Lec 27: Conclusion

Lec 27: Conclusion


You welcome to the concluding section class
of this course, on the introduction to modern Indian drama. Let me now, summarize what we have done. So, far in the past few classes. We began with the earliest histories of Indian
theatre which equated Indian theatre, with Sanskrit theatre while dismissing the multilingual
nature of Indian theatre. Be it Sanskrit and others and non sanskritic
forms of theatre, and performance. The colonial historiography of Indian theatre
followed the Western chronological categories of ancient, medieval and modern theatre. Where Sanskrit theatre lasted from Two hundred
BCE two thousand BCE. Medieval or traditional theatre from thousand
CEE the Common data. To the present and modern theatre, from the
late18th century to the present. Such theatre was modelled on bharata’s natya
Shastra. The ancient texts in dramaturgy, which provided
a lot of information on theoretical and practical aspects of theatre. One of the earliest suspect place were translated
and studied by Orientalist missionaries and scholars, was Kalidasa Abhijnana Shakuntalam. Which was translated by, William Jones and
published in, Calcutta in 1789. Which is actually a multilingual play, with
lines in Sanskrit. Short is any Maharashtrian Magothy. But these other languages, the non sanskritic
languages, were forgotten in the process of translation. The other important, Sanskrit play to inspire,
a lot of early Orientalist Indian theatre, was Shudraka mrcchakatika or the little clay
cart, which are again comprised, of many of the languages, that were lost in translation. There were many other folk performative traditions
of theatre in pre-colonial India. We where worth here to overlap with dance
and music. But many of these traditions were dismissed
or overlooked by colonial scholars as crude and low forms of performance art. Colonial era theatre drew on Western conventions
of theatre in terms of lighting and sinography while shunning local forms of theatre are
screwed. But it was also, turned back to pre-modern
sanskritic models of theatre. Which came to be revalued as classical, because
of nationalist aspirations. There was an attempt to build an Indian nation,
that was both traditional and modern through returned to Hindu boronic traditions. The establishment of in Dollarshhem and min
mid nine 18th century enabled the possibility of this return to Sanskrit theatre, because
the interest, that European scholars had an understanding India’s vast. Even the only pre-independence histories of
Indian theatre, by Indian thinkers and Terratations of theatre were responsible for equating Sanskrit
theatre, with Indian theatre, and it enough it was only a legacy of the lasting importance
of Sanskrit theatre on Indian theatre. Under the rule of the East India Company,
the early playhouses that was set up in were and Calcutta in 1775 in gal it was the Calcutta
theatre. by Charing a theatre in1819 and the Sanskritic
theatre in 1839 which are patronized by colonial officials. The colonial idea of theatre was understood,
as an enclosed space with a raised proscenium stage. Before rows of seats it made theatre or spectacles
particularly watched, by the audience who, were at the same or a higher level than the
stage. Colonial Theatre was an elite cultural art
form was patronized frequented by the colonial Western and Indian elite. Particularly the parties of Bombay, who sponsored
the early theatre companies. It was only the late 19th century that theatres
spread as a form of mass entertainment in Calcutta, Bombay Madras, to schools and colleges
theatre. Then became a commercial ticketed event and
there was a new distinction between an actor manager and the director. The main the main importation of the proscenium
theatre, did not modernize Indian theatre. Indian theatre in the1770s was still in an
elite form of entertainment. It was limited to small British populations
in the three presidents’ cities of Madras, Bombay and Calcutta. The early plays were staged in the late decades
of the 18th century addressed social issues like polygamy, child marriage, opium addiction,
faith sanctioned violence, the plight of Indian women and so on. dinabandhu Mitra is important play needle
in urban was a polemical attack on the exploitative British indigo planters, which has banned
later seditious and precipitated the passing of the dramatic performances act in 1876 to
curb seditious and patriotic tendencies. theatre scholar are in the all, Rabindranath
Tagore, was the pivotal figure in modern Indian drama, in terms of his imaginative square
stage craft, modelled after hearts with aesthetics, that attempted to transform Western theatrical
modes of domestic realism and picturesque entertainment. His plays were controversial for the time
as a dealt with female sexuality, the Orthodox of Orthodox ins of Hinduism, untouchability,
anticipated environmental concerns, and so on. He was also, responsible for, introducing
women to the stage, that which included women from even respectable families at the time,
when male actors impersonated women. The beginnings of bought Nene in theatre country
can be traced back to Parsee theatre. Parsee theatre was a dominant form of entertainment
in urban India from the 1860s 92 1930s. Early colonial era theatre companies were
owned by elite Parsee many of whom were wealthy bankers, traders and philanthropists. The term parson theatre is itself a conflicting
one as the actors who join these companies are Muslims, Hindus, Anglo-Indian bank, that
they choose. Their place were also, multilingual and perform
largely in Gujarati, Marathi, Urdu and English. These plays were again designed along Western
notions of stage craft, like backdrop scenery, and when divided into acts and scenes. There are many important parties, who were
part of the Indian elite in Bombay who invited to attend the English language Bombay theatre,
also, known as theatre of the green. Later on an appeal was made by various notable
slide the jump shot GD boy Jagannath chakra set in frame G forced you to found the ground-floor
theatre. Which is located in the fort area of the native
town, to cater to the needs for non-Indian language in in place. Until 1853 all performances in grandeur theatre
were in English. Between1865 and 1890 English was side-lined,
and the rivalry was between Gujarati and kudu place. Grant room was really later supplemented by
enlarge was just gaiety and novelty near Victoria railway terminus. Established theatre companies like Elphinstone
even Victorian Alfred left behind the roots in amateur theatre and became more profitable
for their Parsee owners. Shakespeare’s plays were also, adapted, there
was an attempt by Pars writers and intellectuals to build a history of their own Gujarati,
and they trace back to which they traced back to filth or see the ancient games of the Parsees. They performed deals in Shanamaha Rustam Sohrab
and so on, which equated the Parsee theatre, to the mythical history of the Persian homeland
was also, the presence the so called Hindu theatre in Bombay, which is driven by the
notion of theatre for the Hindu people propagated by William Jones and HH Wilson’s translations
from Sanskrit drama. These plays were adopted regional folk styles. Many of the Urdu many of the Parsee players
