of have the opposite problem even though they're broken up into different parts they actually want to come together for example this is Italy in the 1830s in the 1840s and if you notice it's not one country it's nine different countries but what's interesting is every single one of these countries Sardinia which is on the mainland and the island Tuscany right here the papal States in the middle the kingdom of the two sicilies to the south Venetia and Lombardi to the north every single one of these nine kingdoms spoke Italian had an Italian cultural identity and we're all starting to think to themselves in the mid 1800s why are we not one country Italy we would be so much stronger if we all work together so whereas the Ottoman Empire and the Austrian Empire had culture identity is trying to break it apart these small countries were trying to actually come together and be one unified Germany of course if you are the king or Prince in one of these small countries you don't want that to happen because it means only one of you is actually gonna have power if all of it were to unite same thing with Germany let look at the German Confederation Austria and Prussia dominate the German Confederation but there's 37 other different countries that all speak German and you got a wonder they start to think why are we not one united strong Germany right why don't we have one country that just dominates everybody else so Prussia right here in Austria to the south are actually going to compete to gobble up these territories that are all German people and try to be the German country that dominates the rest of Europe so in the next section we're going to talk about is how Italy in Germany actually unites separately to become the country of Italy in the country of Germany but the some of what we just talked about in this video naturalism was a dividing force for multinational empires those are empires with more than one cultural identity multinational empires with many cultural identities nationalism was a unifying force for countries or regions with a common cult identity with everybody working towards the same team and nationalism was putting stress on the balance of power in the mid-1800s if all those german-speaking countries get together into one country that's going to be a pretty powerful country in the next section we're going to see how that actually comes to be

8 thoughts on “Nationalism in Europe Part II

  1. Well done Mr. Powers. [At 3:30 that would be the recently in the news Ukraine on the north shore of the Black Sea. Later in the video you correctly identify Albania as being located on the northwest border of modern day Greece with a coastline along the southern Adriatic and northern Ionian Seas.]

  2. Good question! Poland was anti-Russian Empire in the 19th century, but a lot changes by WWII. Basically, Poland is dominated by Stalin's influence and becomes a communist puppet regime shortly after the Yalta Conference. I hope that helps, keep researching!

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