National Science Foundation/EHT Press Conference Revealing First Image of Black Hole

National Science Foundation/EHT Press Conference Revealing First Image of Black Hole

Amanda Hallberg Greenwell:
Okay. Welcome to today’s
press conference brought to you by the National
Science Foundation and the Event Horizon
Telescope Project. Thank you all
for joining us today. My name is Amanda
Hallberg Greenwell, I am the head of the National
Science Foundation’s Office of Legislative
and Public Affairs. I would like to introduce
today’s distinguished panel. Dr. France Cordova, Director of
the National Science Foundation. Sheperd Doeleman, is the Event Horizon Telescope
Project Director of the Center for Astrophysics,
Harvard and Smithsonian. Dan Marrone is an Event
Horizon Telescope Science council member and an Associate
Professor of Astronomy at the University
of Arizona. Avery Broderick is a member
of the Event Horizon Telescope Board and Wheeler
Chair of Theoretical Physics at the Perimeter Institute
and Associate Professor at the University of Waterloo.
And Sera Markoff is a member of the Event
Horizon Telescope Council, a professor
of theoretical physics at the University
of Amsterdam and she coordinates the EHT
multi-wavelength workshop. We will have time for questions
after the panel concludes so please hold
all questions until that time. I will now turn it over
to Dr. Cordova. Dr. France Cordova: Good
morning. Thank you for joining us
at this historic moment. I would like to give
a special welcome to the Director
of the White House Office of Science
and Technology Policy, Dr. Kelvin Droegemeier. And from
the National Science Board, the current chair,
Diane Souvaine and former chair, Maria Zuber. Today, the Event
Horizon Telescope Project will announce findings
that will transform and enhance our understanding
of black holes. As an astrophysicist,
this is a thrilling day for me. Black holes have captivated
the imaginations of scientists and the public for decades. In fact, we have been
studying black holes so long, that sometimes it is easy
to forget that none of us
have actually seen one. Yes, we have simulations
and illustrations. Thanks to instruments supported by the National
Science Foundation, we have detected
binary black holes, merging deep in space. We have observed the episodic
transfer of matter from companion stars
onto black holes. Some massive black holes create
jets of particles and radiation. We have spotted
the subatomic neutrinos those jets can fling
across billions of light-years. But we have never actually
seen the event horizon, that point of no return
after which nothing, not even light
can escape a black hole. How did we get here? Through the imagination
and dedication of scientists around the world
willing to collaborate to achieve a huge goal. Through a large pool
of international facilities, and through long-term
financial commitments from NSF and other funders
willing to take a risk and pursuits of
an enormous potential payoff. Without international
collaboration among facilities, the contributions of dozens
of scientists and engineers and sustained funding, the event horizon project
would have been impossible. No single telescope on earth
has the sharpness to create an un-blurred definitive image
of a black hole’s event horizon. So this team did what all good
researchers do, they innovated. More than five decades ago, other NSF funded researchers
helped lead the development of very long baseline
interferometry, which links telescopes computationally to increase
their capabilities. This team took that concept
to a global scale. Connecting telescopes
to create a virtual array, the size of the Earth itself.
This was a Herculean task, one that involved overcoming
numerous technical difficulties. It was an endeavor so remarkable that NSF has invested
$28 million in more than a decade, joined by many other
organizations in our support, as these researchers shaped
their idea into reality. I believe what you are about
to see will demonstrate an imprint
on people’s memories. The event horizon project shows
the power of collaboration, convergence,
and shared resources, allowing us to tackle
the universes biggest mysteries. Now I’m going to hand over this
to our distinguished panel starting with Dr.
Shep Doeleman, EHT’s Director. [Applause] Dr. Sheperd Doeleman: Thank you
assembled guests, black hole enthusiasts. Black holes are the most
mysterious objects in the universe, they are cloaked
by an event horizon where their gravity prevents
even light from escaping, and yet the matter that falls
onto the event horizon is superheated so that
before it passes through, it shines very brightly. We now believe that super
massive black holes, millions, even billions in times
the mass of our sun, exist in the centers
of most galaxies. And because they are so small
that we have never seen one, they are though that they can
outshine the combined starlight of all the constituent stars
in those galaxies. The best idea we have of what
they can look like come from simulations like this. The infalling gas
that is superheated lights up a ring of light where
photons orbit the black hole, and interior of that
is a dark patch where the event horizon itself
prevents light from escaping. The event horizon telescope
project is dedicated to the idea that we can make an image
of this black hole. That we can set a ruler
across this shadow feature, measure the photon ring
and test Einstein’s theory where they might break down. It also allows access
to a region of the universe we can study
precisely the energetics and how black holes dominate
the cores of galaxies. To do this, we worked for over
a decade to link telescopes
around the globe to make an Earth-sized
virtual dish. The event horizon telescope achieves the highest
angle resolution possible from the surface
of the earth, it is equivalent of being able
to read the date on a quarter in Los Angeles when we are standing here
in Washington DC. In April 2017, all the dishes in
the event horizon telescope swiveled, turned,
and stared at a galaxy 55 million light-years away,
it is called Messier 87 or M87. There is a super massive
black hole at its core, and we are delighted to be able
to report to you today that we have seen
what we thought was unseeable. We have seen and taken
a picture of a black hole. Here it is. [Applause] This is a remarkable
achievement. What you are seeing here
is the last photon orbit, what you are seeing is evidence
of an event horizon, by laying a ruler
across this black hole, we now have visual evidence
for a black hole. We now know that a black hole
that weighs 6.5 billion times what our sun does exists
in the center of M87 and this is the strongest
evidence that we have to date for the existence
of black holes. It is also consistent,
the shape of the shadow, to the precision of our measurements
with Einstein’s predictions. The bright patch in the south
that you see tells us that the material
moving around the black hole is moving at light speeds, which is also consistent with
our simulations and predictions. This image forges a clear link now between
super massive black holes and the engines
of bright galaxies. We now know clearly
that black holes drive large scale structure
in the universe from their home
in these galaxies. We now have an entirely new way
of studying general relativity and black holes
that we never had before and as with all great
discoveries, this is just the beginning. The imaging of a black hole
doesn’t come easily, I can tell you that
from personal experience as can many people here
in the audience. It has required long-term
developments, a committed team, but it also required some very
interesting cosmic coincidences. Take for example the maelstrom
you see before you, the hot gas swirling around
the black hole. A photon has to leave from close
to the event horizon, travel through the hot gas
infalling to the black hole, and light rays
of a millimeter length, radio waves
can make that journey. Not all of them can. Then that radio wave
has to propagate 60,000 years through the M87 galaxy,
and then another 55 million years
through intergalactic space. Then it winds up in the Earth’s
atmosphere where it’s greatest enemy,
the greatest danger, is that it’ll be absorbed
by water vapor in our own atmosphere. So the event horizon telescope
uses telescopes at high, dry sites
so that we can see allows us to see the photons
that have traveled to us so far. So far so good,
we have the photons. But the M87 shadow is very,
very small compared to the galaxy
that surrounds it. So in order to see it,
we needed to build a telescope as large as the Earth itself
given the wavelength of light we were trying to observe. And to do that,
we use a technique called very long
baseline interferometery which you can see
a schematic of here. Radio waves from the black hole
hit radio telescopes, where they are recorded with
the precision of atomic clocks that lose only one second