were initially written in Gujarati script. They were all written in Urdu script. As, all the was favoured because of its traditions
of poetry and music and Song. The most important Urdu play that set off
a new tradition of playwriting Urdu was Indor Sabha by Agha Hassan Amanitin 1853. Although Hindu women were forbidden from acting
on stage. The male impersonators played women and Anglo-Indian
induced actresses on stage. The performance of femininity on stage was
a visual construction of Because respectability on stage had contained her sexuality and created
a new interior oddity identifying the ideal woman with a capacity to suffer. Parsee theatrical companies travelled far
to salon Calcutta, Rangoon, Peshawar, and Sindh, writers, actors, company managers,
musicians etcetera belong to mix of caste class and religious backgrounds. Female impersonation continued into the 20th
century there are few records the actors lives, with the exception of then on Parsee actors
like Jessica Sunderland, Balle Centerville. The female impersonator a verted the potential
slander and criticism directed to a transvestite. It thinly cloaked an aggressive heterosexual
masculinity and by performing the wrong woman the female in person. It was rendered harmless and wealthy of sympathy,
and therefore there’s only reinforce the belief, that men could do gender, better than women. Perpetuating the control, that men had over
the theatre system, and the public control over the female body and its representation. The Anglo Indian women and the Jewish women
who began acting in Parsee theatre adopting Hindu names would signify an act of subordinating
the Anglo Indian actress. The female and the feminine embodiment of
the West to the Indian male gears. the actresses were casting the image of the
hurry or pain fairy a familiar indo-islamic trope. Indian modern theatre drew from folk traditions
like yakshagana tamasha raasleela Nortonkim Hawaiian Col. Many of the force we dependence
dramatis like abhi premier and bouncer car Girish Karnad widget and Wilker down to four
conditions as, what they thought was the essence of Indian theatre. The aim was to establish the importance of
the actor. As, opposed to the urban play wright, and
a common involvement and ritualistic action, of rural Societies. Three of the most significant three independence
playwrights were a part in the Harish Chandra Jaishankar prasad obinata Goreall shunned
commercial theatres antithetical to their aesthetics in a book on Harish Chandra theatre
scholar bastard Anya shows the impact a German playwright bertolt brecht breaks dimetric
form and techniques had on Harish Chandra and other contemporary in later playwrights. Harish Chandra was inspired by Sanskrit theatre
and wish to read recite and recast suspect theatre and a modernist idiom. Even as they drew from popular forms. Some of Harish Chandra historical plays offered
a Hindu origin of history that perceived Muslims are they as invaders. Harish Chandra general idea Shankar Prasad
was constrained by the fact, that there were no major metropolis, like Calcutta, or Bombay
in the Hindi, Urdu belt of North India, where theatre could be patronized and institutionalized
by the nationalist elite. In our discussion of visit and dual because
plays in the silence the court is in session the first way we discussed. The play describes a patriarchal enslavement
of woman within the space of a court and Mock Trial. The court symbolises the space of patriarchy
where Miss. Minari is trapped twice. What begins as a mock trial, can no longer
be distinguished from the actual play within the play by the end. Minari betrays her own crime of bearing an
illegitimate child outside marriage and falling in love with a married man named professor
Domlee. Who never appears on stage, despite the fact
that he’s also responsible? Miss Minai Songs and poems just her own sense
of isolation and loneliness. she’s accused of being sexually promiscuous
and a fan of being a disreputable character, by the other characters in the play. The male characters the play include Sukhatme
and puncture, who wish to have a relationship with a bold woman like her. But end up distancing themselves, from her. Because she cannot she does not conform to
the ideal of a chased woman or wife. She’s charged with infanticide. Even before his crime has been determined
she’s condemned to be punished, and shame because she has desecrated the institution
of marriage, and motherhood. her monologue is largely are hardly a defence
against her charges. It is more a conversation with herself for
the significance of life and her own desire to live to be a reputed schoolteacher. she occasional ridicules other characters
who are all struggling and insecure actors. She’s progressively silenced, when the voices
is upped by other characters. Including Mrs. kashikar. whose also, a participant and beneficiary,
of patriarchy. Even though she’s often humiliated and silenced
by her own husband. Even Someone who’s initially attending in
an innocent villager and watcher gets involved in conspiratorially, the conspiratorial machinations,
of patriarchy to trap and victimize, a one for unconventional life. Towards the end we also, discovered that Minari
has a very ambiguous relationship to her own body, which is a vehicle for movement and
freedom, and vitality. But has also, been condemned to be stigmatized
by the others. In a friend story you have an unconventional
man named Babu who narrates the story of his friendship, with Sumitra the place which is
between past and present as Babu steps in and out of his character, as annotated as
the narrator and the character in the play. Babu is a sensitive, and gentle man who secretly
in love with Sumitra. But withdraws when he learns, she’s a lesbian. His roommate Pand is infatuated with Sumitra,
when he sees her playing a man in a play, he organized the college, where they study. Sumitra is obsessed with namaa young woman
she acts in the play with but all she also, has a boyfriend name Dalvi, who’s a conventional
and aggressive macho man. Dalvi resents and he violently hates Sumitra
for being lesbian, and there’s a violent altercation between them when he discovers her. But nama in Babu’s room, when Sumitra takes
advantage of Babu’s friendship, and forges his handwriting a signature writer and love
letter to nama, and one Dalvi, Dalvi assaults Babu. Sumitra shows no remorse for what she has
gotten Babu into Babu remains a gentle and caring, friend who tries to convince Sumitra
to give up her obsession, for nama. But Sumitra has a narcissistic character. Who does not show her vulnerability to anyone
and needs no more to validate herself? She remains an isolated character, who tries
to end her life twice in the play, when her family rejects her and she discovers she’s
a lesbian. In Christ Ram court while the play takes the
form of a choral Song, and dance performance, that that depicts the holiness of political
power. The play is a political satire, said in the
18th century and describes the court life of Nana Phadnav is one of the prominent minister,
ministers, of the Peshwa of Pune. He first performed me in 1972. kashram is a Brahman from carnage, who’s humiliated
and beaten up by the Pune Brahmins. Who’ve been in the Nana’s favour. He’s made court well of Pune in exchange for
