Liberalism and radicalism in France | Wikipedia audio article

Liberalism and radicalism in France | Wikipedia audio article


Liberalism and radicalism in France refer
to different movements and ideologies. The main line of conflict in France during
the 19th century was between monarchists (mainly Legitimists and Orléanists, but also Bonapartists)
and republicans (Radical-Socialists, Opportunist Republicans, and later socialists). The Orléanists, who favoured constitutional
monarchy and economic liberalism, were opposed to Republican Radicals. The Republican, Radical and Radical-Socialist
Party (now divided into the center-right Radical Party and the center-left Radical Party of
the Left), and especially the Republican parties (Democratic Republican Alliance, Republican
Federation, National Centre of Independents and Peasants, Independent Republicans, Republican
Party, Liberal Democracy) have since embraced liberalism, including its economic version,
and have mostly joined either the Union for a Popular Movement in 2002, later renamed
The Republicans in 2015, or the Union of Democrats and Independents, launched in 2012. In 2016 Emmanuel Macron, a former member of
the Socialist Party, launched En Marche! and in 2017 was elected President of France.==Background and history==
The early high points of liberalism in France were: 1790–1792: when Girondins and Feuillants
dominated the early French Revolution; 1848: Revolution of 1848, which ended the
Orléans monarchy (since 1830) and led to the creation of the French Second Republic.In
France, as in much of Southern Europe, the term liberal was used during the 19th century
either to refer to the traditional liberal anti-clericalism or economic liberalism. Economic liberalism in France was long associated
more with the Orléanists and with Opportunist Republicans (whose heir was the Democratic
Republican Alliance), rather than the Radical Party, leading to the use of the term radical
to refer to political liberalism. The Radicals tended to be more statist than
most European liberals, but shared liberal values on other issues, especially support
for individual liberty and secularism, while the Republicans were keener on economic liberalism
than secularism. After World War II, the Republicans gathered
in the liberal-conservative National Centre of Independents and Peasants, from which the
conservative-liberal Independent Republicans was formed in 1962. The originally centre-left Radical Party was
a declining force and joined the centre-right in 1972, causing the split of the left-wing
faction and the foundation of the Radical Party of the Left, closely associated to the
Socialist Party. The former was later associated with the Union
for a Popular Movement. In 1978 both the Republican Party (successor
of the Independent Republicans) and the Radical Party were founding components, along with
the Christian-democratic Centre of Social Democrats, of the Union for French Democracy,
an alliance of non-Gaullist centre-right forces. The Republican Party, re-founded as Liberal
Democracy and re-shaped as a free-market libertarian party, left the federation in 1998 and was
later merged, along with the Radical Party, into the liberal-conservative Union for a
Popular Movement (later The Republicans) in 2002. The Radicals and several former Republicans
launched the Union of Democrats and Independents in 2012. In 2016 Emmanuel Macron, a former member of
the Socialist Party, launched the liberal En Marche! and was elected President of France
in the 2017 presidential election. En Marche! formed an alliance with the Democratic
Movement, established in 2017 as a successor of the Union for French Democracy, stripped
of most former Republicans.==Timeline of parties=====19th Century===
1815: The Orléanists were formed. 1818: Former Feuillants re-united in the Democrats,
also known as Liberals. 1848: A radical faction forms the Radicals,
supporting the Second Republic in opposition to the Orléanists. 1870: The Third Republic is formed. 1871: The Opportunist Republicans, whose official
name was Republican Left (GR), and the Republican Union (UR) are formed. 1885: The GR and the UR are united in the
Democratic Union (UD). 1889: The Progressive Republicans, whose official
name was Liberal Republican Union (ULR), are formed. 1894: The Progressive Union (UR) is formed.===The Republican tradition===
1901: The centre-right liberal Democratic Republican Alliance (ARD) and the Popular
Liberal Action (ALP) are formed. 1902: The Progressive Union (UR) is merged
into the ARD. 1903: The more conservative Republican Federation
(FR) is founded and the Liberal Republican Union (ULR) is merged into it. 1911: The ARD is renamed Democratic Republican
Party (PRD). 1917: The ARD goes back to its original name. 1919: The ALP is merged into the FR.
1920: The ARD is further renamed Social, Democratic and Republican Party (PRDS). 1926: The ARD is finally renamed Democratic
Alliance (AD). 1945: The liberal-conservative Republican
Party of Liberty (PRL), successor of the FR, is founded. 1948: The liberal-conservative National Centre
of Independents and Peasants (CNIP) is founded. 1949: The declining AD and the PRL are absorbed
by the CNIP. 1962: A group of splinters from the CNIP,
led by Valéry Giscard d’Estaing, oppose the party’s decision to withdraw support to President
Charles de Gaulle and, in order to continue to be part of the government, form the Independent
Republicans (RI). 1974: Giscard d’Estaing is elected President
of France in the presidential election. 1976: The RI are a founding member of the
European Liberal Democrat and Reform Party. 1977: The RI are renamed Republican Party