every 10 million years. When you’ve registered
these radio waves so precisely, you can then store them
on hard disk drives, send them to a central facility where they can
be combined precisely. It’s exactly the same way
that a mirror used in an optical telescope reflects light perfectly and in
synchronicity to a single focus. When we do this, we can
synthesize a telescope that has the resolving power
as though we had one the size of the distance
between these telescopes, truly turning the earth
into a virtual telescope. All of the sites that we used
can be seen here. We have telescopes from Hawaii
to Arizona to Mexico to Chile, the South Pole, and in Spain. But even these,
even this broad global network is not enough by itself
to make an image. You can think of them being
silvered spots in a large global mirror. The key is that the earth turns.
During a night of observing, we are able to sweep out
more baselines, more coverage of this virtual
mirror to make our image. So on the left,
you will see the earth turning. Every pair of telescopes provides us with one point
on the center panel, which fills in the Earth-size
virtual lens and on the right you see
the evolving image. The more and more data we get, the more we fill
in this virtual mirror, the sharper our view
of the black hole becomes until you wind up seeing what we have
as the final image there. So we have taken advantage
of a cosmic opportunity, it is remarkable
when you think about it. Light that left near
the event horizon traveled all the way
through intergalactic space, it hit our telescopes. The earth just happens
to be the right size so we get resolving power so that we can see
the black hole and M87, whose mass and distance
let us observe it. And then the earth turns
to fill in our mirror so that we can make this image.
It is truly remarkable, it is almost humbling
in a certain way. We are four members of
a large collaboration and it is our distinct honor to be here
to represent that collaboration. We are 200 members strong,
we are 60 institutes, and we are working in over
20 countries and regions. We consider ourselves
really to be explorers, through international
cooperation and innovation, we have exposed
part of the universe that we thought was
invisible to us before. It is our responsibility
to report these findings and we are doing that today to
the National Science Foundation, to our funding agencies,
international and foundations, and to all people
who support pioneering research, and also to the taxpayers. Nature has conspired
to let us see something that we thought
was invisible. This is a long sought goal for
us and we find it tremendous, and we hope that you will be
inspired by it, too. Thank you, and now let me
introduce Dan Marrone who has literally gone
to the ends of the earth to collect some of the data
we’ve seen here today. [Applause] Dan Marrone: Thanks Shep. So the heart of our measurement
is, of course, the EHT array. It would have been an expensive and enormous undertaking
to build a dedicated array just to do this experiment,
so we didn’t do that. Instead we built
an international partnership that allowed us to use
submillimeter telescopes are over the world, in fact we used basically all of
the submillimeter telescopes in the world
to make this measurement. One that none of them
could have done on their own. When you take a heterogeneous
collection of telescopes and build them
into one giant telescope, it provides a lot
of technical challenges. So In the years leading up
to our 2017 experiment, we went telescope by telescope
all over the world, installing the specialized
hardware we needed to do this. Most had detectors
we could use, but almost none of them
had the atomic clocks we need, and certainly none of them
had the very fast data recorders that we use. Some places,
we had to do even more. A good example is
the ALMA telescope in Chile, It’s a 66 telescope array, it’s by far our most
sensitive telescope and its sensitivity
is transformational for our experiment.
But in order to use it, we didn’t just need
the basic hardware, we also needed a special
piece of hardware that can sum the light
from all the telescopes before we send it
to our reporters. This alone was
a many year project using an international
collaboration of people from the EHT
and also from the ALMA project. Another good example
is the South Pole telescope. The South Pole is
a special place in our array. It is so far south
that it doubles the resolution of EHT
for sources it can see. But the SBT was designed to do a completely different
kind of measurement, it studies the cosmic
microwave background, so its detectors are not
the detectors we need. So in addition to bringing down
an atomic clock and all of the tens of crates
of hardware that we needed, we had to build
a special receiver that would detect the light
the way we needed it detected, special optics
to relay the light, and install it
and get it to work in the cold and sometimes harsh
Antarctic environment. This was many years of work
for many of us, many trips down for myself
and graduate students and post doc and other engineers
in the EHT team, but at the end of it,
we had a South Pole telescope that could be an EHT station. Now getting the sites to work
isn’t the end of the process. We also had to test them all
because in VLBI you really only get one shot,
everything has to be working exactly right
when the script starts. So we spent years taking site
by site, pairing them up and making sure that our
VLBI observations would work. The last of these observations
was in January 2017. By March 2017,
we knew that test had worked, and we were ready to go. The image that Shep showed
was from April 2017, from that campaign, we sent our team to the
telescopes all over the world, their job was to turn everything
on, do very extensive testing, and then be there
to do the observations. But even with
all of that in place, we still had to wait
for weather. And my experience with ten years
of doing these observations is that the weather is usually
the place where we fail, we have to have good weather
in Hawaii and Spain at the same time, in Arizona
and in the South Pole. That is a lot to ask. But in 2017, we were very lucky. Our first three days
of observations were some of the best weather
we have ever seen. For a ten day campaign,
we were done in only seven, taking all of the data
that we wanted. At the end of that we had
five petabytes of data recorded. It was recorded on more
than 100 of these modules, and it amounts to more
than half a ton of hard drives. Five petabytes is a lot of data. It is equivalent to 5000 years
of MP3 files, or according to one story
I read, the entire selfie collection over a lifetime
for 40,000 people. The image you saw though
isn’t five petabytes in size, it is a few hundred kilobytes, so our data analysis
has to collapse this five petabytes of data
into an image that is more than
a billion times smaller. We do that in many steps,
the first of those steps is to get these modules
to our correlators in Westford, Massachusetts and Bonn, Germany. The fastest way to do that
is not over the internet it’s actually
to put them on planes, there is no Internet that can compete with petabytes
of data on the plane. Once they are there,
the correlators job is to find the exact
same wave front of light arriving from the black hole
at each telescope. Once it’s found, small timing corrections
that line up those waves, we can condense our data,
we can average it, and we reduce
the volume by 1000. Now we’re at terabytes,
a much more familiar unit. But we have a lot
more work to do, the data still has imperfections
at that point, both from
the instruments themselves, and from the atmosphere
above the telescopes. And so we do something
called fringe fitting, we do this in the cloud
with cloud computing which lets us do it
in days, instead of weeks. We calibrate the data so that we know exactly
how bright our sources are. And I’m speaking of this as
though it is just computer work, but this was actually
a very significant project for a subset of our team, primarily junior people,
postdocs and graduate students and they deserve
an enormous amount of credit for their diligence
and dedication because without it
we couldn’t have made an image. Once we are done with that, we can finally go
to the imaging stage. Now, imaging with
an interferometer isn’t as simple as downloading
a picture from your camera. Fortunately,
the math that we use for it has been around
for more than 200 years, the principle
is well understood. The methods though, as with
everything with this project are a little tricky
for our data, so in order to get the image, there has been years of image
algorithm development that has been essential
to our results. At this point in history, we have many different image
algorithms to choose from, they have different strengths
and weaknesses, it just depends on
the character of the data. And so the way we approached