his daughter Gowri who satisfied Nana’s lust. Kashram takes his revenge by turning Pune
into a moral police state, where no one has any freedom to do anything, that his permission. in his attempt to fight the powers of Brahmanism. He becomes more tyrannical than the forces
he opposes. in kanya dhan, kanya dhan describes a marriage
in Jyothi. The daughter of upper caste guardian couple. North Indian dalitor and savour, a feminist
activist and arun attaly young the Dalit poet, and writer, who belongs to a family of manual
scavengers. The marriage is initially intended by the
father and daughter to be an experiment to transcend and dismantle cost differences. sava and her son Jaya Prakash, against a marriage
because of arun’s unrefined violent ways. He beats Jyothi whenever he’s drunk and because
the unemployed. There’s a clear social class difference between
Jyothi and arun, which by the end of the play has not been transcended. Towards the end of the play Jyothi unable
to leave her husband, she identifies herself as the wife of a scavenger, as a wife of a
Dalit man. She also, has forced to question and challenge
her father’s and Gandhian liberalism on which she was brought up, and her father not himself
a straightens up questioning and challenging his own liberalism. Because he realizes that unlike his daughter. He does not have to have the experience of
living with Dalit and being able to experience the Dalit person’s outrage at social injustice. In Girish karnad, who wrote us plays both
in Kannada and English and whose plays also, translated by other important directors, and
playwrights like Ibrahim al-ghazi TV current alec Padamsee Saturday through B and so on. So, unlike a like many of his other fellow
playwrights, Baul Sarkar, Vijay Tendulkar, Mohan Rakesh. He also, used a lot of Puranic and mythic
material into his own place. Two o’clock was first performed in Kannada
in 1965, and then in various other languages including Urdu, Marathi, English, Bengali
in Guajarati. It closely follows a historical life of, Muhammad
bin Tughluq, who saw Dharam Delhi. Who was known to be an intelligent and acute
ruler? But ultimately a failure as an idealistic
administrator. There are many sites it Tughluq character. He initially wants to be post secular humanists. Who wants to ensure Hindu Muslim unity? By, lifting the jizya tax and is levied upon
non-Muslims and shifting the capital from Delhi to Deradhabath. A Hindu majoritarian City. The move ends in a nightmare of starvation
illness death and disease for the people. are Z’s a lonely Muslim washer man is the
one who, benefits from from and sub boards Tughluq attempts to create a utopian state. Where there are no social differences. Tughluq closely resembles the Sheikh Imam
of Dean, who’s the staunchest critic and Reza and and it is resemblance such as the uneasy
intimacy between religion and politics. The Sheikh is finally killed in the battle
between Sultan and an old milk he is governor from Agra. the Sultan’s governor who seeks
to avenge himself against Sultan for being transferred from Agra to the Deccan. But the real devil of Tughluq is Aziz, who
manages to subvert every one of his plans to create a secular and wealthy State. Aziz impersonates the Brahmin Krishna prasad
who’s Lance is Sultan seasons and returns, and on whom the tax is lifted, and has promised
an official position in the court. Aziz pious a Brahmins land in a back dated
contract, and takes advantage of the subsidies, that the court gives to farmers. He Rob’s the poor people as a relocating from
Delhi to the Deradhabath. He counterfeits a call the copper currency,
that that this whole town decides to produce as Imperial currency, and he also, got murders
and disguises himself as chaos on Dean the pathetic caliph, that the Sultan invites to
bless and purify his own his new capital. Finally, the Sultan is so, impressed by Aziz’s
cleverness an ambition, to want more, than he possesses a quality. He seasoned in himself confers him as either,
a position in court. Tughluq character has resonances with the
post-colonial situation in India, where one sees the secular humanism of Gandhi, the idealism
of Nehru, and the brutal I thought in authoritarianism of someone like in Indira Gandhi, or more
easily Sikh, Hindu and Muslim fundamentalist all rolled into the fakir figure of Tughluq. In dreams of the Tip Sultan a plays about,
how history official histories written and what counts is official history. The play frames the life and dreams of Tip
Sultan with the conversation between Collen Mackenzie a colonial scholar, and the court
restaurant who send a leaky money, while Mackenzie once produced an objective history of Tip
Sultan and is devoid of emotion, the court historian kid money was close to Sultan. Who was close the Sultan and uses his personal
memories, to write his history of the Sultan’s life for the British who betrayed him? For him the book of James was Boston and sacred. But for Mackenzie it is just another native
authentic source, to analyse the Sultan as a strategic ruler. The Sultan’s dreams a literary, and religious
allusions to the absolute power, and victory over the British and of his father Hyder Ali. Who breeds him for sending his sons as hostages,
to Lord Cornwallis? His power was a function of his ability to
seek and sustain alliances, with the French who were known for the superior military warfare
the Ottoman Empire China and so on. Even though the official histories portray
him, as an intolerant Islamic ruler, who imposed Islam as, the official religion of his kingdom. There are many accounts of his life, that
suggest that he was an ambitious figure he was an ambiguous figure. On the one hand he was known for his generous
grants, given to various Hindu religious institutions, especially the Shin Gary mud land grants from
Brahmins and for protecting religious minorities in his kingdom. But on the other hand, he may have used Islam
to forcibly convert those who resisted his power. He also, lifted the jizya tax from non-Muslims
and have had people at like Buddha nya. Because, Hindu Prime Minister as his trusted
aide. Tip Sultan anticipates the might and threat
to the British post the various Indian princely states, and he realizes that the British,
who want to divide them to impose a supreme rule. Unlike his father, who was more keen to modernize
their warfare technology, and a centralized Sovereign Authority. Tip Sultan gave equally importance to trade
and commerce. Tip Sultan admires unity and spirit of the
young British Soldiers and claims to have learned how to fight was from the British. He realizes the basis for the power of European
colonial mortal, of Sovereignty, especially the British had to do with the firm control
of trade and commerce. They poo imports silk worms, and eggs from
China to find his own silk industry. He’s abreast with the recent technological
innovations, in Europe and wishes to retrain his own artisans and workers, to draw from
European technology. He’s finally betrayed by his own officers,
who are bribed to enable the entry of Cornwallis and his forces with the support of the Marathas. He there are four conditions at Lord Cornwallis
places before him. Which included her in the territory that belonged
