Mustafa Kemal Atatürk | Wikipedia audio article

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk | Wikipedia audio article


Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (; Turkish: [mustaˈfa
ceˈmal aˈtaˌtyɾc]; 19 May 1881 (conventional) – 10 November 1938) was a Turkish field
marshal (Mareşal), revolutionary statesman, author, and founder of the Republic of Turkey,
serving as its first President from 1923 until his death in 1938. Ideologically a secularist and nationalist,
his policies and theories became known as Kemalism. Atatürk came to prominence for his role in
securing the Ottoman Turkish victory at the Battle of Gallipoli (1915) during World War
I. Following the Empire’s defeat and subsequent dissolution, he led the Turkish National Movement,
which resisted the mainland Turkey’s partition among the victorious Allied powers. Establishing a provisional government in the
present-day Turkish capital Ankara, he defeated the forces sent by the Allies, thus emerging
victorious from what was later referred to as the Turkish War of Independence. He subsequently proceeded to abolish the decrepit
Ottoman Empire and proclaimed the foundation of the Turkish Republic in its place. As the president of the newly formed Turkish
Republic, Atatürk initiated a rigorous program of political, economic, and cultural reforms
with the ultimate aim of building a modern, progressive, and secular nation-state. He made primary education free and compulsory,
opening thousands of new schools all over the country. He also introduced the Latin-based Turkish
alphabet, replacing the old Ottoman Turkish alphabet. Turkish women received equal civil and political
rights during Atatürk’s presidency ahead of many Western countries. In particular, women were given voting rights
in local elections by Act no. 1580 on 3 April 1930 and a few years later,
in 1934, full universal suffrage, earlier than most other countries in the world.His
government carried out a policy of Turkicisation trying to create a homogeneous and unified
nation. Under Atatürk, non-Turkish minorities were
pressured to speak Turkish in public, non-Turkish toponyms and last names of minorities had
to be changed to Turkish renditions. The Turkish Parliament granted him the surname
Atatürk in 1934, which means “Father of the Turks”, in recognition of the role he played
in building the modern Turkish Republic. He died on 10 November 1938 at the age of
57 in Dolmabahçe Palace; he was succeeded as President by his long-time Prime Minister
İsmet İnönü and was honored with a state funeral. In 1953, his iconic mausoleum was built and
opened, which is surrounded by a park called the Peace Park in honor of his famous expression
“Peace at Home, Peace in the World”. In 1981, the centennial of Atatürk’s birth,
his memory was honoured by the UN and UNESCO, which declared it The Atatürk Year in the
World and adopted the Resolution on the Atatürk Centennial, describing him as “the leader
of the first struggle given against colonialism and imperialism” and a “remarkable promoter
of the sense of understanding between peoples and durable peace between the nations of the
world and that he worked all his life for the development of harmony and cooperation
between peoples without distinction”. Atatürk is commemorated by many memorials
throughout Turkey and numerous countries all over the world, where place names are named
in honor of him. Eleftherios Venizelos, former Prime Minister
of Greece, forwarded Atatürk’s name for the 1934 Nobel Peace Prize.==Early life==Mustafa Kemal Atatürk was born (under the
name Ali Rıza oğlu Mustafa) in the early months of 1881, either in the Ahmet Subaşı
neighbourhood or at a house (preserved as a museum) in Islahhane Street (now Apostolou
Pavlou Street) in the Koca Kasım Pasha neighbourhood in Salonica (Selanik), Ottoman Empire (Thessaloniki
in present-day Greece), to Ali Rıza Efendi, a militia officer, title-deed clerk and lumber
trader, and Zübeyde Hanım. Only one of Mustafa’s siblings, a sister named
Makbule (Atadan) survived childhood; she died in 1956. According to Andrew Mango, his family was
Muslim, Turkish-speaking and precariously middle-class. His father Ali Rıza is thought to have been
of Albanian origin by some authors; however, according to Falih Rıfkı Atay, Vamık D.
Volkan, Norman Itzkowitz, Müjgân Cunbur, Numan Kartal and Hasan İzzettin Dinamo, Ali
Rıza’s ancestors were Turks, ultimately descending from Söke in the Aydın Province of Anatolia. His mother Zübeyde is thought to have been
of Turkish origin and according to Şevket Süreyya Aydemir, she was of Yörük ancestry. He was born Mustafa, and his second name Kemal
(meaning Perfection or Maturity) was given to him by his mathematics teacher, Captain
Üsküplü Mustafa Efendi, “in admiration of his capability and maturity” according
to Afet Inan, and, according to Ali Fuat Cebesoy, because his teacher wanted to distinguish
his student who had the same name as him, although biographer Andrew Mango suggests
that he may have chosen the name himself as a tribute to the nationalist poet Namık Kemal. In his early years, his mother encouraged
Mustafa Kemal to attend a religious school, something he did reluctantly and only briefly. Later, he attended the Şemsi Efendi School
(a private school with a more secular curriculum) at the direction of his father. His parents wanted him to learn a trade, but
without consulting them, Mustafa Kemal took the entrance exam for the Salonica Military
School (Selanik Askeri Rüştiyesi) in 1893. In 1896, he enrolled into the Monastir Military
High School. On 14 March 1899,
he enrolled at the Ottoman Military Academy in the neighbourhood of Pangaltı within the
Şişli district of the Ottoman capital city Constantinople (now Istanbul) and graduated
in 1902. He later graduated from the Ottoman Military
College in Constantinople on 11 January 1905.==Military career=====Early years===Shortly after graduation, he was arrested
by the police for his anti monarchist activities. Following a confinement of several months
he was released only with the support of Rıza Pasha, his former school director. After his release, Mustafa Kemal was assigned
to the Fifth Army based in Damascus as a Staff Captain in the company of Ali Fuat (Cebesoy)
and Lütfi Müfit (Özdeş). He joined a small secret revolutionary society
of reformist officers led by a merchant Mustafa Elvan (Cantekin) called Vatan ve Hürriyet
(“Motherland and Liberty”). On 20 June 1907, he was promoted to the rank
of Senior Captain (Kolağası) and on 13 October 1907, assigned to the headquarters of the
Third Army in Manastır. He joined the Committee of Union and Progress,
with membership number 322, although in later years he became known for his opposition to,
and frequent criticism of, the policies pursued by the CUP leadership. On 22 June 1908, he was appointed the Inspector
of the Ottoman Railways in Eastern Rumelia (Doğu Rumeli Bölgesi Demiryolları Müfettişi). In July 1908, he played a role in the Young
Turk Revolution which seized power from Sultan Abdülhamid II and restored the constitutional
monarchy. He was proposing depolitization in the army,
a proposal which was disliked by the leaders of the CUP. As a result, he was sent away to Tripolitania
Vilayet (present Libya, then an Ottoman territory) under the pretext of suppressing a tribal
rebellion towards the end of 1908. According to Mikush however, he volunteered
for this mission. He suppressed the revolt and returned to İstanbul
in January 1909. In April 1909 in İstanbul, a group of soldiers
began a counter revolution (see 31 March Incident). Mustafa Kemal was instrumental in suppressing
the revolt.In 1910 he was called to the Ottoman provinces in Albania. At that time Isa Boletini was leading Albanian
uprisings in Kosovo and there were revolts in Albania. In 1910 he met with Eqerem Vlora the Albanian
lord, politician, writer, and one of the signatories of Albanian Declaration of Independence.Later,
in the autumn of 1910, he was among the Ottoman military observers who attended the Picardie
army manoeuvres in France, and in 1911, served at the Ministry of War (Harbiye Nezareti)
in Istanbul for a short time.===Italo-Turkish War (1911–12)===In 1911, he was assigned to the Ottoman Tripolitania
Vilayet (present-day Libya) to fight in the Italo-Turkish War, mainly in the areas near
Benghazi, Derna and Tobruk against a 150,000-strong Italian amphibious assault force, which had
to be countered by 20,000 Bedouins and 8,000 Turks A short time before Italy declared war,
a large portion of the Ottoman troops in Libya were sent to the Ottoman province of Yemen
in order to put down the rebellion there, so the Ottoman government was caught with
inadequate resources to counter the Italians in Libya; and the British government, which
controlled the Ottoman provinces of Egypt and Sudan, did not allow sending additional
Ottoman troops to Libya through Egypt. Ottoman soldiers like Mustafa Kemal went to
Libya either dressed as Arabs (risking imprisonment if noticed by the British authorities in Egypt),
or through very few available ferries (the Italians, who had superior naval forces, effectively
controlled the sea routes to Tripoli). However, despite all the hardships, Mustafa
Kemal’s forces in Libya managed to repel the Italians on a number of occasions, such as
the Battle of Tobruk on 22 December 1911. During the Battle of Derna on 16–17 January
1912, while Mustafa Kemal was assaulting the Italian-controlled fortress of Kasr-ı Harun,
two Italian planes dropped bombs on the Ottoman forces and a piece of limestone from a damaged
building’s rubble entered Mustafa Kemal’s left eye; which caused a permanent damage
on his left eye’s tissue, but not total loss of sight. He received medical treatment for nearly a
month; he attempted to leave the Red Crescent’s health facilities after only two weeks, but
when his eye’s situation worsened, he had to return and resume treatment. On 6 March 1912 Mustafa Kemal became the Commander
of the Ottoman forces in Derna. He managed to defend and retain the city and
its surrounding region until the end of the Italo-Turkish War on 18 October 1912. Mustafa Kemal, Enver Bey, Fethi Bey and the
other Ottoman military commanders in Libya had to return to Ottoman Europe following
the outbreak of the Balkan Wars on 8 October 1912. Losing the war, the Ottoman government had
to surrender Tripolitania, Fezzan and Cyrenaica (3 provinces forming present-day Libya) to
the Kingdom of Italy with the secret Treaty of Ouchy (the public version is the Treaty
of Lausanne (1912)) signed ten days later, on 18 October.===Balkan Wars (1912–13)===On 1 December 1912, Mustafa Kemal arrived
at his new headquarters on the Gallipoli peninsula and during the First Balkan War, he took part
in the amphibious landing at Bulair on the coast of Thrace that was commanded by Binbaşı
Fethi Bey, but this offensive was repulsed during the Battle of Bulair by Georgi Todorov’s
7th Rila Infantry Division under the command of Stiliyan Kovachev’s Bulgarian Fourth Army.In
June 1913, during the Second Balkan War, he took part in the Ottoman Army forces commanded
by Kaymakam Enver Bey that recovered Dimetoka and Edirne (Adrianople, the capital city of
the Ottoman Empire between 1365 and 1453, thus of utmost historic importance for the
Turks) together with most of eastern Thrace from the Bulgarians. In 1913, he was appointed the Ottoman military
attaché to all Balkan states (his office was in Sofia, Bulgaria) and promoted to the
rank of Kaymakam (Lieutenant Colonel / Colonel) on 1 March 1914.===First World War (1914–18)===In 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the European
and Middle Eastern theatres of World War I allied with the Central Powers. Mustafa Kemal was given the task of organizing
and commanding the 19th Division attached to the Fifth Army during the Battle of Gallipoli. Mustafa Kemal became the front-line commander
after correctly anticipating where the Allies would attack and holding his position until
they retreated. Following the Battle of Gallipoli, Mustafa
Kemal served in Edirne until 14 January 1916. He was then assigned to the command of the
XVI Corps of the Second Army and sent to the Caucasus Campaign after the massive Russian