the imaging stage, is we set up four teams
all over the world, they were collaborating, each team is representing
many parts of the world, and we told them, don’t talk
to each other or anyone else, choose with whichever algorithms
you think are best and make images of these data. Then, in the summer of 2018, we brought everyone
back together. Had a very exciting meeting
at the EHT imaging workshop in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
If you couldn’t be there, you certainly called in
from the Internet because you wanted to see
the presentation. And in a very
exciting presentation we revealed to the other teams and to ourselves
what we’d found. And what we saw in those images
were four very similar pictures, looking almost exactly
like the one you see today. An emissive ring surrounding
the shadow of a black hole. It was a wonderful day
of science and I’m glad that after
a few more months of very careful checking
and paper writing, that we are finally able
to share with you today. I would like to hand off
to my colleague, Avery Broderick, to talk
about the interpretation. [applause] Avery Broderick: Thank you Dan. It is an enormous pleasure
to be with you this morning to share
in this extraordinary moment. As Shep said,
we have now seen the unseeable, now what does it all mean? Every photon in these first
EHT images began its journey
in a churning maelstrom embedded in the most
extreme environment in the known universe,
the vicinity of a black hole. And M87 the crucible in which
these photons were born, was empowered by the black hole
in two distinct but related ways. First, via necretion flow.
A violent disc of orbiting gas driven inextricably
toward the event horizon. By the time the material
was making its final plunge it is crashing into itself
at nearly light speed, transforming the gas
into 100 billion degree plasma. Second, through
astrophysical jets. Narrow beams of outflowing
material speeding away from the black hole
at nearly the speed of light. These jets are powered
by black hole spin, rotating black holes
drag everything, gas, magnetic fields
and photons about themselves, driving these
paradoxical structures whose cosmic importance will be
discussed by my colleague, Sera Markoff. In M87, one of these jets is
pointed very nearly toward us. The EHT images
are influenced both by these bright
emitting regions, the rotating accretion disk
and outflowing jets and by gravity itself. In general relativity, radio
waves fall just as apples do, typically this effect
is exceedingly small, but black holes
are gravity run amok. The radio waves we see
in these first images orbited the black hole before beginning their 55
million year journey towards us. This results in the dark shadow
or silhouette cast by the black hole’s
event horizon upon the emission from the accretion
flow in the jet. Importantly, the size
and shape of the shadow is determined by gravity alone. General relativity makes
a clear prediction for both of these features. To within 10%,
the shadow should be circular. With the diameter
determined solely by mass, multiplied only
by fundamental constants. However, as with all voyages
of discovery, when we began
this expedition of the mind, we did not know
what we would find. Were Einstein wrong, were the heart of the M87
not a black hole, its silhouette could have been
very different, misshapen, mis-sized, like those seen here,
or even simply missing. Changing gravity changes
how light bends, and thereby changes
the shape of the shadow. In April, 2017, this was the dog
that did not bark. The shadow exists,
is nearly circular, and the inferred
mass matches estimates due to the dynamics of stars
100,000 times farther away. Today general relativity
has passed another crucial test. This one spanning from horizons
to the stars. The shadow is surrounded by a bright ring
of enhanced emission, those photons that just escaped
the black hole’s clutches. The properties of this ring
like feature result from the astrophysical drama
that unfolds on gravity’s stage. To understand these dramas,
over the past three years, the EHT collaboration
has undertaken an unprecedented simulation effort at research
institutions across the globe. This has generated the largest
collection of simulations ever assembled
of the accretion flow and jet launching region in M87. The southern brightness
excess arises directly from near light speed rotational motions
near the black hole. Regions that move toward us at nearly the speed of light
are bright. Those that are moving
more slowly or away are dim. From these, we have inferred the sense
of rotation of the black hole. In M87, the black hole
spins clockwise. Moreover, the excellent
quantitative agreement between the EHT images and
generic theoretical expectations of a bright crescent
like feature with a dark interior
provide significant confidence in our interpretation.
The object of the heart of M87, the object
that powers M87’s jets, is a black hole like those
described by general relativity. Importantly in combination
with infrared and optical flux measurements, we can now rule out a dim
but otherwise visible surface. That is, this does appear
to have the defining feature of a black hole, the event horizon,
that point of no return. Today, several
complementary windows have opened upon black holes, science fiction
has become science fact. Together, two of these windows,
the EHT and LIGO, which reported the first
detection of gravitational waves a short three years ago, have verified
another key prediction of Einstein’s theory of gravity. Despite varying across of factor
of billion en masse, known black holes are all consistent
with a single description. Black holes big and small
are analogous in important ways. What we learn from one necessarily
applies to the other. At this point, I would like
to hand the story off to Sera Markoff, who will describe the broader
astrophysical implications of these first EHT images.
Thank you. [Applause] Sera Markoff: Thank you Avery. So black holes may be
the most exotic consequence of general relativity
but these bizarre sinkholes in the actual fabric
of space-time turn out to be, have a lot of consequences
of their own, which I’m going to
talk about today. That is because black holes are major disruptors
of the cosmic order on the largest scales
in the universe, they are helping mold
to the shape of galaxies and clusters of galaxies. What we’ve now confirmed,
as Avery was saying, that general relativity itself
does not change when we look at different
black hole masses, it turns out the impact
of a black hole will actually change a lot.
And so if we want to understand the role of black holes
in the universe, then we need to have
accurate determinations of the black hole masses. This has been a problem up
until now. So, our mass determination by just directly looking
at the shadow has helped resolve a long-standing controversy
in measuring the mass of M87. There’s been two
independent methods, one, both, basically looking
at the motion of either gas or stars, but they ended up
giving different answers. Our determination of 6.5 billion
solar masses lands right on top of the heavier mass determination
from stellar motions so this will also help
resolve the discrepancy that can lead to better
mass determinations for other more distant
black holes when we can actually
see the shadow. So getting to the impact of this
is important because M87’s huge black hole mass
makes it really a monster, even by super massive
black hole standards. So you’re basically looking
at a super massive black hole that is almost the size
of our entire solar system. And in fact that’s part
of the reason why we can see it, even though it is so far away. But now if we zoom back out
to the more cosmic perspective of the host galaxy
of this black hole, the galaxy is made of billions
of solar systems, so on those scales the black
hole itself is minimally small, it is about 100 million
times smaller than the galaxy. And if it were a dormant
black hole like the super massive
black hole in the center of our own galaxy,
Sagittarius A*, then the galaxy would have
no way of knowing it is there, it would basically be
like a pebble in a shoe. But when the black hole
is activated by gravitationally
capturing material, it starts to convert that fuel
into other forms of energy, with the efficiency that can be
almost 100 times better than nuclear fusion
that powers stars like our Sun. So when that happens in these
active phases, black holes
temporarily become the most powerful engines
in the universe, and they go very quickly
from being a pebble in a shoe to a thorn in the side
of the galaxy, literally. And the thorns in this case
being the jets that Avery was mentioning. In the most extreme cases,
these jets can actually penetrate into the entire galaxy
and well beyond. But the power
that is coming out, we can’t see with our own eyes,
so if we want to understand them we have to look