to the Marathas, and paying six crores of rupees as, war indemnity. While the other princely states are richly
rewarded, when Godwin India gains independence. The Warriors are reinstated by the British
in Mysore. While Tip Sultan’s descendants are exiled
to Calcutta, where they lead impoverished lives. In Hayavadana which is a rendition of the
tale of transposed heads. If offing the car a solid cigar and is closely
related to Thomas one’s own version of the tyrannous novel transposed heads. The play describes the dominance of the mind
over the body, in the main plot of the play which is a love affair between Padmini the
daughter of a merchant, and two men dev Dutta a talented Brahmin, and his close friend Kapila
the strong and athletic son of a blacksmith. the outer frame of the plays about Hayavadana
the hybrid sign of a mortal woman, and a stallion. He has the head of a horse. But the body of a man and Long’s be completely
transformed into a horse. The plays about the human desire for completion
and perfection, which is symbolized through Hayavadana’s desire to have the body and mind
of the horse, and but many who longs an ideal man who was the perfect combination of a sensitive
and aesthetic mind, and an athletic body. Even Ganesha to whom they initially invocatory
versus dedicated, has the head of an elephant and a body for man. He is the boat guard who removes obstacles
and ensures the completion of a task, and yet seems incomplete with his broken tusk. Hayavadana finally loses his human voice as
he turns into a horse with Carly’s blessings. But before he loses his voice, he’s condemned
to sing the national anthem, where his voice already seems to have been suppressed. He stands for the hybridity of the post-colonial
subject, who’s divided between Low Colonial legacies of thought, and being a nationalist
father. So, as you are already familiar with the story. The plot of the play. But when he first desires and marries Dave
data because, he’s in Brahman and because, he has a fine poetic mind, and later on when
the other that discovers – shall I see that Putney desires Kapila. Kapila he goes to the temple, to offer his
his his head and his arms to the goddess, and which and so, he ends up killing himself. When Kapila discovers his friend dead, and
fears he’ll be accused of desiring his friend’s wife Padmini. Here he kills himself to bug me. then accidentally it seems exchanges the heads. When Carly brings the men back to life, they
have each of those heads and Padmini chooses the man with that his head, and kapinas body. But over the years the mind dominates the
dominates the body. Dev Dutta loses his athletic physique, while
Kapila has grown strong and sturdy. The question of who is the father, to but
the nice son also, becomes a good debate between the mind and the body. Finally, of course the men Padmini is unable
to suppress her desire, for Kapila the two men have a duel because, they aren’t able
to live with each other’s parts, and they end up killing each other. Each of his heads, while Padmini commits at
the for both of them. Thus, undermining the equation of wifely chastity,
which is at the in the fire and the rain which is again the more denied a petition of the
story where you have acre from the vanaparvatham the Mahabharat. in the Mahabharat you have
agreed the son of the sage Bharadwaja. Acquires knowledge of the Vedas, after years
of penance, and uses his knowledge to molest the daughter-in-law of these age Rabia, who
merely, whom he resents Rabia creates a Brahma Raksha’s. Ademon and a spirit in the form of his daughter-in-law,
to kill Niaga Cree and after niagacree death, Bharadwaj of course is right here. That he will die, at the hands of his own
Son. But ever So, who mistakes his father who was
wearing deer skin for a deer fatally shoots with an arrow. But I was who falsely accuses our Vasu of
Beatrice patricide. For which of us, who has to perform penitentiary
rights. All of us who prays to Sun, God when he’s
granted a boon asks that you have a creeper Bharadwaja and tribe here be brought back
to life. In Kaunas adaptation of the tale Yavakri ma
Chaka Rabia’s daughter-in-law have an affair, that begins both before and continues after
her marriage to forever. So, forever so, abandoned her after a year
of sexual gratification, to preside over the fire sacrifice. In his absence she meets the Yavakri who was
not overcome his desire after years of penance, and a meeting re kindles in love and desire
for each other. When dry be ascends the Brahma Raksha’s to
kill Yavakri. Yavakri initially unfazed as a magical water
and as jug has the power to immobilize the demon. But Vishakha empties a jug desperate to save
him, and then treats him to rush it to his father’s hermitage, which is the only place
where he would be safe from the Raksha’s. But before he can enter the hermitage, is
intercepted by undergone. The blind children man who raised him but
his ironically unable to recognize his footsteps. Yeah, Yavakri is impaled by the Raksha’s. Forever so, who kills his father intentionally
of hatred and finally chooses death, to expiate his patricide in the end. When when all of us who destroys a sacrificial
altar in a frenzy of revenge. There’s a parallel story the love between
our was so, neat delay a tribal woman. All of us who’s on the verge of getting married
to her, and his honour and is willing to renounce his caste community for her love. But on the day of his marriage he gets late
as he has to perform, the funeral rites for Yavakri. Mithilai is married to a tribal man from her
community. airavas who has to perform his father’s funeral
rites and, do penance for his brother’s act of killing their father. When Airavas who falsely accuses him of battery
side, he is beaten up, and exiled by the other Brahmins. But he’s rescued by Mithilai who chooses him
over her husband. Although airavas who seeks revenge Nithilai
prevents him from fathering violence out of us who acts in a play, for which he loses
his gossip unit. That elutes the fatal drives alias between
rivra airavas and Yavakri. Aiwars wears a mask and plays Rudra. Brahmas Son of the demoness. The actor manager plays Indra, and warns Airawas
so, that the mask could come to life and control him. In the inner play inverse jealous of Vishwa
Roopa, who’s Brahma Son with a mortal woman, for his virtue and wise reputation. Mithra always accompanies Vishwa Roopa to
protect from him from Indra’s plans to kill him. But Indira tricks him and kills him, while
he’s pouring oblations in the sacrificial fire. Whatever so, reacts the scene as also, desecrate
sacrificial area, along with the tribes, completely possessed by the demonic spirit of the mask. Mithilai managed to take the mask off. But she’s soon killed by a husband and brother
who have been waiting for her to make an appearance. The Brhama Raksha’s pleads to all of us who
asked him to request the gods to free him from the bondage of life and death. Which all of us it does and the course of
sacrificing little a and his happiness without. Indira’s pleased with the content with the
performance and tells him either Rabia Bairava’s and yavakri can be brought back to life, or
Mithilai. Airavas who chooses the former and Mithilai
becomes a scapegoat, for the redemption of the Brahmin community and Vishaka’s chastised