offensive had reached key Anatolian cities. On 7 August, Mustafa Kemal rallied his troops
and mounted a counteroffensive. Two of his divisions captured Bitlis and Muş,
upsetting the calculations of the Russian Command.Following this victory, the CUP government
in Constantinople proposed to establish a new army in Hejaz (Hicaz Kuvve-i Seferiyesi)
and appoint Mustafa Kemal to its command, but he refused the proposal and this army
was never established. Instead, on 7 March 1917, Mustafa Kemal Pasha
was promoted from the command of the XVI Corps to the overall command of the Second Army,
although the Czar’s armies were soon withdrawn when the Russian Revolution erupted. In July 1917, he was appointed to the command
of the Seventh Army, replacing Fevzi Pasha on 7 August 1917, who was under the command
of the German general Erich von Falkenhayn’s Yildirim Army Group (after the British forces
of General Edmund Allenby captured Jerusalem in December 1917, Erich von Falkenhayn was
replaced by Otto Liman von Sanders who became the new commander of the Yıldırım Army
Group in early 1918.) Mustafa Kemal Pasha could not get along well
with General von Falkenhayn and, together with Miralay İsmet Bey, wrote a report to
Grand Vizier Talaat Pasha regarding the grim situation and lack of adequate resources in
the Palestinian front; but Talaat Pasha ignored their observations and refused their suggestion
to form a stronger defensive line to the north, in Ottoman Syria (in parts of the Beirut Vilayet,
Damascus Vilayet and Aleppo Vilayet), with Turks instead of Germans in command. Following the rejection of his report, Mustafa
Kemal resigned from the Seventh Army and returned to Constantinople. There, he was assigned with the task of accompanying
the crown prince (and future sultan) Mehmed Vahideddin during his train trip to Austria-Hungary
and Germany. While in Germany, Mustafa Kemal visited the
German lines in the west European front and came to the conclusion that the Central Powers
would soon lose the war. He did not hesitate to openly express this
opinion to Kaiser Wilhelm II and his high-ranking generals in person. During the return trip, he briefly stayed
in Karlsbad and Vienna for medical treatment.When Mehmed VI became the new Sultan of the Ottoman
Empire in July 1918, he called Mustafa Kemal Pasha to Constantinople, and in August 1918
assigned him to the command of the Seventh Army in Palestine. Mustafa Kemal arrived in Aleppo on 26 August
1918, then continued south to his headquarters in Nablus. The Seventh Army was holding the central sector
of the front lines. On 19 September, at the beginning of the Battle
of Megiddo, the Eighth Army was holding the coastal flank, but fell apart and Liman Pasha
ordered the Seventh Army to withdraw to the north in order to prevent the British from
conducting a short envelopment to the Jordan River. The Seventh Army retired towards the Jordan
River but was destroyed by British aerial bombardment during its retreat from Nablus
on 21 September 1918. Nevertheless, Mustafa Kemal managed to form
a defense line to the north of Aleppo. According to Lord Kinross, Mustafa Kemal was
the only Turkish general in the war who never suffered a defeat.The war ended with the Armistice
of Mudros which was signed on 30 October 1918, and all German and Austro-Hungarian troops
in the Ottoman Empire were granted ample time to withdraw. On 31 October, Kemal was appointed to the
command of the Yıldırım Army Group, replacing Liman von Sanders. He organized the distribution of weapons to
the civilians in Antep in case of a defensive conflict against the invading Allies.Mustafa
Kemal Pasha’s last active service in the Ottoman Army was organizing the return of the Ottoman
troops left behind to the south of this line. In early November 1918, the Yıldırım Army
Group was officially dissolved and Mustafa Kemal returned to an occupied Constantinople,
the Ottoman capital, on 13 November 1918. For a period he worked at the headquarters
of the Ministry of War (Harbiye Nezareti) in Constantinople and continued his activities
in this city until 16 May 1919. Along the established lines of the partitioning
of the Ottoman Empire, the Allies (British, Italian, French and Greek forces) occupied
Anatolia. The occupation of Constantinople, which was
followed by the occupation of İzmir (the two largest Ottoman cities in that period)
sparked the establishment of the Turkish National Movement and the Turkish War of Independence.===Turkish War of Independence (1919–1923)
===Fahri Yaver-i Hazret-i Şehriyari (“Honorary
Aide-de-camp to His Majesty Sultan”) Mirliva Mustafa Kemal Pasha was assigned as the inspector
of the Ninth Army Troops Inspectorate to reorganize what remained of the Ottoman military units
and to improve internal security on 30 April 1919. On 19 May 1919, he reached Samsun. His first goal was the establishment of an
organized national movement against the occupying forces. In June 1919, he issued the Amasya Circular,
declaring the independence of the country was in danger. He resigned from the Ottoman Army on 8 July
and the Ottoman government issued a warrant for his arrest. Later, he was condemned to death. On 4 September 1919, he assembled a congress
in Sivas. Those who opposed the Allies in various provinces
in Turkey issued a declaration named Misak-ı Millî (“National Pact”). Mustafa Kemal was appointed as the head of
the executive committee of the congress. This gave Mustafa Kemal the legitimacy he
needed for his future politics. (See Sivas Congress.) The last election to the Ottoman parliament
held in December 1919 gave a sweeping majority to candidates of the “Association for Defense
of Rights for Anatolia and Roumelia (Anadolu ve Rumeli Müdafaa-i Hukuk Cemiyeti)”, headed
by Mustafa Kemal, who himself remained in Ankara. The fourth (and last) term of the parliament
opened in Constantinople on 12 January 1920. It was dissolved by British forces on 18 March
1920, shortly after it adopted the Misak-ı Millî (“National Pact”). Mustafa Kemal called for a national election
to establish a new Turkish Parliament seated in Ankara – the “Grand National Assembly”
(GNA). On 23 April 1920, the GNA opened with Mustafa
Kemal as the speaker; this act effectively created the situation of diarchy in the country. On 10 August 1920, the Ottoman Grand Vizier
Damat Ferid Pasha signed the Treaty of Sèvres, finalizing plans for the partitioning of the
Ottoman Empire, including the regions that Turkish nationals viewed as their heartland. Mustafa Kemal insisted on the country’s complete
independence and the safeguarding of interests of the Turkish majority on “Turkish soil”. He persuaded the GNA to gather a National
Army. The GNA Army faced the Caliphate army propped
up by the Allied occupation forces and had the immediate task of fighting the Armenian
forces in the Eastern Front and the Greek forces advancing eastward from Smyrna (modern-day
İzmir) that they had occupied in May 1919, on the Western Front. In January 1920, Mustafa Kemal advanced his
troops into Marash where the Battle of Marash ensued against the French Armenian Legion. The battle resulted in a Turkish victory alongside
the massacres of 5,000–12,000 Armenians spelling the end of the remaining Armenian
population in the region. The GNA military successes against the Democratic
Republic of Armenia in the autumn of 1920 and later against the Greeks were made possible
by a steady supply of gold and armaments to the kemalists from the Russian Bolshevik government
from the autumn 1920 onwards. After a series of battles during the Greco-Turkish
war, the Greek army advanced as far as the Sakarya River, just eighty kilometers west
of the GNA. On 5 August 1921, Mustafa Kemal was promoted
to Commander in chief of the forces by the GNA. The ensuing Battle of Sakarya was fought from
23 August to 13 September 1921 and ended with the defeat of the Greeks. After this victory, on 19 September 1921,
Mustafa Kemal Pasha was given by the Grand National Assembly the rank of Mareşal and
the title of Gazi. The Allies, ignoring the extent of Kemal’s
successes, hoped to impose a modified version of the Treaty of Sèvres as a peace settlement
on Ankara, but the proposal was rejected. In August 1922, Kemal launched an all-out
attack on the Greek lines at Afyonkarahisar in the Battle of Dumlupınar and Turkish forces
regained control of Smyrna on 9 September 1922. On 10 September 1922, Mustafa Kemal sent a
telegram to the League of Nations saying that the Turkish population was so worked up that
the Ankara Government would not be responsible for massacres.==Establishment of the Republic of Turkey
==The Conference of Lausanne began on 21 November
1922. Turkey, represented by İsmet İnönü of
the GNA, refused any proposal that would compromise Turkish sovereignty, such as the control of
Turkish finances, the Capitulations, the Straits and other issues. Although the conference halted on 4 February,
it continued after 23 April mainly on the economic issues. On 24 July 1923, the Treaty of Lausanne was
signed by the Powers with the GNA, thus recognising the latter as the government of Turkey. On 29 October 1923, the Republic of Turkey
was proclaimed. Since then Republic Day has been celebrated
as a national holiday on this date.==Presidency==With the establishment of the Republic of
Turkey, efforts to modernise the country started. The new government analyzed the institutions
and constitutions of Western states such as France, Sweden, Italy, and Switzerland and
adapted them to the needs and characteristics of the Turkish nation. Highlighting the public’s lack of knowledge
regarding Kemal’s intentions, the public cheered: “We are returning to the days of the first
caliphs.” Mustafa Kemal placed Fevzi Çakmak, Kâzım
Özalp and İsmet İnönü in political positions where they could institute his reforms. Mustafa Kemal capitalized on his reputation
as an efficient military leader and spent the following years, up until his death in
1938, instituting political, economic, and social reforms. In doing so, he transformed Turkish society
from perceiving itself as a Muslim part of a vast Empire into a modern, democratic, and
secular nation-state. This had a positive influence on human capital
because what from now on mattered at school was science and education; Islam was concentrated
in mosques and religious places.===Domestic policies===
Mustafa Kemal’s basic tenet was the complete independence of the country. He clarified his
position:…by complete independence, we mean of course complete economic, financial, juridical,
military, cultural independence and freedom in all matters. Being deprived of independence in any of these
is equivalent to the nation and country being deprived of all its independence. He led wide-ranging reforms in social, cultural,
and economical aspects, establishing the new Republic’s backbone of legislative, judicial,
and economic structures. Though he was later idealized by some as an
originator of sweeping reforms, many of his reformist ideas were already common in Ottoman
intellectual circles at the turn of the 20th century, and were expressed more openly after
the Young Turk Revolution.Mustafa Kemal created a banner to mark the changes between the old
Ottoman and the new republican rule. Each change was symbolized as an arrow in
this banner. This defining ideology of the Republic of
Turkey is referred to as the “Six Arrows”, or Kemalist ideology. Kemalist ideology is based on Mustafa Kemal’s
conception of realism and pragmatism. The fundamentals of nationalism, populism
and etatism were all defined under the Six Arrows. These fundamentals were not new in world politics
or, indeed, among the elite of Turkey. What made them unique was that these interrelated
fundamentals were formulated specifically for Turkey’s needs. A good example is the definition and application
of secularism; the Kemalist secular state significantly differed from predominantly
Christian states.====Emergence of the state, 1923–1924====Mustafa Kemal’s private journal entries dated
before the establishment of the republic in 1923 show that he believed in the importance
of the sovereignty of the people. In forging the new republic, the Turkish revolutionaries
turned their back on the perceived corruption and decadence of cosmopolitan Constantinople