in other wavelengths, so we look with telescopes across the
electromagnetic spectrum. So I’m going to give you
an example of this. This is another very active
black hole system, and it is a combined image, so you see in white
from NASA’s Hubble telescope, the elliptical galaxy,
Hercules A, in the center, and then overlaid in blue
is the radio waves from the National
Science Foundation’s very large array,
and these radio waves are basically tracing
magnetic fields in space, so that tells us that these jets
are enormous fountains of magnetized material that are being sprayed out
from the black hole, not the black hole itself,
but near the black hole, nearly at the speed of light. And these particular jets
are 100 million times bigger than the black hole
that launches them. Now if we add another layer,
we are going to look in the X-rays now
from NASA’s Chandra telescope, and X-rays are probing
extremely hot gas, like billions of degrees so we’re seeing
the entire system is embedded
in a halo of hot gas. And we can use this information
to calculate how much energy the jets have to have to bore
through all this material. What we find is that the jets
are carrying the equivalent of 10 billion supernova
in energy deposited over one
of these active cycles. So this is, these kinds of interactions
are basically very important because this tiny black hole
on these scales is somehow launching
these structures and also managing
to heat the gas to prevent stars from forming. And since galaxies grow
by forming more stars, this has the effect
of truncating galaxy growth and we think it is through
these types of interactions that black holes help shape
the largest structures, galaxies,
and clusters of galaxies and make them look
the way they do today. Now M87 is in a much more modest
active state but as you can see, this is also from Hubble, it is still managing to launch
the magnificent jets, these jets are emitting across
the electromagnetic spectrum as well,
so we need this information to be able to fully
understand the system. But if we zoom way out now
to the cluster of galaxy scales, this is another combined image
where you see red in radio and blue in X-ray, you just see just
a mess of structures, and we think this is telling us about M87’s black hole’s
past interactions, really affecting
the cluster scales, timescales on hundreds or tens of hundreds
of millions of years. So until now we always thought
that black holes were behind these large structures
driving these engines, but we never knew.
And now we with EHT we have direct evidence
of the root of these problems, and we can look at this
and we can now start to make, to understand combining
strong gravity, magnetic fields and looking at atomic level
processes to understand how these processes
interplay and conspire to make these
enormous structures that are basically affecting the
larger scales of the universe. And so to capture
all of this information, we need to combine
our observations with those across
the multi-wavelength spectrum. As you heard from Dan,
there are a lot of complexity in these observations,
and we added to that by doing a complicated
Sudoku of coordination with many facilities across
the globe and also in space. This is similar to the campaign that was run with LIGO
for gravitational waves. It’s very important
to combine signals both from photons and particles, so by doing this, we expect EHT
is going to play an active role in this new era of international
multi-messenger astronomy. So looking to the future,
the same observations we took in 2017 for M87 also included
this dormant black hole in our galactic center,
Sagittarius A*. And by looking at two
black holes at opposite extremes in activity range, especially combining this with
multi-wavelength information, we can better understand the ebb and flow of influence
of black holes in the long course
of our history in the universe. Anyway, thank you very much, I’m going to hand
this back over to Shep who’s going to say a few words. [Applause] Dr. Sheperd Doeleman:
Thank you everyone, I just want to point out that when we first started the event
horizon telescope project, the group was small and I think
it had to be small and nimble to carry out
precursor experiments and develop the first kinds of
techniques and instrumentation that enabled us to move
the field forward. But, over the past decade, the greatest accomplishment
has been the building of a team, and as I said before, we’re more
than 200 people strong, many institutes,
over 20 countries and regions. If you want to reduce
petabytes of data, if you want to develop
new imaging algorithms, if you want to image
a black hole, then you need a large team. It has included many
early career scientists, senior scientists, and many
of them were here with us today. So I would like to ask everyone
who is associated with the event
horizon telescope to please stand up
so everybody in the media can see who has done
this work. [Applause] It is a true pleasure
and privilege to work with this crew. I urge all the media
to go seek them out to learn how the sausage
was actually made, how the black holes
were actually imaged. I also want to say something
in particular about funding and support, this has been a high risk
but high payoff endeavor, sometimes you have to kiss
a lot of frogs before you get to the Prince, before you get to
the black hole image. You need supporters, you need
funders who will stand by you for long periods of time,
who take the long view, who understand
that basic science, never goes out of style. and who also understand
that basic science, you never know
when it is going to pay off, but ultimately
it usually does, and you have to play
the long game. We have wonderful partners with
the National Science Foundation, with our international
funding agencies and foundations and our hat is off to them
for sticking by us for so long, and we look forward
to greater things with EHT as we continue to sharpen
our focus on black holes. Thank you. [Applause] Amanda Hallberg Greenwell:
Thank you all very much. One note before
we take questions, several of our panelists and
many of their EHT collaborators will appear this week
in a documentary which has followed efforts
of the EHT for the past 2 years. The film will show viewers
how Shep Doeleman and his team reached
the groundbreaking moment. The documentary is called
Black Hole Hunters and it will premiere
this Friday, April 12, at 9 PM Eastern
on Smithsonian channel. We will now take questions
from the audience until 10 a.m. Please raise your hand,
wait for a microphone, and identify yourself
and who you are with you before asking your question. Seth Borenstein, The
Associated Press: Two part question, please. First, this is M87,
you have two targets initially. Have you seen anything, have you captured any images
of Sagittarius A* yet and have not released them
for whatever reason? Or have you not gotten
those images? Second, one of the keys
I understand, when you look at this distinct
edge of the photon ring, not being a scientist,
this looks fairly fuzzy, how distinct is this
edge to you? is it distinct enough
to notice the effect of gravity or not? How close does it pass
to whatever measurement you use for sharpness of that edge? Dr. Shep Doeleman: I will start
off with the first part. Sagittarius A* is also
very interesting target, we can see the event horizon,
we should be able to resolve it. It is complex.
M87 was in some sense the first source that we imaged
so we went with that. It is a little bit easier
to image because the timescales are such
that it doesn’t change much during the course
of an evening. So we are very excited
to work on Sagittarius A*. We are doing that very shortly,
we are not promising anything but we hope to get
that very soon. On the point about the
circularity of the image, NGR, I would like to ask
Avery answer that. Avery Broderick: Your question was on the sharpness
of the edge. So we have actually spent
a considerable amount of time trying to ascertain the
particular details of this ring like or crescent
like feature. And the sharpness, it falls off
in less than 10% of the radius, that’s about
the instrumental resolution that we practically have. So insofar as we can tell,
it drops off nearly instantly and does look then very much
like a black hole shadow. Seth Borenstein: So even though
it looks fuzzy, it isn’t. Avery Broderick: That’s right. Alan Boyle, GeekWire: Hi,
I’m Alan Boyle with GeekWire. I wanted to ask, following up
on that idea of the image, are there things
you might be doing to enhance further
the quality of the image? Might there be more telescopes
added to the network, or are you using different data
processing techniques to get an even
sharper image? Dr. Sheperd Doeleman: I will
answer the first part of that. We think we can make
the image perhaps sharper
through algorithms and I’ll leave that to Dan. But we are embarking
on a wonderful new series of putting new telescopes in