for her transgression. So, while Brahmins are equated with ambition
and greed for power, and violence, sudras are equated with those who are kind and compassionate
and form the basis for the collective community, perhaps freed of cast. In broken images it takes the form of a man
o between Manjula, and a virtual on-screen image. The play focuses on the politics of choosing
to write and publish in English. as opposed to original binoculars like Canada. while Manjula is an established Canada writer
who teaches English. No college her disabled sister sister Malini
is an English writer. Whose novel Manjula, love plagiarizes and
publishes under her own name. Manjula openly confesses to the interrogations
of the image. Which is symptom of a repressed unconscious. That she’s not ashamed of writing and publishing
in English which has won her fame and money there’s a distinction between the image, reveals
Manjula unconscious desire for fame and power. the way Manjula presents herself as, someone,
who’s innocent, and the transformation in our perception of her through the images into
interrogations of, Manjula. Manjula represents insecurity of non-English
language writers, and leaderships were threatened by the growing power and popularity and wealth
of English language books. Manjula remembers feeling neglected by her
parents, who focused all the attention on a sister who led a life of disability. She’s also, jealous and suspicious of Malini
intellectual relationship with her husband Pramod. The image finally declares, it is Malini and
says Manjula was decimated the moment she read Malini novel. The play is also, about that intermediated
relationship between the author the text and the reader Manjula identifies herself, with
one with one of the cousins in the auto biographical novel. Where she sees herself reflected as a shallow
and petty woman. The day the text takes on the life of the
author, and gains meaning through the figure of the trader who is not a biographical figure. But a signified just like the author and is
incorporated into the text. The relationship between languages author
and Text is mediated by power. In Mahesh Elkins were again born 1939 born
a Telugu Brahmin family, migrated to Vidarbha district in Maharashtra. Where he completed his education in Nagpur
Naga through University. He experimented a lot with expressionist and
absurdist theatre, and theatre for him had to do with realizing the multiple possibilities
of the experience of life itself. He challenged the hierarchy between art and
radiology between individual and Social or collective pain and suffering. So, emphasis on poetry in the jest should
refer to off the body to connote emotions. In Garbo portrays the alienation and isolation
of urban life in Bombay, from the perspective of three male characters from Nagpur. Srimonth is a wealthy businessman, in took
a professor, and plans in and adolescent. They’re all struggling and and experiences,
the the salinity of their lives. Garbo is a sex machine for Sri month, an exalted
mother figure offer pansy earnings are in an inexhaustible aesthetic ideal for in took. All the men’s seek redemption and hope through
the imagination of Garbo, on whom they project their frustrations and fantasies. The user desires to transcend themselves. But their private fantasies of Garbo, is undermined
by her bitter comebacks, and self-contempt as a be great actress, who has a sexual affairs
with many men. Each of these men see the collective salvation,
and Garbo’s baby and they later discover was aborted by hard during a shoot. They are initially hopeful the baby will inherit
their name. But they later dissolution and realized they
are condemned to remain in their world of Filth and sterility. Srimonth has revealed to be an masculine insecure
man, who needs Garbo to validate his masculinity, and a sexual prowess, while he actually wants
pansy with, whom he has a sexual affair. In to confesses he’s a poet who lacks originality
and needed Garbo, as his muse would inspired artistic creativity. But now, that she cannot become a mother. Again, they welcome her as, a part of their
sterile world. The body seems to be the only reality, and
the sexual act the only way of potentially attaining identity and recognition and relief
from a sterile world. But even the body ends up becoming a lie. Srimonth stabs Garbo in the end, the blood
is real But Garbo’s no more, they realize, that Garbo they knew was merely an embodiment
of the fantasies, of redemption and transcendence. She’s barely given the opportunity to speak,
or resist a constructions offer. The old stone mansion is set in the old decrepit
mansion, Deshpande is and landed Brahmin family is losing its status and power to newly instituted
land reforms. The growth of Bombay’s a metropolis, that
promises jobs enables many other cost groups from the village, particularly the cooks who
work for them to Deshpande is migrate to Bombay in search of jobs. Other lower caste groups brew liquor or work
in newly set up restaurants, in the village. The play was inspired by Anton Chekhov’s play
the Cherry Orchard. Then describe social economic transformations
in early twentieth century Russia, with the abolition of serfdom the decline of the aristocracy
and the rise in the main clause. The orchard, that belongs a landlord that
has to be auction and sold a newly freed serf and his chopped off at the end of the play
as the family moves out. In the old stone mansion, the tractor is a
symbol of the hollow prestige of the Deshpande family, something, that is no longer an economic
investment in a village, with small land holdings and hardly in any electricity. Bhaskar the eldest son refuses to accept and
there are no longer that they are no longer as, rich as, they were they are indebted to
the way attitude to the vegetable seller who has now, started his own business and wants
to buy that orchard. If they can’t repay their debts. Baskar wants to have an extravagant funeral
for his father and asked to lead for money. Power over the household is transferred from
the dog from the mother-in-law to wahini, Bhaskar’s wife and eldest daughter-in-law. But Sudhir and his wife Anthony struggle to
make ends meet in Bombay, an expensive city where one has to work all the time to repay
loans and mortgages, and just survive in an inner rented apartment. The rest of the family assumes he needs a
comfortable life and cannot imagine urban debt. The family periods Anjali for con Canasta
Brahmin origins her fair-skinned education. Her son Abhay supposed to be a good student
and a sportsman are biased contrasted to Parag Bhaskar son who’s a drug drunk away stream
and drug addict. The patriarchs daughter brother who wanted
to study further and leave the house. But her father never let up. Different generations of characters symbolise
historical change the patriarchs mother has lost her memory, and still thinks a mother
her son is alive. The patriarchs middle i.e. has her share of
the house sold by Baskar to raise money to repay their debts. The Deshpande is only left with an ancestral
jewellery, which is symbol of the family familial reputation. Baskar’s daughter Anju’s expose and drawn
to the urban world. So, the radio and her English tutor with whom
she has an affair elopes, taking the jewellery with her. But the tutor deceives her and steals a jewellery