and its Ottoman heritage. For instance, they made Ankara the country’s
new capital and reformed the Turkish postal service. Once a provincial town deep in Anatolia, Ankara
was thus turned into the center of the independence movement. Atatürk wanted a “direct government by the
Assembly” and visualized a representative democracy, parliamentary sovereignty, where
the National Parliament would be the ultimate source of power.In the following years, he
altered his stance somewhat; the country needed an immense amount of reconstruction, and that
“direct government by the Assembly” could not survive in such an environment. The revolutionaries faced challenges from
the supporters of the old Ottoman regime, and also from the supporters of newer ideologies
such as communism and fascism. Mustafa Kemal saw the consequences of fascist
and communist doctrines in the 1920s and 1930s and rejected both. He prevented the spread into Turkey of the
totalitarian party rule which held sway in the Soviet Union, Germany and Italy. Some perceived his opposition and silencing
of these ideologies as a means of eliminating competition; others believed it was necessary
to protect the young Turkish state from succumbing to the instability of new ideologies and competing
factions.The heart of the new republic was the GNA, established during the Turkish War
of Independence by Mustafa Kemal. The elections were free and used an egalitarian
electoral system that was based on a general ballot. Deputies at the GNA served as the voice of
Turkish society by expressing its political views and preferences. It had the right to select and control both
the government and the Prime Minister. Initially, it also acted as a legislative
power, controlling the executive branch and, if necessary, acted as an organ of scrutiny
under the Turkish Constitution of 1921. The Turkish Constitution of 1924 set a loose
separation of powers between the legislative and the executive organs of the state, whereas
the separation of these two within the judiciary system was a strict one. Mustafa Kemal, then the President, occupied
a powerful position in this political system. The one-party regime was established de facto
in 1925 after the adoption of the 1924 constitution. The only political party of the GNA was the
“Peoples Party”, founded by Mustafa Kemal on 9 September 1923. (But according to the party culture the foundation
date was the opening day of Sivas Congress on 4 September 1919). On 10 November 1924 it was renamed Cumhuriyet
Halk Fırkası or Republican People’s Party (the word fırka was replaced by the word
parti in 1935).====Civic independence and the Caliphate,
1924–1925====Abolition of the Caliphate was an important
dimension in Mustafa Kemal’s drive to reform the political system and to promote the national
sovereignty. By the consensus of the Muslim majority in
early centuries, the caliphate was the core political concept of Sunni Islam. Abolishing the sultanate was easier because
the survival of the Caliphate at the time satisfied the partisans of the sultanate. This produced a split system with the new
republic on one side and an Islamic form of government with the Caliph on the other side,
and Mustafa Kemal and İnönü worried that “it nourished the expectations that the sovereign
would return under the guise of Caliph.” Caliph Abdülmecid II was elected after the
abolition of the sultanate (1922). The caliph had his own personal treasury and
also had a personal service that included military personnel; Mustafa Kemal said that
there was no “religious” or “political” justification for this. He believed that Caliph Abdülmecid II was
following in the steps of the sultans in domestic and foreign affairs: accepting of and responding
to foreign representatives and reserve officers, and participating in official ceremonies and
celebrations. He wanted to integrate the powers of the caliphate
into the powers of the GNA. His initial activities began on 1 January
1924, when İnönü, Çakmak and Özalp consented to the abolition of the caliphate. The caliph made a statement to the effect
that he would not interfere with political affairs. On 1 March 1924, at the Assembly, Mustafa
Kemal said: The religion of Islam will be elevated if
it will cease to be a political instrument, as had been the case in the past. On 3 March 1924, the caliphate was officially
abolished and its powers within Turkey were transferred to the GNA. Other Muslim nations debated the validity
of Turkey’s unilateral abolition of the caliphate as they decided whether they should confirm
the Turkish action or appoint a new caliph. A “Caliphate Conference” was held in Cairo
in May 1926 and a resolution was passed declaring the caliphate “a necessity in Islam”, but
failed to implement this decision.Two other Islamic conferences were held in Mecca (1926)
and Jerusalem (1931), but failed to reach a consensus. Turkey did not accept the re-establishment
of the caliphate and perceived it as an attack to its basic existence; while Mustafa Kemal
and the reformists continued their own way.On 8 April 1924, sharia courts were abolished
with the law “Mehakim-i Şer’iyenin İlgasına ve Mehakim Teşkilatına Ait Ahkamı Muaddil
Kanun”.The removal of the caliphate was followed by an extensive effort to establish the separation
of governmental and religious affairs. Education was the cornerstone in this effort. In 1923, there were three main educational
groups of institutions. The most common institutions were medreses
based on Arabic, the Qur’an and memorization. The second type of institution was idadî
and sultanî, the reformist schools of the Tanzimat era. The last group included colleges and minority
schools in foreign languages that used the latest teaching models in educating pupils. The old medrese education was modernized. Mustafa Kemal changed the classical Islamic
education for a vigorously promoted reconstruction of educational institutions. Mustafa Kemal linked educational reform to
the liberation of the nation from dogma, which he believed was more important than the Turkish
War of Independence. He declared: Today, our most important and most productive
task is the national education [unification and modernization] affairs. We have to be successful in national education
affairs and we shall be. The liberation of a nation is only achieved
through this way.” In the summer of 1924, Mustafa Kemal invited
American educational reformer John Dewey to Ankara to advise him on how to reform Turkish
education. His public education reforms aimed to prepare
citizens for roles in public life through increasing the public literacy. He wanted to institute compulsory primary
education for both girls and boys; since then this effort has been an ongoing task for the
republic. He pointed out that one of the main targets
of education in Turkey had to be raising a generation nourished with what he called the
“public culture”. The state schools established a common curriculum
which became known as the “unification of education.” Unification of education was put into force
on 3 March 1924 by the Law on Unification of Education (No. 430). With the new law, education became inclusive,
organized on a model of the civil community. In this new design, all schools submitted
their curriculum to the “Ministry of National Education”, a government agency modelled after
other countries’ ministries of education. Concurrently, the republic abolished the two
ministries and made clergy subordinate to the department of religious affairs, one of
the foundations of secularism in Turkey. The unification of education under one curriculum
ended “clerics or clergy of the Ottoman Empire”, but was not the end of religious schools in
Turkey; they were moved to higher education until later governments restored them to their
former position in secondary after Mustafa Kemal’s death. Beginning in the fall of 1925, Mustafa Kemal
encouraged the Turks to wear modern European attire. He was determined to force the abandonment
of the sartorial traditions of the Middle East and finalize a series of dress reforms,
which were originally started by Mahmud II. The fez was established by Sultan Mahmud II
in 1826 as part of the Ottoman Empire’s modernization effort. The Hat Law of 1925 introduced the use of
Western-style hats instead of the fez. Mustafa Kemal first made the hat compulsory
for civil servants. The guidelines for the proper dressing of
students and state employees were passed during his lifetime; many civil servants adopted
the hat willingly. In 1925, Mustafa Kemal wore a Panama hat during
a public appearance in Kastamonu, one of the most conservative towns in Anatolia, to explain
that the hat was the headgear of civilized nations. The last part of reform on dress emphasized
the need to wear modern Western suits with neckties as well as Fedora and Derby-style
hats instead of antiquated religion-based clothing such as the veil and turban in the
Law Relating to Prohibited Garments of 1934. Even though he personally promoted modern
dress for women, Mustafa Kemal never made specific reference to women’s clothing in
the law, as he believed that women would adapt to the new clothing styles of their own free
will. He was frequently photographed on public business
with his wife Lâtife Uşaklıgil, who covered her head in accordance with Islamic tradition. He was also frequently photographed on public
business with women wearing modern Western clothes. But it was Atatürk’s adopted daughters, Sabiha
Gökçen and Afet İnan, who provided the real role model for the Turkish women of the
future. He wrote: “The religious covering of women
will not cause difficulty … This simple style [of headcovering] is not in conflict
with the morals and manners of our society.” On 30 August 1925, Mustafa Kemal’s view on
religious insignia used outside places of worship was introduced in his Kastamonu speech. This speech also had another position. He said: In the face of knowledge, science,
and of the whole extent of radiant civilization, I cannot accept the presence in Turkey’s civilized
community of people primitive enough to seek material and spiritual benefits in the guidance
of sheiks. The Turkish republic cannot be a country of
sheiks, dervishes, and disciples. The best, the truest order is the order of
civilization. To be a man it is enough to carry out the
requirements of civilization. The leaders of dervish orders will understand
the truth of my words, and will themselves close down their lodges [tekke] and admit
that their disciplines have grown up. On 2 September, the government issued a decree
closing down all Sufi orders and the tekkes. Mustafa Kemal ordered their dervish lodges
to be converted to museums, such as Mevlana Museum in Konya. The institutional expression of Sufism became
illegal in Turkey; a politically neutral form of Sufism, functioning as social associations,
was permitted to exist.The abolition of the caliphate and other cultural reforms were
met with fierce opposition. The conservative elements were not happy and
they launched attacks on the Kemalist reformists.====Opposition to Mustafa Kemal in 1924–1927
====In 1924, while the “Issue of Mosul” was on
the table, Sheikh Said began to organize the Sheikh Said Rebellion. Sheikh Said was a wealthy Kurdish tribal chief
of a local Naqshbandi order. He emphasized the issue of religion; he not
only opposed the abolition of the Caliphate, but also the adoption of civil codes based
on Western models, the closure of religious orders, the ban on polygamy, and the new obligatory
civil marriage. Sheikh stirred up his followers against the
policies of the government, which he considered anti-Islamic. In an effort to restore Islamic law, Sheik’s
forces moved through the countryside, seized government offices and marched on the important
cities of Elazığ and Diyarbakır. Members of the government saw the Sheikh Said
Rebellion as an attempt at a counter-revolution. They urged immediate military action to prevent
its spread. The “Law for the Maintenance of Public Order”
was passed to deal with the rebellion on 4 March 1925. It gave the government exceptional powers
and included the authority to shut down subversive groups, but was repealed on 4 March 1929. There were also parliamentarians in the GNA