different places on the Earth, so if you add
more telescopes, you build out that virtual
Earth-sized mirror. And it goes to N-squared, so if ‘n’ is
your number of stations, then the number of points
you get in your virtual mirror goes to n-squared so even adding
two or three more stations in just the right places
will increase the fidelity of the image a lot.
The other thing I would add is that if you have
higher frequencies, which the EHT
is going to do soon, then you get an even
higher angular resolution. Dan Marrone: I think
the biggest improvement we’ll make will be through
adding new telescopes, and the higher
frequency observations will be very exciting.
As I said, in my section, the methods of imaging
are complicated. So depending on what you
are interested in, if you’re interested
in the sharpness of the ring, you can approach the imaging
process slightly differently and make a less blurry
looking picture. Tariq Malik, Thank
you very much. Tariq Malik with
I think for Shep. You said in your opening, that this was seeing
the unseeable, and it’s been a good long time
to prove this concept out. I’m just wondering for a moment,
as a scientist, what you,
what your team members, what it felt like to see
that image for the first time. Did you have a party?
Did someone cry? It is an amazing achievement,
how would you relate that? Dr. Sheperd Doeleman: That
is a great question. We have been at this
for so long, there was such a buildup, there was a great sense
of release, but also surprise. When you work at this field
for a long time, you get a lot
of intermediate results. We could have seen a blob
and we’ve seen blobs. You could have seen something
that was unexpected, but we didn’t see something
that was unexpected. We saw something so true, we saw something
that really had a ring to it. If you can use
that term of phrase and I think it was
just astonishment and wonder, and I think any scientist
in any field would know
what that feeling is, to see something
for the first time. To know that you’ve uncovered
part of the universe that was off-limits to us. When that happens,
it is an extraordinary feeling. I think for every one
on the team. Dr. France Cordova: I will
just add, as an astrophysicist, this is the first time
that I saw this image right now because they wouldn’t
let NSF see it. It did bring tears to my eyes
so this is a very big deal, I didn’t really know
what to expect. It was so cool.
It is an amazing image. Congratulations. Hi, Jay Bennett
with Smithsonian Magazine. You mentioned just now that this
was kind of the perfect image, there wasn’t really
any surprises to it, it was the exact ring that you expected
from general relativity. Was there anything
about it at all that was surprising
or unexpected? Or was it really just kind of
what you were looking for? Dr. Shep Doeleman: Well in
broad brush, as Avery said, it has verified Einstein’s
theories of gravity in this most
extreme laboratory. But, there are some
very interesting things that we want
to follow up with, there are asymmetries
around the ring, the brightness
in the southern part, so there will be
a lot of future work on this to sharpen
our focus on gravity. Avery Broderick: So, first,
I have to admit, I was a little stunned
that it matched so closely the predictions
that we had made. It is gratifying,
sometimes frustrating. But this is the beginning,
we are asked a moment ago about how we felt and I think
it was a cathartic release that finally things
are working, but also the anticipation
and the amazing science that we are going to do
by studying this image closely, and by repeating
the experiment. In that sense, we will be able
to improve the precision with which we can probe
general relativity, etcetera, and there we may find
these unanticipated surprises. Chris Lintott, The
Sky-At-Night: Chris Lintott from BBCs
The Sky at Night. Thank you for releasing
the papers alongside the press images.
The first image on the paper there shows four different
images from four different days, and it seems to me there are
hints of changes from day today, are those real? Can you say anything about
time variability at this point? Dan Marrone: There are two sets
of four images, the earliest image
in the imaging paper shows those four preliminary
images that I spoke about. The four different teams
presenting their results. Those differ slightly
from the final answer partially because that was still
an engineering data release, it wasn’t the final data. From day-to-day,
we have tried to establish how well we can trust the
differences between the days, they seem real
but at the moment, it is hard for us
to interpret them. So we hope, the timescale for
variation from M87 is very slow, so we hope that by looking
at the data we got in 2018 we will be able to see if
anything important has changed. Dr. Shep Doeleman: Can I add
to that? I would also add
that Sera pointed out, the multi-wavelength
is a key piece of the puzzle, so when we observed with EHT
on the very smallest scales, we also want to observe
the multi-wavelength, x-rays and the longer waves
of radios on the larger scales. Sera, did you want
to expand on that? Sera Markoff: We actually
didn’t highlight that in these first six papers. We did use information
from the x-rays to help constrain
some of the models but we have an enormous amount
of multi-wavelength data that goes with these data sets and so I think you can expect
to see quite a lot of studies. They’ll help us understand
some of the variability that you’re asking
about as well. M87, we’re actually catching it
in a quiet point. We can tell this from
historical multi-wavelength data and compared it
with what we’ve got. So I think in a lot of ways
it comes back to the fact
that we just got lucky. Had it been flaring, we might be seeing
something a lot different. It might have blocked
the hole as well. It was flaring even about
seven years ago or so. Arthur Friedman: My name
is Arthur, [unclear] reporter. I have a general question
about black holes. We are talking about the density
and mass of the black holes, do you have any sense
of the general length and width of the different
black holes? Are we talking like
billions of light-years across in terms of the width, or is it billions of miles?
What is the size? And what keeps the density
together in each black hole? Do you think that larger
black holes have a harder time keeping the density intact
versus smaller black holes? Avery Broderick: The answer
to your first part of your question,
how big is the black hole? It is about 1 1/2
light days across. So, not light-years,
measured in a day. That means
that practically it appears to evolve on week timescales, so we see substantial
changes in principle in timescales of
maybe two weeks, 1 1/2 weeks. What holds it all together? All black holes are
the same in this regard. It’s all gravity. Black holes
are all about gravity. And, once you get
that much mass collected into
that smaller region, and how small depends
on the mass, okay. So if I make a black hole
ten times more massive, the region I have to reach it
is ten times larger. If I make it
a billion times less massive, the region is
a billion times smaller. Once you have gotten that much
mass that close together, gravity runs the show
and there’s no other force that we know of
that will stop it. And everything collapses down
in the center in principle to a singularity
but behind it, the horizon, it is hard to reach. When you go there,
you don’t get to come back and tell us what you’ve seen. Emilio Rodriguez, Nature
Magazine: I’m just wondering if these images
can help us understand how black holes
produce jets and also, do you see this thing
evolving over time, is it changing over time
or do you just see it as fixed? Sera Markoff: I think
this comes back to one of the earlier questions. What we are seeing
is effectively, when you look
in different wavelengths, you’re picking out
different scales of the system and then also the fact that we are using
a planet-sized telescope, means we have
the extreme precision to see the route very close
to the black hole. That region
is all magnetized plasma, and we think that the jets
are being launched effectively by some sort of
squeezing of the magnetic plasma towards the black hole
and then maybe an enhancement from the spin
of the black hole itself. We are looking directly
at this region, so we do anticipate
that this image, we haven’t really begun
to see the full analysis but we’ve done a lot of work
so far, different groups within the team
have been doing simulations. And the effect,
the expectation of that is that we will be making models and comparing them again
especially again also to multi-wavelength data
on the larger scales, and looking for variability. Looking for any hints
at the underlying physics that is really going on. We have a pretty good idea
in the broad stroke of what is happening
but there is a lot of debate about the actual processes