and so, did a ends up bringing around you back in a taxi to preserve the family’s reputation. This ruins Prabha’s only hope of seeking herself,
that you will gain escape in the house. Parag has let down by his uncle Sudhir he
hopes to people he hopes to go to Mumbai with him. So, that he may have access to a more exciting
and free urban life. The play ends with the backyard and Orchard
being more down. As it is being sold to save the family from
bankruptcy. Chandu is the only son, who circus happiness
to take care of his mother and sister. In desire in the rocks, the play is a story
of incest, and the sterility of life, the play has two major characters came a continent
Lalita, who were brother and sister and five unnamed women from the village. The play like Garbo depicts himself as a sight
for a drama between the oppressive norms, of society and the transgressive impulses
of art of art and her hotacism fled challenges these norms. This battle is embodied in the body of the
moon in this case Lolita, which results in the disillusionment of the man and the dualization
of the woman. Lolita has spent on a life trapped in a wooden
mansion. She was her father’s adoptive daughter, who
was a band who aband one other in the mansion. she belongs to a line age that is believed
to have been cursed with those natural surviving heirs. Every child is stillborn which is why the
other side. the Lalita adoptive father abandons her in
the mansion to pursue his own education. She is re united with her much older brother
20 years later, after he left the mansion to pursue his career as an artist. Hemakanth initially emotionally detached artist
who’s willing to isolate himself for the sake of art. a Lalita is the embodiment of the of his unconscious
desire his creativity. He uses her to assume different posture and
expressions of his ideal embodiment of love and desire. She loves him account. But he’s unable to return her love. She accuses him of being a fake artist But
he believes she does not understand art. There’s no there’s an authoritarian nature
to him a cons unconscious world of art neuroticism, and Lolita is willing to surrender herself
to own and possess him account, and the transformation in Hemakanth occurs, when his statues of Lolita
are destroyed by the villagers. Lolita who claims to be a creator like Hemakanth
gives, birth to a dead baby, which confirms her fear that she has sinned by loving her
own brother, for which she continues to live in sin. By turning to prostitution to survive. She has no access to her own ancestral property,
which is managed by trustees. When lit Lolita sings to a baby the child
of one of the women in the village, they scold her an outcast her, for being unlucky and
sinful presence. Both Loretta and Hemakanth realize, that they
are both sterile creators. Hemakanth stone and beaten on by the villages,
while Lalita turns to prostitution. They realized the falsity of the body, and
even as they surrender to each other in love and intimacy. They won’t destroy it in a mansion where they
lived. In Sonata the play depicts the subtle power
dynamics between three women. All in their 40s in friends from school. Two of them Aruna and Dolan have been living
together for 17 years. Indolence lavish flat in a skyscraper and
Bombay. The place double Dolan and Aruna used mother’s
Affairs and lifestyle, and the lonely type his neighbour to boost their own sense of
superiority and privileged. Intimacy and animosity or two mutually reinforcing
forces that characterize their relationships. They do not approve of Subatra’s promiscuity
and her relationship with a violent jungle. For Subhadra how friends are a temporary Source
of relief from her violent and intimate relationship with the man. She’s a journalist who has just lost her job. After Subatra exes exits the secret desires
and animosity between animosity between Dollan and Aruna is revealed. Aruna discipline Sanskrit professor, who also,
writes sentimental stories for a women’s magazine. She was also, emotionally distant and not
open touching and being touched by others. Dolan as a banker who self-indulgent, and
restless Leah searches for attention and intimacy. If Subhadra’s insecurities are concealed by,
her obsession with attractive men, Dolan is obsessed with her own Bengali culture. Robin ashram heat and food and Aruna, has
intellectual pretensions in terms of a career, as a prestigious and well travel scholar and
writer. Dolan resents the fact, that our owner wrote
a story of a woman who leads a reckless life, and as a thinly veiled illusion too Dolan. She thinks Aruna, has betrayed her. Later Dolan reveals a in present desire for
Aruna, and her betrayal. When she had an intimate encounter with her
ex-husband Avinash. Aruna willing to let go of the past and restores
her friendship with Dolan. In Maya Thanithe first important playwright
to write all his plays in English. He came from a Gujarati Cindy family who was
born and raised in Bangalore and initially worked as an accountant and then dedicate
his life to theatre, and writing plays. He was inspired, by the work of Alok Padamsee. He began writing his plays the 1980’s. All of which were concerned with exposing
hypocrisy of social institutions of family religion gender and sexuality. In final solutions the play has to do with
the problem of communalism, Ramnik and his daughter Smita, are liberal Hindus, who give
shelter to Javed and Bobby. Who are apparently being charged by a bloodthirsty
Hindu Baath. A parallel intersecting narrative is the play
of Hardika a Romney’s mother who from the memories of a youth, as Dhaksha would also,
resent the Muslims for killing her father during partition. She has not she has still not lost her prejudice. She has a friend named Zarin through him,
she is secretly and through through through her she secretly guest gets to listen to her
favourite female playback singers. She wanted to be a singer herself. But her Orthodox family forbidden. Romney care Smitha finds the limits of, then
of the liberalism tested by Aruna’s orthodoxy and Javed violent intolerance of Hindus. They are to negotiate with to similar ends
in the spectrum of religious tolerance. Unlike Bobby who refuses to identify with
this community and is ashamed to be a part of it. Javed is initially are bellious and violent
Muslim, who wants to avenge the persecution of his community, by Hindus he confesses later
that he was not paid by Hindu right-wing parties. But volunteered to play place cow carcasses
in the house of a Hinduman, to trigger the rights. He is later ashamed of what he did. He identifies with Romney ex-wife Aruna, who
was an Orthodox in the woman who observes rituals of purity and pollution. She does not want to share her food, or space
with people of other carcinogens. Javed identifies with Aruna as their mirror
as they mirror each of those intolerance. he says he is no different from the bloodthirsty
Hindu mom, that is allegedly pursuing him by the end of the play the characters undergo
a transformation. Javed forces Romney to realise is only only
being a Hindu, can afford to give, that he being Hindu can afford to given protection,
only he can afford to be liberal. Javed realizes, he has lived a meaningless
life of violence. Javed compels Romney, to realize his liberalism.
