Liberalism in Russia | Wikipedia audio article

Liberalism in Russia | Wikipedia audio article


Within Russian political parties, liberal
parties advocate the expansion of political and civil freedoms and mostly oppose Vladimir
Putin. In Russia, the term “liberal” can refer to
wide range of politicians – simultaneously to Thatcherism/Reaganomics-related pro-capitalism
conservative politicians (they are related to 1990s shock therapy “liberal” reforms),
to centre-right liberal politicians (as in European political spectrum) and to left-liberal
politicians (as in the US political spectrum). The term “liberal democrats” is often used
for members of the far-right nationalist part, the Liberal Democratic Party of Russia. There are Russian opposition and pro-government
liberal political parties in Russia. Pro-government liberal politicians support
Putin’s liberal policy in economics. There are no liberal factions in Russian parliament
at the moment. Centre-left liberalism was represented in
the State Duma of Russian parliament by the Russian United Democratic Party “Yabloko”
(7.86% in 1993 election, 6.89% in 1995, 5.93% in 1999). Pro-government liberalism was represented
by the Our Home – Russia (10.13% in 1995 election), the liberal political party founded
by Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin. Centre-right liberalism was represented by
the pro-capitalist party Democratic Choice of Russia (15.51% in 1993) and its successor,
the Union of Right Forces (8.52% in 1999 election). The Yabloko and the Republican Party of Russia
– People’s Freedom Party are members of Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe
Party. The Yabloko is also a member of Liberal International.==Liberalism in the Russian Federation=====History===
Liberalism emerged in Russia before the Russian Revolution and continued to develop among
Constitutional Democrats such as Pavel Miliukov living in exile after 1917. After the fall of communism, several new liberal
parties were formed, but only one of them Yabloko (Yabloko – Rosiyskaya Demokraticheskaya
Partiya, a member of Liberal International) succeeded in becoming a relevant force. This is a left-of-center liberal party. The Union of Right Forces (Soyuz Pravykh Sil,
a member of International Democrat Union) is a right-of-center liberal party. It can also be seen as a democratic conservative
market party. In this scheme, the party is not included
as liberal, being considered a democratic conservative party, but it can also be called
liberal because of its pro-free-market and anti-authoritarianism stances. The so-called Liberal Democratic Party of
Russia is not at all “liberal” – it is a nationalist, right-wing, populist party.===Yabloko (1993–)===1993: Diverse new political parties merged
into the social liberal Yavlinksii-Boldyrev-Lukin electoral bloc, led by Grigorii Yavlinskii. 1994: The party is renamed Yabloko (Yabloko). 1995: The party is officially registered. 2003: The party is renamed Russian Democratic
Party Yabloko (Rosiyskaya Demokraticheskaya Partiya/Российская Демократическая
Партия Яблоко).The Yabloko is a member of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats
for Europe Party and Liberal International.===Pro-Chernomyrdin and regional party (1995–2000)
======Democratic Choice of Russia (1993–1999)
===The Democratic Choice of Russia was a centre-right
liberal pro-capitalist political party.===Union of Right Forces (1999–2008)===The Union of Right Forces was a Russian centre-right
liberal opposition political party.===Pro-Vladimir Putin liberal projects======Solidarnost wide movement (2008–)===Solidarnost is a liberal democratic political
movement founded in 2008 by a number of well-known members of the liberal democratic opposition,
including Garry Kasparov, Boris Nemtsov and others from the Yabloko and former Union of
Right Forces (which had just merged with two pro-Kremlin parties).===Republican Party of Russia – People’s
Freedom Party (de facto 2010–)===People’s Freedom Party “For Russia without
Lawlessness and Corruption” is a liberal democratic coalition founded in 2010 by opposition politicians
Vladimir Ryzhkov, Boris Nemtsov, Mikhail Kasyanov and Vladimir Milov and their organisations
Republican Party of Russia, Solidarnost, Russian People’s Democratic Union and Democratic Choice. The RPR-PARNAS is a member of Alliance of
Liberals and Democrats for Europe Party.In 2012, the coalition merged into the officially
registered Russian political party RPR-PARNAS (Republican Party of Russia – People’s Freedom
Party). The RPR-PARNAS is a centre-right liberal opposition
political party and it represented in regional parliament in Yaroslavl Oblast.===Mikhail Prokhorov’s party=====Russian Empire=====Background===
Mikhail Speransky is sometimes called the father of Russian liberalism. His ideas were discussed and elaborated by
such 19th-century liberal republican radicals as Alexander Herzen, Boris Chicherin, and
Konstantin Kavelin. Based on their ideals, various early 20th-century
liberal parties evolved, the most important of them being the Constitutional-democratic
Party, headed by Pavel Milyukov.===From Liberation Union to Constitutional
Democratic Party===1905: The Liberation Union (Soyuz Osvobozhdeniya)
merged with the Union of Zemstvo-Constitutionalists (Soyuz Zemstev-Konstitutsionistov) to form
the liberal Constitutional Democratic Party (Konstitutsiono-Demokraticheskaya Partya),
formally known as the Party of Popular Freedom (Partiya Narodnoy Svobody), led by Pavel Milyukov. 1906: A faction forms the ⇒ Party of Democratic
Reform October 26 O.S., 1917: The party’s newspapers
were shut down by the new Soviet regime November 28 O.S., 1917: Banned by the Soviet
regime, the party went underground 1918-1920: Many party leaders were active
in the White movement 1921-early 1930s: The party continued to function
in exile, but slowly disintegrated===Union of October 17===
1905: Conservative liberals formed the Union of October 17 (Soyuz Semnadtsatovo Oktyabrya)
and became known as Octobrists. 1906: A left wing faction formed the ⇒ Party
for Peaceful Renewal, the party develops to be the party of the landlords. March 1917: Dissolved after the February Revolution.===Moderate Progressive Party===
1905: National liberals established the Moderate Progressive Party (Umereno-Progresivnaya Partiya). 1907: Merged into the ⇒ Party for Peaceful
Renewal.===Party of Democratic Reform===
1906: A moderate faction of the ⇒ Constitutional Democratic Party formed the Party of Democratic
Reform (Partiya Demokraticheskikh Reform). 1912: Merged into the ⇒ Progressive Party.===From Party of Peaceful Renovation to Progressist
Party===1906: A left-wing faction of the Octobrists,
together with dissidents of the Constitutional Democratic Party and of the Moderate Progressive
Party, established the Party of Peaceful Renovation (Partiya Mirnovo Obnovleniya). 1912: Merged with the ⇒ Party of Democratic
Reform into the Progressist Party (Progresivnaya Partiya), led by Georgy Lvov. 1917: Most of the party merged into the ⇒ Constitutional
Democratic Party, some continued as the Radical Democratic Party (Radikal’no-Demokraticheskaya
Partiya).==List of various liberal leaders==
Pre-revolution: Pavel Milyukov, Georgy Lvov Dissidence during communism: Andrei Sakharov==See also==
History of Russia Politics of Russia
Political parties in Russia==References==

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