near the black hole. And so that is going
to be the next steps, I think you can expect
quite a lot coming out in the coming period on that. Anna Humphrey, TCWilliams High
School: I was wondering, this is obviously an incredible
feat of global collaboration in the scientific community, and do you see this as being a
model for science going forward? If so, what are the challenges and what are some of the things
we can hope to accomplish? Dr. Sheperd Doeleman: I’d like
to say something about that. That’s a great question. VLBI, Very Long Baseline
Interferometry, which as Dan explained is the
whole technique that we use is, by its very nature,
a cross-border activity. We don’t pay attention
to where the telescopes are, just that they are high enough
and above the water vapor. And that they’re manned
by scientists who share our common vision. In that sense,
we built this team, this 200+ member team by selecting experts
from everywhere. I think it is
a really good model for how we can do
distributed science. We spend a lot of time
on video cons. We have published papers
with people that we have never met before, but we consider them our true
and trusted colleagues. That happens because we have
the ability to reach out and form a distributed
network of scientists. So I think it is a good model. Question: Thank you
for taking my question. My name is…from NHK
Japanese Public Broadcasting. I have a question about
international collaboration. I understand this is the
enormous work of collaboration, but can you tell me more
about the detail of each country’s contribution?
Especially Japan. Dr. Shep Doeleman: I can say
something about that, I work very closely
with many people at the National Astronomical
Observatory of Japan and others. Japan has played
a very key role, as have a number
of countries. Japan, for example,
was one of the key members for the project
that phased up ALMA, that took all the dishes
in the ALMA array in the high Atacama desert and then made them
essentially one dish, that we can record on one set
of equipment, that was huge. They have been a key partner
in the imaging techniques and pushing that forward, too. But, the key is that
each country, each region, each group, each institute
brought something in kind and they brought their expertise
and they brought their work. At the end of the day, you just
need this stuff to get done. Everyone came with
a full heart really, and the expertise and the energy
to make this image that we presented
to you today. Question: [unclear] from
Wakefield High School: I was wondering, if
nothing travels into the black hole at the speed of light,
other than light itself, how does the black hole
pull light into itself, I guess? And also, you guys have
mentioned how the M87 is 55 million light-years away, then how does the time work
from capturing the light from here to itself? Dr. Shep Doeleman: It just
takes light 55 million years to get here, so when we see M87
and the image you saw, that is what it looked like
55 million years ago. That is the last part
of your question. The first part, anyone? Avery Broderick: So light can’t
escape the horizon because in some sense,
space-time itself is flowing through the horizon at the speed of light
at that point. This is one of
the beautiful elements of Einstein’s theory
of gravity, is that space is no longer
a static stage on which things happen
but a dynamical participant. And you can think about it
moving and flowing, and black holes drag it around
when they spin and flows through the horizon
when they are, even when they’re static. So those photons trying to climb out of the gravitational
potential well, outside the horizon can do so
because they can go faster. But once you cross the horizon,
they’re dragged in, just like sound waves
across a waterfall. Hi, Emily Converse, Science
News: I was wondering if you could talk in just a little bit more detail
in your future plans. I know you mentioned
adding some telescopes and other frequencies. Maybe you could just
give some more detail about when and what
you are looking at. Dr. Sheperd Doeleman: Well,
I would point out that April, 2017 we had eight telescopes
in six geographic locations. And in 2018,
we added another telescope, the Greenland Telescope
which dramatically increased our coverage
of the north of M87. And we are going to add a new
telescope in Dan’s backyard, the Kitt Peak Observatory
in Arizona. These will all increase
the imaging fidelity. They will fill out
that virtual mirror that we are trying to build. That is important for something
that Sera described, which is the jets. We see this ring,
but it’s difficult for us to make the firm connection to the larger scaled jets
that Sera showed. By adding more telescopes, at intermediate
and longer baselines we’ll be able to extend
the image of that shadow out to where it connects to that jet
where we know it has to. So that is one area
that we are expanding into and the increased frequency
of observation. We observed a one
millimeter wavelength, now we want to move
to .87 millimeter wavelength. It sounds like a small jump but it increases
your angular resolution, the resolving power
by over 30%, 50%. So, you wind up
sharpening your image just by observing
at higher frequencies. And then of course, world
domination is not enough for us, we also want to go into space. If we could put a space
based radio telescope in an orbit
around the Earth, it would sweep out even
more of that virtual mirror and do it much
more quickly. Amanda Hallberg Greenwell: We only have time
for a couple more. Let’s go right here. Tom Costello, NBC News: Hello,
Tom from NBC news, congratulations for all of you. I have a question
for Sera or Avery. Both of you being
such devoted scientists and having devoted
your lives to this, I’m wondering what are
your thoughts about Einstein, who predicted much of this
so long ago. I wonder what your thoughts
are about his genius today and what you verified. Sera Markoff: Well, I do spend
time thinking about how it is that somebody could have
sat down in a patent office a hundred-something years ago and come up with a theory
that has turned into something. I mean, it is great
that we can see it verified with black holes, but in fact we use this everyday
for satellite communication. It’s a very integral part of our
understanding of the universe. But to me, I feel like there
are bigger mysteries afoot. I’m fascinated by Einstein and that level of understanding
in the universe. It doesn’t happen in isolation,
of course, there were many other people also thinking
that fed into this. But I’m fascinated by the fact that we’re now at the threshold
of understanding black holes as maybe the best clues
about quantum gravity, and what’s going on.
How does gravity actually work? Is this some emergent process
coming out of space-time? What is space-time? I think there is a lot more,
it is just the beginning for me. Avery Broderick: Sometimes
the math looks ugly but really, there is a strong aesthetic in
theoretical physics generally, and the Einstein equations
are beautiful. So often in my experience,
nature wants to be beautiful and that’s one of
the striking elements about the Einstein equations, about Einstein’s
description of gravity is it is fundamentally one of the most beautiful
series theories we have. For that reason alone, and the long history of Einstein
being proven right here, I suppose we are not
terribly surprised. But I can’t,
I can’t lie to you, the most exciting thing
we could possibly do would be to supplant Einstein, to find that in this extreme
gravitational laboratory that there is something
a little new. And as Sera pointed out, mysteries abound
around black holes. And we do know that there
must be something more. The problem of quantum
gravity remains unsolved with the current tools
that we have and black holes are one of the places
to look for answers. Amanda Hallberg Greenwell:
Okay. Right here. Michael Greshko, National
Geographic: Hi, Michael Greshko,
National Geographic. Shep, you mentioned
seeing the unseeable with regards to black holes,
but I want to talk about another aspect
of our universe, dark matter. Avery, you co-authored
a paper in 2017, pointing out that M87
in particular with the event
horizon telescope would be a unique probe
into dark matter, the degree to which it
annihilates its interactions with other patterns. Can you say anything
at this point about how this measurement
changes or constrains what we know
about dark matter? Avery Broderick: The quick
answer is not yet. We have been very focused on
making the first interpretation of this groundbreaking image, so we have not yet gotten
to that particular topic. Amanda Hallberg Greenwell:
Thank you all for attending, if you have further questions, staff from the National
Science Foundation are here to help,
also you have an email address inside your press packets
for any follow-up questions, thank you for joining us today,
this concludes our live stream. [Applause]

100 thoughts on “National Science Foundation/EHT Press Conference Revealing First Image of Black Hole

  1. Congratulations to all. National Science Foundation (NSF).
    Carl Sagan – Halley – Hawking – Hubble – Einstein – Newton – Galileu – Kepler – Copérnico – Ptolomeu, and Eratóstenes.

  2. Excuse me you really smart stupid people. Let's cut the b**s** about black holes. When are humans going to be a multiplanet species?

  3. I can not believe in the quality of the questions that these people are asking, especially for the girl who was laughing

  4. Congrats all!! fantastic achievement. Albert Einstein described it 100 years back today we actually see it. what a time to live in.

  5. Kermit the frog freakout, this is insane and beautiful, ty dedicated team at

  6. -light is bending by gravitational lenseing process by dark matter and interstellar bodies so images may be different position
    -image of is about 5.5 billian year ago so its mass is different nowadays.
    -our universe is expand so it's distance is not clear at present situation
    -although i am exciting….

  7. Is it true Einstein wasn't the first person to discover E=MC2 but that it was actually an Italian physicist named Olinto De Pretto?

  8. these guys did not wear pin up shirts gifted by your lady friend……….. good move. you avoided the feminist even horizon.

  9. You can now watch VideoKen version of this video with added features of Table Of Contents and Phrase Cloud. Take a sneak peek inside the video even before it plays, with our AI generated video indexes.

  10. Two questions: (1) If optical telescopes were an option, how would this image differ if viewing only the visible light? (2) Any chance a moving picture could be created of the black hole using data taken over a period of weeks or years?

  11. A fantastic thing manifested from an unphysical theory, General Relativity. Do they really know what they’re seeing? I'm curbing my enthusiasm.

  12. Positive video! Keep producing high-quality content and you can expect to develop rapidly! Subscribe to our channel and then we will subscribe back!

  13. So if we launch and spread large telescopes around sun orbits can we get to see sharper images and learn more?

  14. WOW ….. around a 100 years since Einstein arrived to dazzle us, you have dazzled the world with this once in a lifetime breakthroughs. Congratulations to Dr. Shep and the team. Prof. Hawking would have been thrilled. I am amazed at the resemblance to the constructs so far.

  15. I can't believe they are making such a big deal out of this. It's fuzzy and it's not even a real photo. My favorite part is when she says nothing can escape a black hole but we see jets shooting from them all the time.

  16. فانه اكتشاف عظيم فعلا وهو استخدام الرادارات الراديوية المجوجوده على الارض لتصوير الثقب الأسود فانه عمل عظيم ….ولكم جزيل الشكر على الاهتمام بهذا وإعلانه بتصوير الثقب الأسود وهو حلزوني ….. فنشكر سيادتكم … وهذا اكد نظريه أينشتاين …. واثبتت قول رب العالم فى سوره النجم
    واثبت ايضا…. رحله الإسراء والمعراج …. وبالذات المعراج الذى صعد سيد الخلق اجمعين سيدنا محمد عليه افضل الصلاه والسلام الى السماء بالصخره التى هى بالأقصى …. وهذا نحتفل به فى ٢٧ رجب …. وعندما قام بها سيدنا محمد عليه افضل الصلاه والسلام كانت بين السنه ١١ والسنه ١٢ وكان قبل هجرته الى المدينة …. وكانت فى ساعات الليل وقبل الفجر … فهذه الحسابات تعرفنا بما هو يقابل الصخره المعلقة فى الفضاء وهو مثل الثقب الأسود فإذا تواجد فسوف تكون البوابة التى تنقلنا لعالم اخر ….. نعم فهذه معجزه رسولنا الحبيب …. التى فيها مفتاح لعلوم واكتشافات جديده ….. وايضا بالاستفادة من النظريه النسبيه لأينشتاين
    فهو عند تساوى سرعه الجسم مع سرعه الضوء ينعدم الوقت يعنى اذا كانت سرعه الجسم فاقت سرعه الضوء يعنى لن تحس بالوقت ابدا وسيتوقف بالنسبه لنا … وهذا ما حدث عند انتقال سيدنا محمد عليه افضل الصلاه والسلام الى السبع سموات حتى وصل الى سدره المنتهى التى رأى عندها نهرى الفرات والنيل انهما من الجنه ونهرين اخرين غير ظاهرين … ثم رأى وكلم رب العالمين …. نعم هذه حقيقه … والأغرب ان الرحلتين الإسراء والمعراج لم تأخذ الا ساعات الليل فقط التى نحسبها بحساباتنا الان بالسنين الضوئيه …. مثل هذا الثقب الأسود الذى يبعد ٥٤او ٥٥ مليون سنه ضوءيه عن الارض .. وهو حلزوني الشكل …. نعم انه اكتشاف عظيم … ونشكر سيادتكم عليه …. وايضا كما عرفت من كتب العالم احمد زويل عندما تحدث عن الكاميرات النانو التى تصور الأجسام فاءقه السرعه التى لا ترى بالعين المجرده وهو روءيه الحصان الطاءر الذى يسمى عندنا البراق … نعم كل هذا مذكور عندنا فعندما رأيت هذا الاكتشاف العظيم …. تذكرت قصه الإسراء والمعراج … واعدت تفاصيل القصه مع تفسيرات سوره النجم … وهو قول رب العالمين … وايضا سوره الإسراء والحديث القدسي الخاص بقصه الإسراء والمعراج …. فعلا لكم جزيل الشكر والاحترام …. وكم اقدركم كعلماء أفاضل … لانى اقدر العلم والعلماء لان ديننا الاسلامى مرتبط بالعلم … وأقدر ناسا بكل علماءها فعلا …. وشكرا أنكم أعلنتم عن هذا الاكتشاف … واستطعتم تصوير الثقب الأسود
    ولن انسي الواجب الوطنى
    [ ] تحيا مصر داءما بانجازات واستثمارات والتنمية المستمره والعلاقات الدوليه التى لا تعد لفخامه الرءيس السيسي زعيم الحرب والسلام والتنمية والتقدم …… رافع راس كل المصريين فى كل مكان …… ويحفظه لمصر أم الدنيا قاهر الاٍرهاب فى كل مكان وداعى السلام …..والاستثمار ……. وجاعل مصر أم الدنيا 🕊🕊🕊💪💪💪🕊🕊🕊🇪🇬🇪🇬🇪🇬….. وتحيا العلاقات المصريه التى لا يستطيع احد عدها بفخامه الرءيس السيسي 🇪🇬🇪🇬🇪🇬
    – [ ] تحيا مصر بفخامه الرئيس السيسي فى عزه وكرامه ومجد وتقدم وامان واستقرار وسلام ( بدون الاٍرهاب الذى شوه الدين الإسلامى الجميل الرافض للعنف والدم ومحب…🇪🇬🇪🇬🇪🇬🇪🇬🇪🇬🕊🕊🕊🕊🕊💪💪💪💪💪❤️❤️❤️❤️❤️🌷🌷🌷🌷🌷💕💕💕💕💕
    ‏- [ ] .🇪🇬🇪🇬🇪🇬🇪🇬🇪🇬🕊🕊🕊🕊🕊💪💪💪💪💪❤️❤️❤️❤️❤️🌷🌷🌷🌷🌷💕💕💕💕💕
    – [ ] ) … واللهم صلوا وسلموا على حبيبنا المصطفى وسلموا تسليما كثيرا …ايمان محمد على محمود العربي …. بكالوريوس تجاره … مسلمه صوفيه … متزوجه وعندى ولد وبنت … واعيش فى اسيوط …واكره الاخوان لهذا ناديت بثوره ٣٠ يونيو ٢٠١٣وتمت بحمد الله تعالى ….واكثر الموءيدين لفخامه الرءيس السيسي وكنت مع تعديل الدستور لمد مده الرءاسه واحمد الله انها امتدت … وكنت اتمنى ان تكون لمدى الحياه .. وهذا لرد الجميل لفخامه الرءيس السيسي الذى انقذ ام الدنيا مصر ..واكره الاخوان لهذا ناديت بثوره ٣٠ يونيو ٢٠١٣وتمت بحمد الله تعالى ….واكثر الموءيدين لفخامه الرءيس السيسي واحمد الله ان مده الرءاسه امتدت … وكنت اتمنى ان تكون لمدى الحياه .. وهذا لرد الجميل لفخامه الرءيس السيسي الذى انقذ ام الدنيا مصر
    ‏- [ ] 🇪🇬🇪🇬🇪🇬🇪🇬🇪🇬🕊🕊🕊🕊🕊💪💪💪💪💪❤️❤️❤️❤️❤️🌷🌷🌷🌷🌷💕💕💕💕💕