by is also, better to realize his liberalism is also, being tested. When Bobby’s holds our Idol of Krishna in
his hand, Aruna’s Orthodox is also, being tested, and she realizes that there are many
probably many different ways to God and Hardiks Daksha learns from Dominic that her in-laws
responsible, burnings errands for the shop during partition. In bravely fought the Queen the play exposes
the hypocrisy of family, and a normative role of the family in regulating gender and sexuality. The family comprises bar her Sons Jithin And
Nithin in their wives were also, sister’s doll in Alta and lay and and Shridhar. Who works and who works at Nithin and Jithin
advertised advertising form, and his wife Lalita? The only daughter of Daksha and on his brother
Praful. Do not appear on stage. Darlene Alka seemed to be trapped in miserable
and violent marriages. Lolita has been asked by her husband to organize
a masked ball to feature a model for a new line of female and nightwear and innerwear
called Revati. There’s a mix-up in the dates as Darlene Alka
supposed to visit the caboose, with the husband on that very day. But the visitors cancel, and Lolita ends up
spending time in Dalian Alka. Lolita is witness to the hidden animosities
and desires that threatened fragment may be family, a common motif in the place a bonsai
plant, that Lolita likes to make. A symbol of the trapped and stunted and sterile
lives of the women in the plain. Dalene also wearing a facemask in the beginning
of the play to suggest the artifice of her life. The brothers Nithin and Jithin and their mother
and wives live in twin houses and Koramangala, Bangalore. They are wealthy, but we discover later on
that their advertising form is on the verge of bankruptcy. They take Darlene’s brothers, brother preful’s
help who offer them 10 lakhs as an interest-free loan. The resent preful and looked down on him because
he apparently tricked Nitin into mining Alka. Alka is seems to be an alcoholic past, which
is why her mother-in-law bar does not approve of Nithin’s marriage to her. Bar who is losing her memory and is confined
to her bed constantly calls for the only and profile. From her memories, we learn that she also
had a wild violent marriage and she had asked, she had had to ask her father for money to
raise her sons. Jithin is violent like his father, one Nithin
is gentle like his mother. As Lalita darling Alka she drinks they lose
inhibitions and all the secrets are revealed. Darlene for instance is having an illicit
affair with Kanaya, they act their cook. Who later ends up being a pure fantasy for
her desire for love? Alka’s unhappy in her marriage and daughter
is answer for always being the more of the two sisters. But appearance different from reality. We discovered Jithin is a violet and unscrupulous
man works who exploits Shridhar. We also realized that here ordered Shridhar
wants to find him a section a success court who will fulfil his pleasures. He also wants to sell their ancestral home
to redeem their debts. He wants Nithin to order Alka to leave the
house, because of her alcoholism and her alleged affair with another man to win bars approval. Nithin discovers from bar that the house has
been willed to Daksha. Preful her trusting as bar things he was the
only one who loved Daksha. We will discover that Jithin had hit dolly
when she was pregnant and she had an accident, which was all true in Daksha’s disability. Daksha studies in a special school in Ooty,
and it is a sure guilt that compels Jithin and the rest of the family to take care of
Daksha. We also learnt Preful Nithin’s lover and that
he had gotten Alka married to him to continue their affair. You will the auto rickshaw driver whose auto
was drive driving over by Jithin’s car, is Nithin’s illicit lover. Darlene decides to leave her husband by the
end of the plane. In dance like a man and the play questions
in equation within gender and performance. Rathna and Jairaj Parik a dancers in the 60s. They have a daughter Lata, who’s also not
coming dancer, who wants their permission to get married to Vishwa’s, the son of a sweet,
sweet store owner, provided he allows her to continue dancing after marriage. Through a series of flashbacks, we discovered
a Jairaj’s father Amrit Lal disapproved of his passion for dancing and berates him for
growing his hair long. He thinks dancing is meant for women. Although, Amrit Lal was a freedom fighter,
who fought against dowry and child marriage, he regrets consent into Jairaj’s marriage
to a woman from a day of the Sikh community. Ratna and Jairaj’s guru would visit Amrit
Lal’s home to teach them dancing, where Amrit Lal tries to stop them from dancing, they
go to Rathna’s uncle’s home, but return when the uncle makes sexual advances to Ratna. Ratna insists on learning dance from own devdas
woman much against her father-in-law, who bribes the devdas do not teach Ratna. Amrit Lal tries to use Ratna to prevent Jairaj
from Dancing. But, later is forced to relent he allows Ratna
to dance Jairaj feels insecure, because Ratna’s greater success as a dancer. He feels eclipsed by her and reluctant to
dance with her. He asked his face stiff competition as a male
dancer; he becomes a regular drinker to lighten his sense of insecurity. Ratna blames him for not accepting invitations
to dance and for not working hard enough on his own dance. We discover later that they had a son named
Shankar who died in his sleep as on one of Ratna’s performance nights. Because, a Nanny, the Nanny had fled him,
had fed him with an overdose of opium. Jairaj tries to make that not feel guilty
for being a negligent mother. Ratna wants Lata to become a famous dancer
and get selected in the foreign dancer festival in Canada, for which she willing to compromise
on her own principles. She’s unable to find a rhythm player to replace
theirs who had an accident for Lata’s performance. She has no choice, but to ask Seshadri a lecherous
man who’s having an affair with Chandrakala, another dancer who’s on the selection committee. Ratna has to flatter and win the favour of
the various patrons of the performance competition. Later Jairaj and Vishwa have an argument on