(PR). 1978: The PR joins forces with the Centre
of Social Democrats, the Radical Party and the Social Democratic Party to form the Union
for French Democracy (UDF). 1995: The Popular Party for French Democracy
(PPDF) is formed by supporters of Giscard, including several Republicans, within the
UDF. 1997: The PR, under the new leader Alain Madelin,
is renamed Liberal Democracy (DL). 1998: The DL separates from the UDF, but a
group of dissidents form the Independent Republican and Liberal Pole (PRIL) in order to remain
loyal to the UDF. 2002: The DL and the PPDF merge with the Gaullist-conservative
Rally for the Republic (RPR) to form the Union for a Popular Movement (UMP). Liberal factions within the new party include
The Reformers, the “Liberal Clubs”, “Liberal Generation” and the “Free Right”, as well
as the Radical Party (see below). 2007: The UDF is transformed into the Democratic
Movement (see below). Dissidents form the New Centre (NC) and continue
the alliance with the UMP. 2012: The NC, the Democratic European Force,
the Centrist Alliance, Modern Left and other minor centre-right or centrist parties form
the Union of Democrats and Independents (UDI), which aims at becoming a centrist alternative
to the UMP, while being in alliance with it. 2014: The UDI and the Democratic Movement
form a short-lived alliance named The Alternative. 2015: The UMP is transformed into The Republicans
(LR). 2016: The UDI joins the Alliance of Liberals
and Democrats for Europe Party. The NC is transformed into The Centrists (LC),
which continues to be part of the UDI.===The Radical tradition===
1901: The Radicals organise themselves in the Republican, Radical and Radical-Socialist
Party (Rad). 1926: Dissident Radicals form the Independent
Radicals (RI), later Independent Radical Party (PRI). 1946: The Radicals, along with the PRI, the
Democratic and Socialist Union of the Resistance (UDSR) and minor parties, form the Rally of
Left Republicans (RGR). 1956: The Radicals and the other components
of the RGR join forces with the French Section of the Workers’ International (SFIO), however
some dissidents transfor the RGR into a full-fledged party and other Radical dissidents from the
Republican Centre (CR). 1959: The RGR merges into the Gaullist Union
for the New Republic (UNR). 1961: Pierre Mendès France, a leading Radical
and former Prime Minister, joins the Unified Socialist Party (PSU). 1972: A left-wing faction forms the Movement
of Left Radicals (MRG). 1978: The Rad becomes an affiliated member
of the centrist UDF. 1996: The MRG is renamed Radical-Socialist
Party (PRS). 1996: The PRS is renamed Radical Party of
the Left (PRG). 2002: The Rad leaves the UDF and becomes an
affiliated member of the Union for a Popular Movement (UMP). 2011: The Rad cuts its ties with the UMP and
joins The Alliance. 2012: The Rad is, along with other parties
(see above), a founding member of the Union of Democrats and Independents (UDI). 2017: The Rad and the PRG are merged into
the Radical Movement (MR).===The Libertarian tradition===
2006: A group of classical liberals establish the Liberal Alternative (AL). 2008: A group of dissidents leaves the AL
and launches the Liberal Democratic Party (PLD). 2012: The PLD joins the Union of Democrats
and Independents (UDI).===Democratic Movement===
2007: The Democratic Movement (MoDem) is formed by François Bayrou, until then leader of
the Union for French Democracy (which has suffered the split of some of its founding
components in 1998–2002, see above), on the remnants of the latter party. 2014: The MoDem and the Union of Democrats
and Independents form a short-lived alliance named The Alternative. 2017: The MoDem forms an alliance with En
Marche! and endorses its leader Emmanuel Macron in the presidential election (see below).===En Marche!===
2016: Emmanuel Macron, a former member of the Socialist Party, launches En Marche! (EM!). 2017: Macron is elected President of France
in the presidential election.==Liberal leaders==
19th century: Lafayette, Benjamin Constant, François Guizot, Adolphe Thiers, Jules Grévy,
Léon Gambetta ARD: Émile Loubet, Armand Fallières, Paul
Deschanel, Raymond Poincaré, Louis Barthou, Albert Lebrun, André Tardieu, André Maginot,
Pierre-Étienne Flandin Rad: Émile Combes, Georges Clemenceau, Gaston
Doumergue, Édouard Herriot, Henri Queuille, Édouard Daladier, Camille Chautemps, René
Mayer, Gaston Monnerville, Pierre Mendès France, Edgar Faure, Maurice Bourgès-Maunoury,
Félix Gaillard, Maurice Faure, Jean-Jacques Servan-Schreiber, Jean-Louis Borloo
CNIP: Paul Reynaud (ex-ARD), René Coty (ex-Rad), Joseph Laniel (ex-ARD), Antoine Pinay (ex-ARD),
Roger Duchet RI/PR/DL: Raymond Marcellin (ex-CNIP), Michel
Poniatowski (ex-CNIP), Valéry Giscard d’Estaing (ex-CNIP), Simone Veil, Jean-Pierre Soisson,
Alain Madelin MRS/PRS/PRG: Robert Fabre (ex-Rad), Michel
Crépeau (ex-Rad), Émile Zuccarelli, Roger-Gérard Schwartzenberg, Jean-Michel Baylet
UMP: Jean-Claude Gaudin (ex-PR/DL), Patrick Devedjian, Jean-Pierre Raffarin (ex-PR/DL)
EM!: Emmanuel Macron (ex-PS), Sylvie Goulard (ex-MoDem)==Liberal thinkers==
Montesquieu (1689–1755) Voltaire (1694–1778)
Marquis de Condorcet (1743–1794) Benjamin Constant (1767–1830)
Frédéric Bastiat (1801–1850) Alexis de Tocqueville (1805–1859)
Raymond Aron (1905–1983) Raymond Boudon (1934–2013)==See also==
History of France Politics of France
List of political parties in France==
External links==”Le Centre national des indépendants et paysans
(CNIP) de 1948 à nos jours”: interview with Gilles Richard, Professor of Contemporary
history at Rennes

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