  17. 36:45 you have to Kiss a lot of Frogs before….!!!!! 😖😖😖😖😖😖😷😷😷😷😷😷🤕🤕🤕🤕🤕🤕😭😭😭😭😭😭😤😤😤😤😤😤

  18. Great video! Always keep creating high-quality content and you are going to increase very quickly! Subscribe to our channel then we shall subscribe back!

  19. Project EVENT deception…all these puppets keeping the agenda of lies alive so as to keep their million dollar wage and their institutialised status….they even admit imagination collaboration amongst facilities…a comp gen graphic images of a black hole…..shaping theorized ideas in reality…Dr who…Dr back hole enthusiast…Dr super heated matter…Dr combine shine light…Dr simulation…Dr shadow feature…Dr emergencies…Dr event horizon… Dr super massive black hole….Dr picture of a black hole…what super black hole photon orbit visual evidence of bull shite…all these simulated nasa clones know there's no space and universe yet these high cosmic treasonist hot gas sub-humans still promote and program this water favoured deception…..betraying humanity for self centred greed and for the enslavement of mankind….wake up sheeple…can't you here the same tune of the pied piper leading YOU over the cliff's edge…wake up fools!

  20. Hmm… I have more theories about space not even studying for it, but a image of a black hole is cool.
    Just a question that I have, There's more black holes in our galaxy?

  21. Wonderful video! Always keep doing good content and you are going to build up very quickly! Subscribe to our channel and also we will subscribe back!

  22. High-quality video! Always keep producing excellent content and you'll get bigger fast! Subscribe to our channel then we should subscribe to you!

  23. Makes me wonder if we will ever know what is truly happening in the space around black holes. There are definitely entities in the universe that get what must be a spectacular view of a super-massive black hole, like S0-2, the star that orbits just 120 AU or 17 light hours from the massive thing at the heart of our galaxy. If you could stand upon the surface of that star and look up at the sky, what would you see? I never thought our computers and telescopes would ever be powerful enough to answer this question, but now I'm not so sure and it makes me very curious.

  24. Very good video! Always keep doing nice content and you can expect to build up rapidly! Subscribe to our channel then we should subscribe to your channel!

  25. We can hardly star outside of our own galaxy much less a black whole you commenters have no idea what your talking about professor hawking would be laughing in his head not praising this bullshit top commentors are brain dead

  26. A black hole is a ball.Black holes constantly swallow substances, and they are also merging with another black holes,for example, in the future, our Milky Way shall merge with the Vega.Our Milky Way should have been merged with another galaxies many times.Each merger of the black holes emit gamma ray burst.Each time our Milky Way merges with another galaxies could have an influence on the Earth's creatures.As black holes constantly swallow substances and merge with another black holes, the qualities and temperatures of the black holes are constantly rising.When the explosive force inside the black hole is greater than the cohesive compression force (the critical point, it should be a constant), the black hole should explode.The black hole before the explosion was the singularity of the universe , and after the explosion, the new universe formed.We think the universe should be circulating like this.The size of each universe, that is, the size of the universe's space, is determined by the gravitational force of the black hole and should be a constant.

  27. Looks to me that possible life, planets and stars from a long, long, long, long time ago got pulled into M87, stripped into atoms and its atom information is what you see circling around the the outer rim of this black hole. We've got more chance getting info back to earth by taking a 'spoon-sample' from the the outer rim of that thing, using a purpose built liquid helium spoon-probe. But the probe has to travel at same speed as the horizon to grab a sample of all that atom information. New metals/materials, possible life, new liquids could be discovered in all that info.

  28. High-quality video! Persevere with creating high-quality content and you can get bigger rapidly! Subscribe to our channel and so we shall subscribe back to you!

  29. For more videos about black hole click on given links

    (1) Classroom on Black Holes

    (2)What Does a Black Hole Look Like

    (3)Simulation of a Supermassive Black Hole

    (4)First Ever Black Hole Image Released Explained in Hindi

    (5)Exploring a Black Hole Environment

    Subscribe my channel

  30. Quick question concerning the Event Horizon telescope, parallax distance measurements, and interferometry. Cannot observations taken in six months time at the other side of the earth's orbit effectively extend the base line of the radio telescope array to the size of the earth's orbit?

  31. 14:15 they had to instal special Hardware including atomic clocks on each telescope so that they could synchronize properly and collect compatible data

  32. 7:03 The Event Horizon array is the largest virtual telescope and has the highest resolution of any device yet created. Equivalent to resolving the date on a quarter in Los Angeles from Washington DC. About 3,000 miles apart

  33. 8:30 the data show the accretion disk is moving at near light speeds. And that black holes AR essentially the engines of galaxies being the main driving force behind the structure and Dynamics have the rest of their matter

  34. 9:30 a good description of the Journey of the light captured in this image ( this is for personal reference if anyone wonders why I'm commenting so much)

  35. 17:15 weather is generally the biggest obstacle in a project of this nature. They had to simultaneously have good weather good seeing conditions in Spain Hawaii the South Pole all at the same time

  36. 1:01:05 we fundamentally want to discover something new to possibly supplant or supplement Einstein's theory.

  37. Crothers, S.J., Time Warps And The M87 ‘Black Hole’,

  38. Einstein would be ecstatic. Congratulations to all the hard work who took part in this astounding project.

  39. I would like to personally speak to some of the people who gave this a thumbs down. IF you are one of those people, please reply to me and tell me why you gave this a thumbs down.

    You could have just exited this video, but you actively chose to give it a thumbs down and now it will remain there forever.

    I am curious as to why you think it deserves this. This black hole image is a significant finding for not just physicists and astronomers, but for everyone else. Putting aside the image itself, just listening to the speakers talk about the sheer volume of data required, and the amount of collaboration involved is inspiring.

    I could go on, but due to the audience this comment is aiming towards, I will keep this short.

    I look forward to hearing from you, whoever you may be.

  40. Это похожа на съёмки при калоноскопии и чутка фотошопа
    Крч наеюали всех

  41. I got chills watching this. Since I was little, I have thought of black holes as a theoretical curiosity, something that was just in the imaginations of scientists. Now we can actually "see" them! Actually confirming something like that through direct observation is nearly unbelievable. It's almost as if someone just directly observed a UFO, a ghost, or a dragon somewhere in the universe. Astounding. And to think, most of the people in the world lack the sense of awe to appreciate this discovery.

    Walter Bowman Russell
    Born: May 19 1871 – Died May 19 1963

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