Lata’s performance and got rave reviews in the papers. Vishwa is uncomfortable with some of her worldly
erotic performances, the Jairaj advanced performed herself, himself before the army. By the end of the play there’s a vision of
Jairaj and Ratna rise into heaven having learned from their own past mistakes and Lata becoming
a rising star, who has a now has a child of her own. In battle Sarkar finally are born in 1925
in a Christian family in Calcutta, studied in a Bengali medium school in Scotus George
college it’s school. He read Bengali players in his youth, and
he started to become an engineer, he later got a diploma in dumb planning in London,
where he washed many important European and American plays. His work took him to Nigeria, where he wrote
some of his best plays. Known for his play a bong Indhirajit Sarkar
wrote initially wrote comedies and place that had to do with the alienation of the middle-class
individual. His earlier plays were staged on the proscenium
stage, he later abandoned the proscenium theatre, because he felt restricted by the stage makeup
lighting backdrop etc., He formed something called third theatre, which is free of what
was necessary for proscenium theatre all the conventions engaged in free and direct communication
with the audience in an intimate setting and was free to watch. The audience could if they wish to donate
money. This theatre moved from the proscenium to
the under munch the theatre all around where the audience sat around the room or quoted
and the actor interacted with the audience, through the mook the munch or open area and
the street. He believed the function of the theatre was
to bring about social and political transformation. In procession the play uses the idea of Calcutta,
the city of processions to describe the apparent success of many political and religious processions
in the city that are supposed to unite people. The play was a first play sarkar to be performed
in an open area. There are six anonymous characters who assume
different voices in the play. He describes his suffering and exploitation
of the anonymous rural peasantry and farmers. Khokhar the machine boy in the play, becomes
an allegory of the deprived and the Martian West. The old man is an older version of Khokhar’s
in search of him nothing much has changed over the generations as people are in search
of their own sense of self. There are many issues covered in. The play from cast violence poverty the nuclear
bomb and starvation. the play ends no not of hope at the possibility
of finally finding a procession, that would truly unite people irrespective of their differences
in Burma Burma like Khokhar’s is an allegory of the nameless exploited and suffering rural
peasan try there are six anonymous characters, who assume different voices. The common refrain refrain is the blood of
the pleasantry and farmers, who have so, asked the soil they cultivate with their own blood. There’s an ironic contrast within voices that
praise the glorious history of the nation, and as unity and technological advancements
and the plight of the peasantry. The state has money to spend on roads and
bridge strains. But there’s no water for cultivation the farmer
is caught in a vicious cycle of poverty, and debt. Bank loans cannot be had without any asset. so, securities with that money there can be
no capital no diesel pumps to pump water. The play covers the problems of seasonal employment
for Some farmers, who don’t have enough water to cultivate in the dry season and work as
hired laborers in for big farmers. The stark differences. Between urban youth, whose spire to get admitted
to prestigious educational institutions and go abroad to the cost of all those tax money. The lasting casualties of nuclear power and,
that on the atom bomb and the impact radioactivity has and generations of deformed children and
on the environment. Even if it’s being used for peaceful purposes
here’s another issue handled in the play be logical and human habitat Sundarban is threatened
by the demands of open expansionism and cultivation and Wildlife red crocodile and tigers that
have been preying on indigenous communities. Even the official language of conservation
does not ensure the sustainable survival, and livelihood of the communities and wildlife. The play ends on a note of hope, that there
is the wall, that if there was an equal access and distribution of resources, they would
be greater harmony, and not inequality. One has to clear the poisonous trees of individualism
and private property and greed for, that to happen. In the last play we discussed steel news the
play describes the colonial suppression of the Santoni revolt, against the colonial state
and the victim hood at the hands of police violence. The nationalist Hindu elite who both legitimize
and opposed His relish rule were strange from the tribal and denied them their autonomy. The intimate relationship with nature was
upset by the incursions of colonial modernity. There’s also a matter cessation of Sun tiny
society as the first agricultural lists settlers. A repeated phrase in the play is dumb a deco
that part of boggle poor and Bihar were the Santa Lee’s for second. When their life of insularity was interrupted
by British colonialism. They were exploited by moneylenders and then
who had a very powerful connection, with the land holding cost. There’s a dead man in the play who symbolizes
the invisible ice Anthony, in the face of state and police persecution in some indirect
exploitation. There’s also the spread of state and socially
responsive Hindus, and the threatens to wipe out the local beliefs and customs of the sun
tallies. The play recounts a story of Santa Lee’s being
reduced to slaves and bonded laborers through the ruthless tyranny of the British and the
landlord’s is exposed the play closes with the Antoni revolt their determination to oppose
the forces, that reduced them to their plight to their own strategic warfare. Although they were defeated and killed, they
refuse to surrender. So, this ends our overview of this course
and thank you all for listening thank you!

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *