Junio Valerio Borghese – The Black Prince of World War II

Junio Valerio Borghese – The Black Prince of World War II

In this channel we have covered the lives of so many Nazi officers and officials
that we almost forgot about their Axis allies to the other side of the Alps: Italian Fascists. Their history may not be as well-known as
the lives of other protagonists of WWII, and yet I can assure you they had some interesting
characters marching about in their black-shirted uniforms since Mussolini founded the Fascist
Movement in 1919. One of them was today’s protagonist: a Roman
aristocrat with a taste for action, a pioneer of naval special forces, a military leader
loyal to Mussolini’s regime and the mastermind behind one of the most puzzling coups ever
… This is the story of Junio Valerio Borghese, The Black Prince of Fascism. [You-neo Val-eh-ree-ow Bore-gue-seh – ‘gue’
as in ‘guest’] Before we start
Before we start, let’s clarify a couple of points. Point 1 – At the time of the Fascist Regime
and WWII, Italy was a monarchy and Mussolini shared leadership of the Country with King
Victor Emmanuel the IIIrd. But: even if today’s protagonist was styled
as “Prince” he was not the King’s son, he was not related to him in any way and certainly
had no claims to the throne. In certain countries such as Italy or Russia
before the 1917 revolution it could happen that certain high-ranking nobles were titled
Princes even without a direct Royal lineage. Point 2 – The nickname of “Black Prince”
was given to Borghese only after the war (because of the black shirt used as a basic uniform
by members of the Fascist party and Militia. During the war he was known as “The Frog
Prince” because his tactics relied heavily on the use of frogmen. But: Frog Prince sounds like the title of
a Disney movie, and this guy was no fairy tale hero. Plus, Black Prince sounds so much cooler,
doesn’t it? [TA1]
Finding a place in the world Baby Junio was born in Artena [Ar-tay-nah],
close to Rome, Italy on probably the most unfortunate date ever:
6th [nr 6 appears on screen] Of June [a second nr 6 appears]
1906 [a third nr 6 appears, it reads: “6 6 6”]
Before you get all excited about a Fascist Prince of Darkness being born literally on
the day carrying the Number of the Beast, just consider that he came into an old aristocratic
family, the Borgheses, who could boast Napoleon’s brother-in-law and a Pope among their ancestors. Moreover, he was baptised – with probably
the most unfortunate name ever: Junio Valerio Scipione Ghezzo Marcantonio
Maria Borghese [name appears progressively on screen as it is read out.] [You-neo Val-eh-ree-ow Shee-pee-aw-neh Gue-tso
Mark An-tow-neo Marr-eea] His father, Prince Livio Borghese was a diplomat
and therefore young Junio grew up and studied first in Great Britain, then Portugal and
finally back to Rome. As a second-born son he knew he was not going
to inherit neither his family wealth nor the small castle in Artena, so he had to find
his own place in the world. Tradition dictated that non-first born sons
in the aristocracy made their fortune either in the clergy or in the military. Junio chose the latter, enrolling in the Livorno
[Lee-vor-naw] Naval Academy. In 1928 he graduated with the rank of midshipman,
with a specialisation in submarine warfare and an underwater diving certificate under
his belt. In 1931 he married Russian Countess Daria
Wassilewria Olsonfieff. The couple would go on to have four children
Elena, Paolo, Livio [Lee-vee-aw] and Andrea Sciré [Shee-ray]
As a military man, he had grown very close to Mussolini’s ideology and regime, especially
with the fear and hatred of communism, which was actually one of the few traits shared
by hardline Fascists and Italian aristocracy. But most of all, he was inspired by the extreme
nationalism of the Duce’s policies, which sought to establish an Italian sphere of influence
from the Adriatic to the Southern Mediterranean. A powerful Navy was vital to that objective. When Italy’s Navy, the Regia Marina [Ray-jah
Ma-Ree-nah] entered WWII in June 1940, it outnumbered the combined British and French
fleets in the Mediterranean 185 vessels to 144, although it suffered from a chronic lack
of fuel. However, back in the 1930s, Italian shipyards
were still lagging behind the British, both in quality and quantity of vessels. Young officers like Borghese proposed speed,
stealth and daring as an alternative: this meant investing in building small assaults
vessels, manned by highly trained commandos. The chief example of this new tactical approach
was the SLC, the human torpedo. [Subtitle on screen: ‘SLC=Siluro a Lenta
Corsa – Slow Running Torpedo Explosive pigs