who were not happy with these changes. So many members were denounced as opposition
sympathizers at a private meeting of the Republican People’s Party (CHP) that Mustafa Kemal expressed
his fear of being among the minority in his own party. He decided not to purge this group. After a censure motion gave the chance to
have a breakaway group, Kazım Karabekir, along with his friends, established such a
group on 17 October 1924. The censure became a confidence vote at the
CHP for Mustafa Kemal. On 8 November, the motion was rejected by
148 votes to 18, and 41 votes were absent. CHP held all but one seat in the parliament. After the majority of the CHP chose him Mustafa
Kemal said, “the Turkish nation is firmly determined to advance fearlessly on the path
of the republic, civilization and progress”.On 17 November 1924, the breakaway group established
the Progressive Republican Party (PRP) with 29 deputies and the first multi-party system
began. Some of Mustafa Kemal’s closest associates
who had supported him in the early days of the War of Independence such as Rauf Bey (later
Rauf Orbay), Refet Pasha and Ali Fuat Pasha (later Ali Fuat Cebesoy) were among the members
of the new party. The PRP’s economic program suggested liberalism,
in contrast to the state socialism of CHP, and its social program was based on conservatism
in contrast to the modernism of CHP. Leaders of the party strongly supported the
Kemalist revolution in principle, but had different opinions on the cultural revolution
and the principle of secularism. The PRP was not against Mustafa Kemal’s main
positions as declared in its program; they supported establishing secularism in the country
and the civic law, or as stated, “the needs of the age” (article 3) and the uniform system
of education (article 49). These principles were set by the leaders at
the onset. The only legal opposition became a home for
all kinds of differing views. During 1926, a plot to assassinate Mustafa
Kemal was uncovered in İzmir. It originated with a former deputy who had
opposed the abolition of the Caliphate. Investigation shifted from an inquiry into
the planners to an investigation ostensibly to uncover subversive activities but in truth
used to undermine those disagreeing with Mustafa Kemal’s cultural revolution. The sweeping investigation brought a number
of political activists before the tribunal, including Karabekir, the leader of PRP. A number of surviving leaders of the Committee
of Union and Progress, who were at best second-rank in the Turkish movement, including Cavid,
Ahmed Şükrü, and Ismail Canbulat, were found guilty of treason and hanged. The investigations found a link between the
members of the PRP and the Sheikh Said Rebellion. The PRP was dissolved following the outcomes
of the trial. The pattern of organized opposition, however,
was broken. This action was the only broad political purge
during Atatürk’s presidency. Mustafa Kemal’s saying, “My mortal body will
turn into dust, but the Republic of Turkey will last forever,” was regarded as a will
after the assassination attempt.====Modernization efforts, 1926–1930====In the years following 1926, Mustafa Kemal
introduced a radical departure from previous reformations established by the Ottoman Empire. For the first time in history, Islamic law
was separated from secular law, and restricted to matters of religion. Mustafa Kemal said: We must liberate our concepts of justice,
our laws and our legal institutions from the bonds which, even though they are incompatible
with the needs of our century, still hold a tight grip on us. On 1 March 1926, the Turkish penal code was
passed. It was modelled after the Italian Penal Code. On 4 October 1926, Islamic courts were closed. Establishing the civic law needed time, so
Mustafa Kemal delayed the inclusion of the principle of laïcité until 5 February 1937. Ottoman practice discouraged social interaction
between men and women in keeping with Islamic practice of sex segregation. Mustafa Kemal began developing social reforms
very early, as was evident in his personal journal. He and his staff discussed issues like abolishing
the veiling of women and the integration of women into the outside world. The clue on how he was planning to tackle
the issue was stated in his journal in November 1915: The social change can come by (1) educating
capable mothers who are knowledgeable about life; (2) giving freedom to women; (3) a man
can change his morals, thoughts, and feelings by leading a common life with a woman; as
there is an inborn tendency towards the attraction of mutual affection. Mustafa Kemal needed a new civil code to establish
his second major step of giving freedom to women. The first part was the education of girls
and was established with the unification of education. On 4 October 1926, the new Turkish civil code
passed. It was modelled after the Swiss Civil Code. Under the new code, women gained equality
with men in such matters as inheritance and divorce. Mustafa Kemal did not consider gender a factor
in social organization. According to his view, society marched towards
its goal with men and women united. He believed that it was scientifically impossible
for him to achieve progress and to become civilized if the gender separation continued
as in Ottoman times. During a meeting he declaimed: To the women: Win for us the battle of education
and you will do yet more for your country than we have been able to do. It is to you that I appeal. To the men: If henceforward the women do not
share in the social life of the nation, we shall never attain to our full development. We shall remain irremediably backward, incapable
of treating on equal terms with the civilizations of the West. In 1927, the State Art and Sculpture Museum
(Turkish: Ankara Resim ve Heykel Müzesi) opened its doors. The museum highlighted sculpture, which was
little practised in Turkey owing to the Islamic tradition of avoiding idolatry. Mustafa Kemal believed that “culture is the
foundation of the Turkish Republic,” and described modern Turkey’s ideological thrust as “a creation
of patriotism blended with a lofty humanist ideal.” He included both his own nation’s creative
legacy and what he saw as the admirable values of global civilization. The pre-Islamic culture of the Turks became
the subject of extensive research, and particular emphasis was laid upon Turkish culture widespread
before the Seljuk and Ottoman civilizations. He instigated study of Anatolian civilizations—Phrygians
and Lydians, Sumerians and Hittites. To attract current public attention to past
cultures, he personally named the “Sümerbank” (1932) after the Sumerians, and the “Etibank”
(1935) after the Hittites. He also stressed the folk arts of the countryside
as a wellspring of Turkish creativity. In the spring of 1928, Mustafa Kemal met in
Ankara with several linguists and professors from all over Turkey where he unveiled to
them a plan of his to implement a new alphabet for the written Turkish language based on
a modified Latin alphabet. The new Turkish alphabet would serve as a
replacement for the old Arabic script and as a solution to the literacy problem in Turkey,
as the Arabic script does not feature any vowels while the Turkish language has eight. When he asked them at how long it would take,
in their professional opinion, to implement the new alphabet into the Turkish language,
most of the professors and linguists said between three and five years. Mustafa Kemal was said to have scoffed and
openly stated, “we shall do it in three to five months”.Over the next several months,
Mustafa Kemal pressed for the introduction of the new Turkish alphabet as well as made
public announcements to the upcoming overhaul of the new alphabet. On 1 November 1928 he introduced the new Turkish
alphabet and abolished the use of Arabic script. At the time, literate citizens of the country
comprised as little as 10% of the population. Dewey noted to Mustafa Kemal that learning
how to read and write in Turkish with the Arabic script took roughly three years with
rather strenuous methods at the elementary level. They used the Ottoman Language written in
the Arabic script with Arabic and Persian loan vocabulary. The creation of the new Turkish alphabet as
a variant of the Latin alphabet was undertaken by the Language Commission (Turkish: Dil Encümeni)
with the initiative of Mustafa Kemal. The tutelage was received from an Ottoman-Armenian
scientist Hagop Dilaçar. The first Turkish newspaper using the new
alphabet was published on 15 December 1928. Mustafa Kemal himself travelled the countryside
in order to teach citizens the new alphabet. After vigorous campaigns, the literacy rate
increased from 10.6% in 1927 to 22.4% in 1940. A number of congresses were organized on scientific
issues, education, history, economics, arts and language. Libraries were systematically developed, mobile
libraries and book transport systems were set up to serve districts and remote places. Literacy reform was also supported by strengthening
the private publishing sector with a new law on copyrights. Mustafa Kemal promoted modern teaching methods
at the primary education level, and Dewey took a place of honour. Dewey presented a paradigmatic set of recommendations
designed for developing societies that are moving towards modernity in his “Report and
Recommendation for the Turkish educational system.” He was interested in adult education for the
goal of forming a skill base in the country. Turkish women were taught not only child care,
dress-making and household management, but also skills needed to join the economy outside
the home. Turkish education became a state-supervised
system, which was designed to create a skill base for the social and economic progress
of the country. His “unified” education program was designed
to educate responsible citizens as well as useful and appreciated members of society. Turkish education became an integrative system,
aimed to alleviate poverty and used female education to establish gender equality. Atatürk himself put special emphasis on the
education of girls and supported coeducation, introducing it at university level in 1923–24
and establishing it as the norm throughout the educational system by 1927. Atatürk’s reforms on education made education
much more accessible: between 1923 and 1938, the number of students attending primary schools
increased by 224% from 342,000 to 765,000, the number of students attending middle schools
increased by 12.5 times, from around 6,000 to 74,000 and the number of students attending
high schools increased by almost 17 times, from 1,200 to 21,000.Mustafa Kemal generated
media attention to propagate modern education during this period. He instigated official education meetings
called “Science Boards” and “Education Summits.” to discuss the quality of education, training
issues and certain basic educational principles. He said, “our schools [curriculum] should
aim to provide opportunities for all pupils to learn and to achieve.” He was personally engaged with the development
of two textbooks. The first one was Turkish: Vatandaş İçin
Medeni Bilgiler (1930). The second, Geometry (1937), was a text for
high schools. The Vatandaş İçin Medeni Bilgiler (Civic
knowledge for the citizens) introduced the science of comparative government and explained
the means of administering public trust by explaining the rules of governance as applied
to the new state institutions.====Opposition to Mustafa Kemal in 1930–1931
====On 11 August 1930, Mustafa Kemal decided to
try a multiparty movement once again and asked Ali Fethi Okyar to establish a new party. He insisted on the protection of secular reforms. The brand-new Liberal Republican Party succeeded
all around the country. Without the establishment of a real political
spectrum, once again, the party became the center to opposition of Atatürk’s reforms,
particularly in regard to the role of religion in public life. On 23 December 1930, a chain of violent incidents
occurred, starting with the rebellion of Islamic fundamentalists in Menemen, a small town in
the Aegean region. This so-called Menemen Incident was considered
a serious threat against secular reforms. In November 1930, Ali Fethi Okyar dissolved
his own party. A more lasting multi-party period of the Republic
of Turkey began in 1945. In 1950, the CHP released the majority position
to the Democratic Party. There are arguments that Mustafa Kemal’s single
party rule did not promote direct democracy. The reason experiments with pluralism failed
during this period was that not all groups in the country had agreed to a minimal consensus
regarding shared values (mainly secularism) and shared rules for conflict resolution. In response to such criticisms, Mustafa Kemal’s
biographer Andrew Mango said: “between the two wars, democracy could not be sustained
in many relatively richer and better-educated societies. Atatürk’s enlightened authoritarianism left
a reasonable space for free private lives. More could not have been expected in his lifetime.” Even though, at times, he did not appear to
be a democrat in his actions, he always supported the idea of building a civil society: a system
of voluntary civic and social organizations and institutions as opposed to the force-backed
structures of the state. In one of his many speeches about the importance
of democracy, Mustafa Kemal said in 1933: Republic means the democratic administration
of the state. We founded the Republic, reaching its tenth
year. It should enforce all the requirements of
democracy as the time comes.====Modernization efforts, 1931–1938====In 1931, Mustafa Kemal established the Turkish
Language Association for conducting research works in the Turkish language (Turkish: Türk
Dil Kurumu). The Turkish Historical Society (Turkish: Türk
Tarih Kurumu) was established in 1931, and began maintaining archives in 1932 for conducting
research works on the history of Turkey. On 1 January 1928, he established the Turkish
Education Association, which supported intelligent and hard-working children in financial need,
as well as making material and scientific contributions to the educational life. In 1933, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk ordered the
reorganization of Istanbul University into a modern institution and later established
Ankara University in the capital city. Mustafa Kemal dealt with the translation of
scientific terminology into Turkish. He wanted the Turkish language reform to be
methodologically based. Any attempt to “cleanse” the Turkish language
of foreign influence without modelling the integral structure of the language was inherently
wrong to him. He personally oversaw the development of the
Sun Language Theory (Turkish: Güneş Dil Teorisi), which was a linguistic theory which
proposed that all human languages were descendants of one Central Asian primal language. His interest started with the works by the
French scientist Hilaire de Barenton titled L’Origine des Langues, des Religions et des
Peuples, which postulates that all languages originated from hieroglyphs and cuneiform
used by Sumerians, and the paper of Austrian linguist Dr. Hermann F. Kvergić of Vienna
titled “La psychologie de quelques elements des langues Turques” (“the psychology of some
elements of the Turkic Languages”). He introduced the Sun Language Theory into
Turkish political and educational circles in 1935, although he did later correct the
more extremist practices.A politician, Saffet Arıkan, who was the head of the Turkish Language
Association, said “Ulu Önderimiz Ata Türk Mustafa Kemal” (Our Great Leader Ata Türk
Mustafa Kemal) in the opening speech of the 2nd Language Day on 26 September 1934. Later, the surname “Atatürk” (father of the
Turks) accepted as the surname of Mustafa Kemal Pasha after the adoption of the Family
Surname Law. Until the Surname Law, Turks did not have
surnames but laqabs only, while Christian and Jewish minorities had used Turkish surnames
since Ottoman times. Beginning in 1932, several hundred “People’s
Houses” (Turkish: Halk Evi) and “People’s Rooms” (Halk Odası) across the country allowed
greater access to a wide variety of artistic activities, sports, and other cultural events. Atatürk supported and encouraged the visual
and the plastic arts, which had been suppressed by the Ottoman leaders, who regarded depiction
of the human form as idolatry. Many museums opened, architecture began to
follow modern trends, and classical Western music, opera, and ballet, as well as the theatre,
also took greater hold. Book and magazine publications increased as
well, and the film industry began to grow. In 1932, a Qur’an in the Turkish language
was read before a live audience and broadcast over the radio. That same year, Mustafa Kemal wanted to “teach
religion in Turkish to Turkish people who had been practising Islam without understanding
it for centuries” All Qur’ans in Turkey at the time were printed in Old Arabic. There was a rare polyglot Qu’ran written in
Arabic, Persian, Turkish and Latin in the tetrapla style, prepared by savant Andrea
Acolutho of Bernstadt and printed at Berlin in 1701. In 1924, three Turkish translations published
in Istanbul created controversy. Several renderings of the Qur’an in the Turkish
language were read in front of the public. These Turkish Qur’ans were fiercely opposed
by religious people. This incident impelled many leading Muslim
modernists to call upon the Turkish Parliament to sponsor a Qur’an translation of suitable
quality. With the support of Mustafa Kemal, the Parliament
approved the project and the Directorate of Religious Affairs appointed Mehmet Akif (Ersoy)
to compose a Qur’an translation, and an Islamic scholar Elmalılı Hamdi Yazır to author
a Turkish language Qur’anic commentary (tafsir) titled “Hak Dini Kur’an Dili.” It was only in 1935 that the version read
in public found its way to print. Mustafa Kemal believed that the understanding
of religion was too important to be left to a small group of people. This included the central religious text of
Islam. Mustafa Kemal’s objective was to make the
Qu’ran accessible to modern people, and therefore to translate it into modern languages.In 1934,
Mustafa Kemal commissioned the first Turkish operatic work, Özsoy. The opera, which was staged at the People’s
House in Ankara, was composed by Adnan Saygun and performed by soprano Semiha Berksoy.In
November 1934, Atatürk adopted his new signature designed by calligrapher Hagop Vahram Çerçiyan. It is used as his official signature on Turkish
government buildings to this day. On 5 December 1934, Turkey moved to grant
full political rights to women, before several other European nations. The equal rights of women in marriage had
already been established in the earlier Turkish civil code. Women’s place in Mustafa Kemal’s cultural
reforms was best expressed in the civic book prepared under his supervision. Mustafa Kemal said: There is no logical explanation for the political
disenfranchisement of women. Any hesitation and negative mentality on this
subject is nothing more than a fading social phenomenon of the past. …Women must have the right to vote and to
be elected; because democracy dictates that, because there are interests that women must
defend, and because there are social duties that women must perform. The 1935 elections yielded 18 female MPs out
of a total of 395 representatives, compared to nine out of 615 members of the British
House of Commons and six out of 435 in the US House of Representatives inaugurated that
year.====Unification and nationalisation efforts
====When the modern Republic of Turkey was founded
in 1923, nationalism and secularism were two of the founding principles. Atatürk aimed to create a nation state (Turkish:
Ulus devlet) from the Turkish remnants of the Ottoman Empire. Kemalist ideology defines the “Turkish People”
as “those who protect and promote the moral, spiritual, cultural and humanistic values
of the Turkish Nation.” One of the goals of the establishment of the
new Turkish state was to ensure “the domination of Turkish ethnic identity in every aspect
of social life from the language that people speak in the streets to the language to be
taught at schools, from the education to the industrial life, from the trade to the cadres
of state officials, from the civil law to the settlement of citizens to particular regions.” The process of unification through Turkification
continued and was fostered under Atatürk’s government with such policies as Citizen speak
Turkish! (Turkish: Vatandaş Türkçe konuş!), an
initiative created by law students but sponsored by the government which aimed to put pressure
on non-Turkish speakers to speak Turkish in public in the 1930s. The campaign went beyond the measures of a
mere policy of speaking Turkish, to an outright prevention of any other language. The Surname law forbade certain surnames that
contained connotations of foreign cultures, nations, tribes, and religions. As a result, many ethnic Armenians, Greeks,
and Kurds were forced to adopt last names of Turkish rendition. Names ending with “yan, of, ef , viç, is,
dis , poulos, aki, zade, shvili, madumu, veled, bin” (names that denote non-Turkish origins)
could not be registered and were replaced by “-oğlu.” The geographical name changes initiative by
the Turkish government replaced non-Turkish geographical and topographic names within
the Turkish Republic or the Ottoman Empire, with Turkish names. The main proponent of the initiative has been
a Turkish homogenization social-engineering campaign which aimed to assimilate geographical
or topographical names that were deemed foreign and divisive against Turkish unity. The names that were considered foreign were
usually of Armenian, Greek, Laz, Bulgarian, Kurdish, Assyrian, or Arabic origin. The 1934 Resettlement Law (also known as the
Law no. 2510) was a policy adopted by the Turkish
government which set forth the basic principles of immigration. The law, however, is regarded by some as a
policy of assimilation of non-Turkish minorities through a forced and collective resettlement.===Foreign policies===
Atatürk’s foreign policy followed his motto, “peace at home, peace in the world”. a perception of peace linked to his project
of civilization and modernization. The outcomes of Atatürk’s policies depended
on the power of the parliamentary sovereignty established by the Republic. The Turkish War of Independence was the last
time Atatürk used his military might in dealing with other countries. Foreign issues were resolved by peaceful methods
during his presidency.====Issue of Mosul====The “Issue of Mosul”, a dispute with the United
Kingdom over control of Mosul Province, was one of the first foreign affairs-related controversies
of the new Republic. During the Mesopotamian campaign, Lieutenant
General William Marshall followed the British War Office’s instruction that “every effort
was to be made to score as heavily as possible on the Tigris before the whistle blew”, capturing
Mosul three days after the signature of the Armistice of Mudros (30 October 1918). In 1920, the Misak-ı Milli, which consolidated
the “Turkish lands”, declared that Mosul Province was a part of the historic Turkish heartland. The British were in a precarious situation
with the Issue of Mosul, and were adopting almost equally desperate measures to protect
their interests. The Iraqi revolt against the British was put
down by the RAF Iraq Command during the summer of 1920. From the British perspective, if Mustafa Kemal
Atatürk stabilized Turkey, he would then turn his attention to Mosul and penetrate
Mesopotamia, where the native population would probably join him thus bringing an insurgent
and hostile Muslim nation to the very gates of India. In 1923, Mustafa Kemal tried to persuade the
GNA that accepting the arbitration of the League of Nations at the Treaty of Lausanne
over Mosul did not mean relinquishing Mosul, but rather waiting for a time when Turkey
might be stronger. The artificially drawn border had an unsettling
effect on the population on both sides. Later, it was claimed that Turkey began where
oil ends, as the border was drawn by the British geophysicists based on the oil reserves. Atatürk did not want this separation. The British Foreign Secretary attempted to
disclaim any existence of oil in the Mosul area. On 23 January 1923, Lord Curzon argued that
the existence of oil was no more than hypothetical. However, according to Armstrong, “England
wanted oil. Mosul and Kurds were the key.”While three
inspectors from the League of Nations Committee were sent to the region to oversee the situation
in 1924, the Sheikh Said rebellion, beginning in 1924 and escalating until 1927, set out
to establish a new government positioned to cut Turkey’s link to Mesopotamia. The relationship between the rebels and Britain
was questioned. British assistance was sought after the rebels
realised that the rebellion, or its expected outcome, could not stand by itself.In 1925,
the League of Nations formed a three-member committee to study the case while the Sheikh
Said Rebellion was on the rise. Partly because of the continuing uncertainties
along the northern frontier (present-day northern Iraq), the committee recommended that the
region should be connected to Iraq with the condition that the UK would hold the British
Mandate of Mesopotamia. By the end of March 1925, the necessary troop
movements were completed, and the whole area of the Sheikh Said rebellion was encircled. As a result of these manoeuvres, the revolt
was put down. Britain, Iraq and Kemal made a treaty on 5
June 1926, which mostly followed the decisions of the League Council. In 1926, Kemal faced growing opposition to
his reform policies, a continuing precarious economic situation, and a defeat in the Mosul
issue. A large section of the Kurdish population
and the Iraqi Turkmen were left on the other side of the border. The Sheikh Said Rebellion hastened both the
imposition of the Republican Party and the speed of Atatürk’s reforms. In 1925, the population was largely illiterate
and disparate. Turkey was in ruins, reconstruction was difficult,
poverty was everywhere and people were in pain, which fed separatist violence. Rather than to a section of the population,
Mustafa Kemal attributed the rebellion to a group of notables, who on 7 March 1925 were
found guilty by the courts (kanunen mucrim olan bazi muteneffizan) and who used the mask
of religion to conceal the interests of landlords, feudal tribal leaders and other “reactionaries”.====Relations with the Russian SFSR/Soviet
Union====In his message to Vladimir Lenin, the Bolshevik
leader and head of the Russian SFSR’s government, dated 26 April 1920, Kemal promised to coordinate
his military operations with the Bolsheviks’ “fight against imperialist governments” and
requested 5 million lira in gold as well as armaments “as first aid” to his forces. In 1920 alone, the Lenin government supplied
the Kemalists with 6,000 rifles, over 5 million rifle cartridges, 17,600 projectiles as well
as 200.6 kg of gold bullion; in the subsequent 2 years the amount of aid increased.In March
1921, the GNA representatives in Moscow signed the “Friendship and Brotherhood” Treaty with
Soviet Russia, which was a major diplomatic breakthrough for the Kemalists. The Treaty of Moscow, followed by the identical
Treaty of Kars in October the same year, gave Turkey a favourable settlement of its north-eastern
frontier at the expense of the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, then nominally an independent
state. Relations between the two countries were friendly,
but were based on the fact that they were fighting against a common enemy: Britain and
the West. In 1920, Kemal toyed with the idea of using
a state-controlled Turkish Communist Party to forestall the perceived spread of communist
ideas in the country and gain access to the Comintern’s financing. “Friendship with Russia,” said Mustafa Kemal,
“is not to adopt their ideology of communism for Turkey.” He declared: “Communism is a social issue. Social conditions, religion, and national
traditions of our country confirm the opinion that Russian Communism is not applicable in
Turkey.” In a speech on 1 November 1924 he said: “Our
amicable relations with our old friend the Soviet Russian Republic are developing and
progressing every day. As in past our Republican Government regards
genuine and extensive good relations with Soviet Russia as the keystone of our foreign
policy.”After the Turks, on 16 December 1925, withdrew their delegation from Geneva, thus
leaving the League of Nations Council to grant a mandate for the Mosul region to Britain
without their consent, Kemal countered by concluding a non-aggression pact with the
USSR on 17 December. In 1935, the pact was prolonged for another
10 years.In 1933, the Soviet War minister Kliment Voroshilov visited Turkey and attended
the tenth year celebrations of the Republic. Kemal explained his position regarding the
realization of his plan for a Balkan Federation economically uniting Turkey, Greece, Romania,
Yugoslavia and Bulgaria.During the second half of the 1930s, Mustafa Kemal tried to
establish a closer relationship with Britain and other major western powers, which caused
displeasure on the part of the Soviets. The second edition of the Great Soviet Encyclopedia
(Volume 20, 1953) was unequivocally critical of Kemal’s policies in the last years of his
rule, calling his domestic policies “anti-popular” and his foreign course as aimed at rapprochement
with the “imperialist powers.”====Turkish-Greek alliance====The post-war leader of Greece, Eleftherios
Venizelos, was also determined to establish normal relations between the two states. The war had devastated Western Anatolia, and
the financial burden of Ottoman Muslim refugees from Greece blocked rapprochement. Venizelos moved forward with the agreement
despite accusations of conceding too much on the issues of the naval armaments, and
the properties of the Ottoman Greeks from Turkey according to the Treaty of Lausanne. Kemal resisted the pressures of historic enmities
or atrocity-mongering between the societies. In spite of Turkish animosity against the
Greeks, Kemal showed acute sensitivity to even the slightest allusion to these tensions;
at one point, he ordered the removal of a painting showing a Turkish soldier plunging
his bayonet to a Greek soldier by stating, “What a revolting scene!”.Ultimately, many
Greeks consider the reconciliation with Turkey among the greatest foreign policy achievements
of Venizelos’ final term as Prime Minister. Greece renounced all its claims over Turkish
territory and the two sides concluded an agreement on 30 April 1930. On 25 October, Venizelos visited Turkey, and
signed a treaty of friendship. Venizelos even forwarded Atatürk’s name for
the 1934 Nobel Peace Prize, Even after his fall from power, Greco-Turkish relations remained
cordial. Indeed, Venizelos’ successor Panagis Tsaldaris
came to visit Atatürk in September 1933 and signed a more comprehensive agreement called
the Entente Cordiale between Greece and Turkey, which was a stepping stone for the Balkan
Pact. Greek Premier Ioannis Metaxas said of Atatürk
and the Turkish-Greek alliance, that “…Greece, which has the highest estimation of the renowned
leader, heroic soldier, and enlightened creator of Turkey. We will never forget that President Atatürk
was the true founder of the Turkish-Greek alliance based on a framework of common ideals
and peaceful cooperation. He developed ties of friendship between the
two nations which it would be unthinkable to dissolve. Greece will guard its fervent memories of
this great man, who determined an unalterable future path for the noble Turkish nation.”====Neighbours to the east====From 1919, Afghanistan was in the midst of
a reformation period under Amanullah Khan. Afghan Foreign Minister Mahmud Tarzi was a
follower of Mustafa Kemal’s domestic policy. He encouraged Amanullah Khan in social and
political reform but urged that reforms should build upon the basis of a strong government. During the late 1920s, Anglo-Afghan relations
soured over British fears of an Afghan-Soviet friendship. On 20 May 1928, Anglo-Afghan politics gained
a positive perspective, when Amanullah Khan and the Queen were received by Mustafa Kemal
in Constantinople. This meeting was followed by a Turkey-Afghanistan
Friendship and Cooperation pact on 22 May 1928. Mustafa Kemal supported Afghanistan’s integration
into international organizations. In 1934, Afghanistan’s relations with the
international community gained a huge boost when it joined the League of Nations. In 1937, King Zahir Shah became a signatory
of the Treaty of Saadabad. Mahmud Tarzi received Mustafa Kemal’s personal
support until he died on 22 November 1933 in Istanbul. Mustafa Kemal and Reza Shah had a common approach
regarding British imperialism and its influence in their region, creating a slow but continuous
rapprochement between Ankara and Tehran. Both governments sent diplomatic missions
and messages of friendship to each other during the Turkish War of Independence. The policy of the Ankara government in this
period was to give moral support in order to assure Iranian independence and territorial
integrity. The relations were strained after the abolishment
of the Caliphate. Iran’s Shi’a clergy did not accept Kemal’s
position. Iranian religious power centres perceived
the real motive behind Atatürk’s reforms was to undermine the power of the clergy. By the mid-1930s, Reza Shah’s efforts had
upset the clergy throughout Iran, thus widening the gap between religion and government. Mustafa Kemal feared the occupation and dismemberment
of Iran as a multi-ethnic/multi-tribal society by Russia or Great Britain. Like Mustafa Kemal, Reza Shah wanted to secure
Iran’s borders. Reza Shah visited him in 1934. In 1935, the draft of what would become the
Treaty of Saadabad was paragraphed in Geneva, but the signing of it was delayed because
of the border dispute between Iran and Iraq. Iran challenged the validity of both the Treaty
of Erzerum and the Constantinople Protocol in 1934. On 8 July 1937, Turkey, Iraq, Iran and Afghanistan
signed the Saadabad Pact at Tehran. The signatories undertook to preserve their
common frontiers, to consult together in all matters of common interest and to commit no
aggression against one another’s territory. The treaty united the Afghan king’s call for
greater Oriental-Middle Eastern cooperation, Reza Shah’s goal in securing relations with
Turkey that would help Iran free itself from Soviet and British influence, and Mustafa
Kemal’s foreign policy of securing stability in the region. The immediate outcome was to deter Mussolini
from adventures in the region.====Turkish Straits====On 24 July 1923, the Treaty of Lausanne included
the Lausanne Straits Agreement. The Lausanne Straits Agreement stated that
the Dardanelles should remain open to all commercial vessels: seizure of foreign military
vessels was subject to certain limitations during peacetime, and, even as a neutral state,
Turkey could not limit any military passage during wartime. The Lausanne Straits Agreement stated that
the waterway was to be demilitarized, and its management left to the Straits Commission. The demilitarized zone heavily restricted
Turkey’s domination and sovereignty over the Straits. The defence of Constantinople was impossible
without having the sovereignty over the water that passed through it. In March 1936, Hitler’s reoccupation of the
Rhineland gave Mustafa Kemal the opportunity to resume full control over the Straits. “The situation in Europe”, he declared “is
highly appropriate for such a move. We shall certainly achieve it”. Tevfik Rüştü Aras, who was the foreign
minister, initiated a move to revise the Straits’ regime. Aras claimed that he was directed by the President,
rather than his Prime Minister, İsmet İnönü. İnönü was worried about harming relations
with Britain, France, and Balkan neighbors over the Straits. However, the signatories agreed to join the
conference, since unlimited military passage had become unfavourable to Turkey with the
changes in world politics. Mustafa Kemal demanded that the members of
the Turkish Foreign Office devise a solution that would transfer full control over the
waterway to Turkey. On 20 July 1936, the Montreux Convention was
signed, with the participation of Bulgaria, Great Britain, Australia, France, Japan, Romania,
the Soviet Union, Turkey, Yugoslavia and Greece. It became the primary instrument governing
the passage of commercial and war vessels through the Dardanelles Strait. It was ratified by the GNAT on 31 July 1936. It went into effect on 9 November 1936, and
is still valid today.====Balkan Pact====Until the early 1930s, Turkey followed a modern
neutral foreign policy with the West by developing joint friendship and neutrality agreements. These bilateral agreements were aligned with
Mustafa Kemal’s worldview. By the end of 1925, Turkey had signed fifteen
joint agreements with Western states. In the early 1930s, changes and developments
in world politics required Turkey to make multilateral agreements to improve its security. Mustafa Kemal strongly believed that a close
cooperation between the Balkan states based on the principle of equality would have an
important effect on European politics. These states had been ruled by the Ottoman
Empire for centuries, and had formed a powerful force. While the origins of the Balkan agreement
may date back as far as 1925, the Balkan Pact came to being in the mid-1930s. Several important developments in the Balkan
Peninsula and in Europe helped the original idea to materialize, such as improvements
in the Turkish-Greek alliance and the rapprochement between Bulgaria and Yugoslavia. The most important factor in driving Turkish
foreign policy from the mid-1930s onwards was the fear of Italy. Benito Mussolini had frequently proclaimed
his intention to make the entire Mediterranean Mare Nostrum. Both the Turks and the various Balkan states
felt threatened by Italian ambitions. The Balkan Pact was negotiated by Mustafa
Kemal with Greece, Romania, and Yugoslavia. This mutual-defence agreement intended to
guarantee the signatories’ territorial integrity and political independence against attack
by another Balkan state such as Bulgaria or Albania. It countered the increasingly aggressive foreign
policy of fascist Italy and the effect of a potential Bulgarian alignment with Nazi
Germany. Mustafa Kemal thought of the Balkan Pact as
a medium of balance in the relations with the European countries. He was particularly anxious to establish a
region of security and alliances in the west of Turkey and in Balkan Europe, which would
extend as far as Dobruja. The Balkan Pact provided for regular military
and diplomatic consultations. It was regarded as a significant step forward
in consolidating the free world’s position in southeast Europe, although it contained
no specific military commitments. The importance of the agreement was best displayed
in the message which Atatürk sent to the Greek Premier, Ioannis Metaxas: The borders of the allies in the Balkan Pact
are a single border. Those who covet this border will encounter
the burning beams of the sun. I recommend avoiding this. The forces that defend our borders are a single
and inseparable force. It was signed by GNA on 28 February The Greek
and Yugoslav Parliaments ratified the agreement a few days after. The unanimously ratified Balkan pact became
a reality on 18 May 1935 and lasted until 1940. The Balkan Pact turned out to be ineffective
for reasons that were beyond Atatürk’s control. What he wanted to prevent with the Balkan
Pact was realized by Bulgaria’s attempt to put the Dobruja issue into the agenda after
a series of international events ending with the Italian invasion of Albania on 7 April
1939. These conflicts spread rapidly, triggering
World War II. The goal of Atatürk, to protect southeast
Europe, failed with the dissolution of the pact. The only state which arose intact after the
war was Atatürk’s Republic of Turkey.====Issue of Hatay====Turkish Prime-Minister İsmet İnönü was
very conscious of foreign policy issues. During the second half of the 1930s, Atatürk
tried to form a closer relationship with Britain. The risks of this policy change put the two
men at odds. The Hatay issue and the Lyon agreement were
two important developments in foreign policy that played a significant role in the severing
of relations between Atatürk and İnönü. In 1936, Atatürk raised the “Issue of Hatay”
at the League of Nations. Hatay was based on the old administrative
unit of the Ottoman Empire called the Sanjak of Alexandretta. On behalf of the League of Nations, the representatives
of France, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Belgium and Turkey prepared a constitution
for Hatay, which established it as an autonomous sanjak within Syria. Despite some inter-ethnic violence, in the
midst of 1938 an election was conducted by the local legislative assembly. The cities of Antakya (Antioch) and İskenderun
(Alexandretta) joined Turkey in 1939.===Economic policies===
For conceptual analysis, see Economic reformsMustafa Kemal instigated economic policies to develop
small and large scale businesses, but also to create social strata (industrial bourgeoisie
along with the peasantry of Anatolia) that were virtually non-existent during the Ottoman
Empire. The primary problem faced by the politics
of his period was the lag in the development of political institutions and social classes
which would steer such social and economic changes. Mustafa Kemal’s vision regarding early Turkish
economic policy was apparent during the İzmir Economic Congress of 1923 which was established
before the signing of the Lausanne Treaty. The initial choices of Mustafa Kemal’s economic
policies reflected the realities of his period. After World War I, due to the lack of any
real potential investors to open private sector factories and develop industrial production,
Kemal established many state-owned factories for agriculture, machinery, and textile industries.====State intervention, 1923–1929====Mustafa Kemal and İsmet İnönü’s pursuit
of state-controlled economical policies was guided by a national vision; their goal was
to knit the country together, eliminate the foreign control of the economy, and improve
communications within Turkey. Resources were channeled away from Constantinople,
a trading port with international foreign enterprises, in favor of other, less developed
cities, in order to establish a more balanced development throughout the country.For Mustafa
Kemal, as for his supporters, tobacco remained wedded to his policy in the pursuit of economic
independence. Turkish tobacco was an important industrial
crop, while its cultivation and manufacture had been French monopolies under capitulations
of the Ottoman Empire. The tobacco and cigarette trade was controlled
by two French companies: the “Regie Company” and “Narquileh Tobacco”. The Ottoman Empire had given the tobacco monopoly
to the Ottoman Bank as a limited company under the “Council of the Public Debt”. Regie, as part of the Council of the Public
Debt, had control over production, storing, and distribution (including export) with an
unchallenged price control. Consequently, Turkish farmers were dependent
on the company for their livelihood. In 1925, this company was taken over by the
state and named “Tekel”. The control of tobacco was the biggest achievement
of the Kemalist political machinery’s “nationalization” of the economy for a country that did not
produce oil. They accompanied this achievement with the
development of the cotton industry, which peaked during the early 1930s. Cotton was the second biggest industrial crop
in Turkey at the time. In 1924, with the initiative of Mustafa Kemal,
the first Turkish bank İş Bankası was established. He was the first member of İş Bankası. The bank’s creation was a response to the
growing need for a truly national establishment and the birth of a banking system which was
capable of backing up economic activities, managing funds accumulated as a result of
policies providing savings incentives, and, where necessary, extending resources which
could trigger industrial impetus. In 1927, Turkish State Railways was established. Because Mustafa Kemal considered the development
of a national rail network as another important step in industrialization, it was given high
priority. This institution developed an extensive railway
network in a very short time. In 1927, Kemal also ordered the integration
of road construction goals into development plans. Prior to this, the road network had consisted
of 13,885 km of ruined surface roads, 4,450 km of stabilized roads, and 94 bridges. In 1935, a new entity was established under
the government called “Şose ve Köprüler Reisliği” which would drive development of
new roads after World War II. However, in 1937, the 22,000 km of roads in
Turkey augmented the railways. The national group, which had Mustafa Kemal
as the leader, developed many projects within the first decade of the republic. However, the Turkish economy was still largely
agrarian, with primitive tools and methods; roads and transportation facilities were far
from sufficient and management of the economy was inefficient. The Great Depression brought many changes
to this picture.====Great Depression, 1929–1931====The young republic, like the rest of the world,
found itself in a deep economic crisis during the Great Depression. Mustafa Kemal reacted to conditions of this
period by moving toward integrated economic policies, and establishing a central bank
to control exchange rates. However, Turkey could not finance essential
imports; its currency was shunned and zealous revenue officials seized the meagre possessions
of peasants who could not pay their taxes.In 1929, Mustafa Kemal signed a treaty that resulted
in the restructuring of the nation’s debt with the Ottoman Public Debt Administration. He did not fault the Ottoman debt. He had to deal with the turbulent economic
issues of the Great Depression along with the payment of the high debt known as the
Ottoman public debt. Until the early 1930s, Turkish private business
could not acquire exchange credits. It was impossible to integrate the Turkish
economy without a solution to this problem. This increased the credibility of the new
Republic. In 1931, Mustafa Kemal’s intention to establish
the Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey was realized. The bank’s primary purpose was to have control
over the exchange rate, and Ottoman Bank’s role during its initial years as a central
bank was phased out. Later specialized banks such as the Sümerbank
(1932) and the Etibank (1935) were founded. From the political economy perspective, Mustafa
Kemal had to face the same problems which all countries faced: political upheaval. The establishment of a new party with a different
economic perspective was needed; he asked Ali Fethi Okyar to fulfil. The Liberal Republican Party (August 1930)
came out with a liberal program and proposed that state monopolies should be ended, foreign
capital should be attracted, and that state investment should be curtailed. Mustafa Kemal supported İnönü’s point of
view: “it is impossible to attract foreign capital for essential development.” In 1931, he proclaimed: “In the economic area
…the programme of the party is statism.” However, the effect of free republicans was
felt strongly and state intervention became more moderate, more akin to a form of state
capitalism. One of his radical left-wing supporters, Yakup
Kadri Karaosmanoğlu from the Kadro (The Cadre) movement, claimed that Mustafa Kemal found
a third way between capitalism and socialism.====Liberalization and planned growth, 1931–1939
====The first (1929–1933) and second five-year
economic plans were performed under the supervision of Mustafa Kemal. The first five-year economic plan promoted
consumer substitution industries. However, these economic plans changed drastically
with the death of Kemal and the rise of World War II. Subsequent governments took measures that
harmed the economic productivity of Turkey in various ways. The achievements of the 1930s were credited
to early (1920s) implementation of the economic system based on the national policies of Mustafa
Kemal and his team.In 1931, Mustafa Kemal watched the first national aircraft, MMV-1,
develop. He realized the important role of aviation. In his words, “the future lies in the skies”. Turkish Aeronautical Association was founded
on 16 February 1925 by his directive. He ordered the establishment of the Turkish
Aircraft Association Lottery. Instead of the traditional raffle prizes,
this new lottery paid money prizes. Most of the lottery income was used to establish
a new factory and fund aviation projects. Mustafa Kemal did not live to see the flight
of the first Turkish military aircraft built at that factory. Operational American Curtiss Hawk fighters
were being produced soon after his death and before the onset of World War II. In 1932, liberal economist Celal Bayar became
the Minister of Economy at Mustafa Kemal’s request and served until 1937. During this period, the country moved toward
a mixed economy with its first private initiatives. Textile, sugar, paper and steel factories
(financed by a loan from Britain) were the private sectors of the period. Besides these government owned power plants,
banks, and insurance companies were established. In 1935, the first Turkish cotton print factory
“Nazilli Calico print factory” opened. Cotton planting was promoted to furnish raw
material for future factory settlements, part of the industrialization process. Nazilli became a major center beginning with
the establishment of cotton mills and was followed by a calico print factory by 1935.In
1936 Nuri Demirağ established the first Turkish aircraft factory in the Beşiktaş district
of Istanbul. The first Turkish airplanes, Nu D.36 and Nu
D.38, were produced in this factory.On 25 October 1937, Atatürk appointed Celal Bayar
as the prime minister of the 9th government. Integrated economic policies reached their
peak with the signing of the 1939 Treaty with Britain and France. This signaled a turning point in Turkish history. It was the first step towards an alliance
with the “West”. Celal Bayar served as prime minister until
Atatürk’s death. The differences of opinion between İsmet
İnönü (state control) and Celal Bayar (liberal) came to the forefront after İnönü became
president in 1938. On 25 January 1939, Prime Minister Bayar resigned. Mustafa Kemal supported the establishment
of the automobile industry. He wanted it to become a center in the region. The motto of the Turkish automobile association
was: “The Turkish driver is a man of the most exquisite sensitivities.”During 1935, Turkey
was becoming an industrial society on the Western European model set out by Atatürk. At the time of his death, most regions of
Turkey had viable micro-economic stability and some macro economic stability. These signs of sound economic policies were
marked by the first-ever emergence of local banks. However, the gap between Mustafa Kemal’s goals
and the achievements of the socio-political structure of the country was not closed.==Personal life==Mustafa Kemal’s name is associated with four
women: Eleni Karinte, Fikriye Hanım, Dimitrina Kovacheva and Latife Uşaklıgil. Little is known of Mustafa Kemal’s relationship
with Eleni, who fell in love with him while he was a student in Bitola, Macedonia (Manastır
in Turkish) but the relationship inspired a play by the Macedonian writer Dejan Dukovski,
later filmed by Aleksandar Popovski. Fikriye was a nominal cousin of Mustafa Kemal,
though not related by blood (his stepfather Ragıp Bey’s sister’s daughter). Fikriye grew passionately attached to Mustafa
Kemal; the full extent of his feelings for her is unclear but it is certain that they
became very close after Fikriye divorced her Egyptian husband and returned to Istanbul. During the War of Independence, she lived
with him in Çankaya, Ankara as his personal assistant. However, after the Turkish army entered İzmir
in 1922, Mustafa Kemal met Latife while staying at the house of her father, the shipping magnate
Muammer Uşakizade (later Uşaklı). Latife fell in love with Mustafa Kemal; again
the extent to which this was reciprocated is unknown, but he was certainly impressed
by Latife’s intellect: she was a graduate of the Sorbonne and was studying English in
London when the war broke out. On 29 January 1923, they were married. Latife was jealous of Fikriye and demanded
that she leave the house in Çankaya; Fikriye was devastated and immediately left in a carriage. According to official accounts, she shot herself
with a pistol Mustafa Kemal had given her as a present; however, it was rumoured that
she was murdered. The triangle of Mustafa Kemal, Fikriye and
Latife became the subject of a manuscript by his close friend, Salih Bozok which remained
unpublished until 2005. Latife was briefly and literally the face
of the new Turkish woman, appearing in public in Western clothing with her husband. However, their marriage was not happy; after
frequent arguments they were divorced on 5 August 1925.During his lifetime, Atatürk
adopted thirteen children: a boy and twelve girls. Of these, the most famous is Sabiha Gökçen,
Turkey’s first female pilot and the world’s first female fighter pilot.==Illness and death==During 1937, indications that Atatürk’s health
was worsening started to appear. In early 1938, while he was on a trip to Yalova,
he suffered from a serious illness. He went to Istanbul for treatment, where he
was diagnosed with cirrhosis of the liver. During his stay in Istanbul, he made an effort
to keep up with his regular lifestyle for a while. He died on 10 November 1938, at the age of
57, in the Dolmabahçe Palace, where he spent his last days. The clock in the bedroom where he died is
still set to the time of his death, 9:05 in the morning. Atatürk’s funeral called forth both sorrow
and pride in Turkey, and 17 countries sent special representatives, while nine contributed
armed detachments to the cortège. Mustafa Kemal’s remains were originally laid
to rest in the Ethnography Museum of Ankara, and transferred on 10 November 1953, 15 years
after his death in a 42-ton sarcophagus, to a mausoleum that overlooks Ankara, Anıtkabir. In his will, Atatürk donated all of his possessions
to the Republican People’s Party, providing that the yearly interest of his funds would
be used to look after his sister Makbule and his adopted children, and fund the higher
education of the children of İsmet İnönü. The remainder of this yearly interest was
willed to the Turkish Language Association and the Turkish Historical Society.==Legacy=====Turkey===Mustafa Kemal Atatürk is commemorated by
many memorials throughout Turkey, such as the Atatürk International Airport in Istanbul,
the Atatürk Bridge over the Golden Horn (Haliç), the Atatürk Dam, and Atatürk Stadium. Atatürk statues have been erected in all
Turkish cities by Turkish Government, and most towns have their own memorial to him. His face and name are seen and heard everywhere
in Turkey; his portrait can be seen in public buildings, in schools, on all Turkish lira
banknotes, and in the homes of many Turkish families. At the exact time of his death, on every 10
November, at 09:05 am, most vehicles and people in the country’s streets pause for one minute
in remembrance.In 1951, the Democrat Party-controlled Turkish parliament led by Prime Minister Adnan
Menderes (despite being the conservative opposition to Atatürk’s own Republican People’s Party)
issued a law (5816) outlawing insults to his memory (Turkish: hatırasına alenen hakaret)
or destruction of objects representing him. The demarcation between a criticism and an
insult was defined as a political argument and the Minister of Justice (a political position)
was assigned in Article 5 to execute the law rather than the public prosecutor. A government website was created to denounce
the websites that violate this law.In 2007, YouTube, Geocities, and several blogger webpages
were blocked by a Turkish court due to the violation of this law. The YouTube ban in the country lasted for
30 months, in retaliation for four videos on Atatürk. These videos alleged that Atatürk was a Freemason,
and was a homosexual, citing a book printed in Belgium on this subject that is currently
banned in Turkey. In the last week of October 2010, a German
company, following a request from the Turkish Internet Board, exploited YouTube automatic
copyright-enforcement mechanism to take down the videos. On 30 October, shortly after the removal,
a court lifted the ban. But a few days later, Google concluded that
the videos did not infringe copyright and restored them on YouTube.In 2010, the French-based
NGO Reporters Without Borders objected to the Turkish laws to protect the memory of
Kemal Atatürk, saying they are in contradiction with the current European Union standards
of freedom of speech in news media.===Worldwide===In 1981, the centennial of Atatürk’s birth,
his memory was honoured by the United Nations and UNESCO, which declared it The Atatürk
Year in the World and adopted the Resolution on the Atatürk Centennial. The Atatürk Memorial in Wellington, New Zealand
(which also serves as a memorial to the ANZAC troops who died at Gallipoli); the Atatürk
Memorial in the place of honour on Anzac Parade in Canberra, Australia; the Atatürk Forest
in Israel; and the Atatürk Square in Rome, Italy, are a few examples. He has roads named after him in several countries,
like the Kemal Atatürk Marg in New Delhi, India, Kemal Atatürk Avenue in Dhaka, Bangladesh,
the Atatürk Avenue in the heart of Islamabad, Pakistan, the Atatürk Road in the southern
city of Larkana in Sindh province of Pakistan, which Atatürk visited in 1923, Mustafá Kemal
Atatürk street in the Naco district of Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, and the street
and memorial Atatürk in the Amsterdam-Noord borough of Amsterdam, Netherlands. The entrance to Princess Royal Harbour in
Albany, Western Australia is named Atatürk Channel. There are many statues and streets named after
Atatürk in Northern Cyprus. Despite his radical secular reforms, Atatürk
remained broadly popular in the Muslim world. He is remembered for being the creator of
a new, fully independent Muslim country at a time of encroachment by Christian powers,
and for having prevailed in a struggle against Western imperialism. When he died, the All-India Muslim League
eulogised him as a “truly great personality in the Islamic world, a great general and
a great statesman”, declaring that his memory would “inspire Muslims all over the world
with courage, perseverance and manliness”.==Awards and decorations=====Ottoman Empire and Republic of Turkey
===Ottoman Empire: Fifth Class Knight Order of
the Medjidie awarded by Abdul Hamid II, (25 December 1906)
Ottoman Empire: Silver Imtiyaz Medal awarded by Mehmed V, (30 April 1915)
Ottoman Empire: Silver Liakat Medal awarded by Mehmed V, (1 September 1915)
Ottoman Empire: Golden Liakat Medal awarded by Mehmed V, (17 January 1916)
Ottoman Empire: Second Class Knight Order of Osmanieh awarded by Mehmed V, (1 February
1916) Ottoman Empire: Second Class Knight Order
of the Medjidie awarded by Mehmed V, (12 December 1916)
Ottoman Empire: Golden Imtiyaz Medal awarded by Mehmed V, (23 September 1917)
Ottoman Empire: First Class Knight Order of the Medjidie awarded by Mehmed V, (16 December
1917) Ottoman Empire: Gallipoli Star awarded by
Mehmed VI, (11 May 1918) Turkey: Medal of Independence awarded by Grand
National Assembly of Turkey, (21 November 1923)
Turkey: Murassa Order awarded by Turkish Aeronautical Association (20 May 1925)===Foreign honours===
Kingdom of Bulgaria: Commander Grand Cross Order of Saint Alexander awarded by Ferdinand
I, (1915) German Empire: Iron Cross of the German Empire
awarded by Wilhelm II, (1915) Austria-Hungary: Military Merit Medal (Austria-Hungary)
awarded by Franz Joseph I, (1916) Austria-Hungary: 3rd Class Military Merit
Cross (Austria-Hungary) awarded by Franz Joseph I, (27 July 1916)
German Empire: 1st Class Iron Cross of the German Empire awarded by Wilhelm II,(1917)
German Empire: 2nd Class Iron Cross of the German Empire awarded by Wilhelm II, (9 September
1917) Austria-Hungary: 2nd Class Military Merit
Cross (Austria-Hungary) awarded by Charles I,
Kingdom of Prussia: 1st Class Order of the Crown Prussia awarded by Wilhelm II, (1918)
Kingdom of Afghanistan: Alüyülala Order of Kingdom of Afghanistan awarded by Amānullāh
Khān, (27 March 1923)==See also==İleri newspaper
Kemalism List of covers of Time magazine (1920s) – 24
March 1923 Pan-Turkism
Turkish War of Independence List of high-ranking commanders of the Turkish
War of Independence Timeline of the Turkish War of Independence
Young Turks==
Notes====
References====External links==Incredible Turk: Documentary on Mustafa Kemal
Atatürk on YouTube Memorial room in Bitola (Monastir)
The short film Incredible Turk (1958) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
Newspaper clippings about Mustafa Kemal Atatürk in the 20th Century Press Archives of the
German National Library of Economics (ZBW)

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