The human torpedoes had been perfected by naval engineers Teseo Tesei and Elios Toschi
who had nicknamed them ‘maiali’ [mah-ee-ah-lee] or ‘pigs’ because of their strange grunting
noise. Basically, these were miniature submarines
on which two frogmen could sit astride. They were propelled by a small electric motor
and the frogman at the front was in charge of steering. Their tactic was to infiltrate enemy ports
at night, approach their target ship and attach a magnetic mine to the hull. It begs for an Instagram meme: “Who would
win, a Battleship or two dudes on a banana boat?” Surprisingly – it worked! They sank a total of 200,000 tonnes of Allied
shipping in the Mediterranean theatre only. So much so that the British Royal Navy stole
the idea, but we called them ‘chariots’ instead of ‘pigs’. Because we are classier. Underwater Prince
During the Spanish Civil War Prince Borghese was able to build up experience in stealth
submarine warfare: he led several illegal actions, bordering on piracy, intended to
damage neutral navies supplying the legitimate Republican Spanish government. On the night of the 30th of August 1937, aboard
the submarine ‘Iride’, Borghese went one step too far: he ordered a torpedo attack
against what appeared to be a Republican ship. It wasn’t. It was the British destroyer HMS Havock. The torpedo missed its mark and Havock gave
chase, joined by three more destroyers and a light cruiser. Despite the first ever use of the sonar in
wartime and deployment of depth charges the sneaky Prince evaded his pursuers and landed
safely in Naples on September the 5th. But the ensuing scandal put an end to all
submarine activities off the Spanish coast, meaning Borghese had to wait for at least
two years before going back into action … On June the 10th 1940, Mussolini declared
war on France and the United Kingdom. On the 12th of June the British light cruiser
Calypso was sunk off the coast of Crete by an Italian submarine. The Battle of the Mediterranean had begun. Prince Borghese had progressed in the ranks
and was now a corvette captain in charge of submarine ‘Sciré’ [Shee-ray]. His unit was part of the Tenth Light Flotilla,
the special forces of the Italian Navy, known also at the “Decima” [Day-chee-muh] MAS
– where MAS stands for their motto in Latin ‘Memento Audere Semper’ – ‘Remember
to dare always’. [Memento Ow-day-ray Sam-Peer]
The Sciré’s modus operandi was to sneak as close as possible to enemy ports in the
Mediterranean to launch two or three human torpedoes and sink Allied vessels. And this is how they scored a strategically
significant victory, Borghese’s greatest military success. On the 19th of December 1941, three of his
‘pigs’ launched off the Sciré and entered the port of Alexandria, Egypt, undetected. The frogmen made contact with their targets,
the battleships HMS Valiant and HMS Queen Elizabeth, and placed their explosive charges. The British sailors captured and interrogated
two of Borghese’s men, but they would not reveal the nature of their mission until the
last possible moment: they revealed the presence of mines allowing for most of the crew to
disembark to safety. When the charges went off, Valiant, Queen
Elizabeth and two other ships sank in the shallow waters of Alexandria. Overnight, the Axis navies had gained strategic
superiority, albeit temporary, across the Mediterranean. Borghese went to clock up more successes with
the Sciré, sinking or damaging a total of 90,131 Tons of Allied shipping during the
Battle of the Mediterranean. Civil war
On the 1st of May 1943 Borghese was promoted to the rank of Ship-of-the-line Captain and
Commander in chief of the Tenth MAS. Shortly afterwards, on the 25th of July, Benito
Mussolini was deposed and arrested in a military coup backed by King Victor Emmanuel III. For a short period, the Italian Army continued
its fight alongside Germany. Until on the 8th of September Mussolini’s
successor, Field Marshall Badoglio [Bah-doll-ee-aw] announced completely unexpectedly that Italy
had signed an armistice with the Allies. The Country was split in two, and found itself
plunged in a civil war, on top of the one it was already fighting. The Southern half was loyal to the King and
Badoglio, its armed forces saw the Germans as the invaders and as such sided with the
Allies. In the Northern half, the Germans and die-hard
Fascists had installed Mussolini at the head of a newly founded Italian Social Republic. This side saw the Allies as the invaders and
so maintained its alliance with the Nazis. Prince Borghese decided to continue fighting
on the German side, although he gave his men freedom of choice and awarded to everybody
an unrestricted order of leave, in case some of them wanted to join the King in the South. His behaviour so far was quite honourable,
although what followed may be open to a different interpretation. On the 14th of September he signed an agreement
with Nazi Germany, which effectively made him autonomous from Mussolini’s newly founded
Republic, yet placed the Tenth MAS in direct control of the German military. As a result, during the following two years,
Borghese mainly assigned his men to land operations. More precisely: counter-insurgency actions
at the behest of SS General Karl Wolff, intended to cripple the anti-fascist resistance in
Northern Italy. During his period the sailors – now foot
soldiers – of the Tenth MAS garnered a reputation as ruthless killers and torturers of guerrilla
fighters and civilians alike. In the spring of 1945 when it was clear that
the war with the Allies was lost, General Wolff met in Switzerland with representative
of the OSS, CIA’s predecessor, to negotiate a separate truce. One of Wolff’s requests was for Borghese
to receive a “honourable treatment”. In other words: spare him reprisals from the
resistance. The OSS kept their word. On the 25th of April 1945, the War in Italy
was formally over and Borghese – ever the sneaky Prince – made it unscathed to Rome
disguised as an American officer. Post-War Years
On the 30th of April 1945 the now democratic authorities in Italy apprehended Prince Borghese,
charged with being a collaborator of the Nazi occupation. After three years he was finally trialled
and in February 1949 sentenced to 12 years in jail. Once again, the OSS came to the rescue. They lobbied the magistrates to reduce the
sentence to three years – which he had already spent in jail waiting for the trial! So? Prince Junio Valerio etc etc Borghese was
now free as a bird. The Americans were in need of ‘the right
people’ – right-wing people, that is – to be active in Italy in balancing their perceived
threat of a Communist take-over. Having quit the military, the Prince channelled
his nationalistic and anti-communist fervour into politics. First, he joined the MSI – Italian Social
Movement, a right-wing party considered to be the heir of the Fascist Party. Borghese became the honorary president of
the MSI, but his rabid rhetoric and desire for action clashed with the party leadership,
in search of legitimacy to improve their image with the general public. The Prince founded his own extremist, far-right
movement, called the National Front. During this period Borghese became a sort
of spiritual leader for young neo-fascists, especially one Stefano Delle Chiaie
[Stay-pha-no Day-lay Kee-uh-ee-ay] … from the National Vanguard faction, a
terrorist group that espoused an ideology of violent action to counter communism and
the perceived influence of the Soviet Union in Italy’s internal affairs. We had the opportunity to speak with a retired
government official who met Prince Borghese in private several times during the 1960s. “Militarily speaking, he certainly did accomplish
a lot until 1941, but I always found it curious that he finished the War, with a rank equivalent
to Colonel – relatively low, for a 39 year old in a period of high mortality rate amongst
officers. After the war, I had the dubious fortune of
meeting the Prince in private as I was friends with one of his sons and my father was active
in the MSI. Borghese had a gift for inflammatory rhetoric,
but deep down you could tell that the man was full of … himself” [TA2]
‘Our most dangerous foes’[TA3] During the 1960s Italy was gripped in the
so called ‘Years of lead’ – a period of tension in which left and right wing terrorist
groups alike carried attacks against the State and civilian victims. Borghese was not going to stand back and watch. He was going to seize power. The first official record of preparations
for a coup d’etat can be traced back to the 11th of May 1969. According to an enquiry from RAI, Italian
Public TV, on that day in Genova, Borghese had a secret meeting with a group of influential
captains of industry to secure funds for his anti-communist and anti-democratic coup. Among them, even one Mr Piaggio. Yep, the guy who brought you Vespa. Next step: do you want to prevent a foreign
power – the Soviet Union – to mess with your Country? Then get help from another foreign power – US
of A! So Borghese dispatched his associate Adriano
Monti, an Army doctor, [Ah-dree-ah-no Mown-tee]
to meet another unsavoury character in Madrid: Otto Skorzeny. This former Nazi and SS commando was famous
for rescuing Mussolini from captivity in 1943 in a raid conducted by glider. This gentleman …
[Suggestion: show now the iconic photo of Skorzeny, with the facial scars and the madman
eyes] … had escaped Nuremberg after the war and
was thriving in Francoist Spain, in good relationship with the CIA. During their meeting, Skorzeny reassured Monti
that the US would be supportive of the coup, as it was part of their Cold War strategy
to establish a “belt” of reliable, authoritarian governments in Southern Europe to prevent
the Warsaw Pact from gaining access to the Mediterranean. Think about it: by the late 1960s Portugal,
Spain and Greece were under military dictatorships. Italy was the last piece of the puzzle. Plans for the coup were ready: Borghese and
his co-conspirators had managed to draft in General Miceli [Mee-tchay-lee], head of the
Military secret services. And on the other end of the spectrum: some
Mafiosi whose job was to assassinate the Chief of Police. Finally, the Prince pre-recorded a radio address
to the nation, which read: “The long-awaited coup has taken place … the
armed forces, the police, all the most competent men in this country, are all on our side. Our most dangerous foes, those who wanted
to enslave Italy to foreign powers, have been made harmless … Long live Italy!” The action – code name ‘Operation Tora
Tora’ – took place on the 7th and 8th of December 1970, in the shape of a multi-pronged
attack to the main institutions. On the 7th, a detachment of 50 National Vanguard
thugs, headed by Delle Chiaie snuck undetected into the Ministry of the Interior in Rome
and stole a cache of 200 sub-machine guns. The same night, an armoured battalion under
the orders of Colonel Piazzi [Pee-at-tsee] occupied strategically important barracks
in Sesto, Northern Italy, also a famous communist stronghold. In the early hours of the 8th, Colonel Berti
[sounds like Bertie] led a motorised column to seize the main offices of public TV and
Radio in Rome. But his men are not soldiers – they are
Forest Guards (!). Park Rangers, in other words. Why? Beats me. But at least they were armed, I guess. All seemed to be set for Borghese to turn
Italy into another military dictatorship. Then, everything just collapsed, melted away. First – Colonel Berti met two shadowy figures
in front of the TV offices. According to a witness, the two men who appeared
to be members of the Military Intelligence told him to go home, “boss’ orders”. Then – the National Vanguard thugs, who
apparently had received the same orders, snuck back into the Ministry and returned the sub-machine
guns. Only 199. They kept one as a souvenir. Finally – Colonel Piazzi, retreated, too. At the last minute, The Black Prince had given
the order to abort the coup. But why? According to one of the prosecutors who investigated
the coup in the ensuing years, Claudio Vitalone …
[Cloud-ee-aw Vee-tah-low-nay] … this was the intention from the start. The coup was just a bluff intended to provoke
a tough reaction from the government, in the hope that it declared the martial law to crack
down on the conspirators, effectively becoming an authoritarian regime in the process. The truth has never been established in a
definitive way, some even claiming that the coup never actually took place. The investigations proved inconclusive – resulting
in the prosecution of some National Vanguard terrorists, but the acquittal of most involved,
including Piaggio and the other industrialists. Whatever it was that happened that night,
luckily it didn’t work and Italy remained a democracy. But let’s go back to the night of December
the 8th. In his headquarters, after giving the order
to retreat, Borghese stretched his right hand to his accomplices. Branding himself a traitor, he demanded for
a pistol to shoot himself. He did not receive one and Borghese lived
on. The most incredible thing about this coup
is that, apparently, nobody had noticed that it had taken place! It took an article published in March 1971
for the public opinion to realise that Italy was heading towards Banana Republic status. When the news broke, the Black Prince left
for a self-imposed exile instead, moving to Spain, as many other former Nazi and Fascist
officials had done before him. After a spell in Barcelona, he moved to Cadiz
in Southern Spain. On the 26th of August 1974, the Black Prince,
Junio Valerio Borghese, who had escaped the clutches of the British Navy first, and the
Italian Police later, could not fool a bout of acute pancreatitis. He died aged 68, leaving behind a trail of
mysteries. Last but not least – his own death. As early as 1975 a magazine article suggested
he may have died from arsenic poisoning … The alleged killer? Borghese’s own ‘spiritual heir’ Stefano
Delle Chiaie – but that’s another story.

100 thoughts on “Junio Valerio Borghese – The Black Prince of World War II

  1. I don't know if you will ever read this but keep up the good work. I love watching your videos. Can you do a bio on Barbie since its her 60th anniversary or a bio on Gordon Ramsay.

  2. Could you do a Video on Ben Franklin? If you ask me he is one of the most influential men in not only in American history but world history for his inventions alone. And also I feel that Franklin's work in France during the war for Independence is largely looked over.

  3. Please do a video on Muhammad Ali Jinnah. He is the founder of Pakistan, the only ideological nation on the earth, the second one is Israel. Besides, given the current state of world affairs and everybody's critique on Pakistan, you can better understand it as a country that was envisaged by its father Muhammad Ali Jinnah when the partition of subcontinent happened . Besides his story struggles and motives for attaining a seperate Muslim nation carved out of British India will make us better understand the current dynamics of the relatiins between the two nuclear powers of South Asia.

  4. Can you do one on spongebob creator Stephen Hillenburg? I think he'd be an interesting topic since he created a pop culture juggernaut yet seemed to stay out of the limelight. Thanks

  5. If you are considering Italian weirdos from the war era and immediately post war era to do episodes on, may I recommend the so called (by his contemporaries) Magical Baron, Julius Evola? Tantric sex cultist and ur-fascist. He also wrote political treatises loved by neckbeards today and even an essay on the dangers of vampires.

    On a similar vein, if not from Italy, is Savitri Devi, an Anglo-Greek convert to Hinduism who came to think Hitler was an avatar of Vishnu and one of the weirdest international fascist ideologues.

  6. Ooooooo u could do the real black prince, Edward iii's first son, died before his dad so the crown went to Richard ii, that went well…

    History would have been very different if he'd been king

  7. 666 is not a date. The main difference between fascism and communism is that fascists seize control and run a totalitarian dictatorship which favors the 1% uber rich, such as banksters and corporate executives, while communists seize control and run a totalitarian dictatorship which lies to the masses, claiming to be on the side of the people, but in fact is just a handful of fascists who executed the former heads of state and took their place. Which kind of fascist do you think Trump is? (Hint: He's most certainly not on the side of the American people!)

  8. Question: What is the difference between entitled rich kids and entitled welfare bums?
    Answer: The source (and amount) of the "free" money they get handed to them and don't have to work for.

  9. Do all of Mussolini's picture look like he just remembered he forgot to pick up his kid from daycare 2 days ago?

  10. Howboutcher helicopters frenetico over yer pentergon and areas likeforth and therewhich LoveTrump Sexy or the importance of being earnest?

  11. russian princes only came to be via arrangement via austria.. those were austran or to be more exact HRE titles. Dunno how it worked in italy tho.

  12. Some kind of weird assumption italian fascism was right wing?? Mussolini was a damn socal democrat that went a bit more authoritarian as he joined the fascists. With traits such as european social democracy, corporatism and private property it damn well resembles the order of the day in europe today. In short a leftist authoritarian system. Conveniently called fascism ad denigrated by soviet propaganda who really didnt like their own saves finding out about this as they did not trust their slaves with private property and even less with what politicalpower was awarded via corporatist structures (ie unions and state together set wages and standard contracts such as holidays, pensions and such)

  13. Do a bio piece on the former New Orleans corrupt Mayor, Ray Nagin. Now in a federal prison set for release on 2023.

  14. Can you do more videos about ww2 in Italy? Seems like there is not as much info talked about involving Italy.

  15. Simon, I respect you so much for putting in the effort to not butcher the pronunciation of words that are not native to you. Something 99% of the people in the world are guilty of.

  16. I would love to see a bio on Louis Riel. On of Canada's more interesting historical figures in my opinion.
    Great job as always Simon and the rest of the Biographics crew.

  17. The "I" in Italian is pronounced like a hard "e" in English. On his extended name, at Scipione onwards, you made a right bullocks of his name. Maria (ma-ree-a, English pronunciation). The way you pronounced Maria, so when translated = tide, in Italian. Very good story. You absolutely rock. I love it when the English get cocky in Italian. They'll have to rename the song "Ave Maria" to "Hail Tide". :–)

  18. Speaking of World War II, could you one day do a video for Ion Antonescu (Romanian General that was liked by Hitler) or maybe King Michael (The final king and the one to fool Hitler)? Anyway, great video as always. Thank you for your work for humanity.

  19. I'm curious, does anyone know if the tradition of calling the Navy SEAL teams "Frogmen" came from the Pig submarines??

  20. Master Simon, I pride myself on knowing everything led to WWI through, well really today. Political climate, popular machinations, military build up or deterioration, etc. However this is an Italian Fascist I did not know about. Just goes to show that no one knows everything. Thank you kind sir‼️‼️✊🏼✊🏼✊🏼🧠🧠🧠📚📚📚🤘🏼🤘🏼🤘🏼🥃🥃🥃

  21. Please do one on General Koos De La Rey. A man who resisted war but when he had no choice was so ferocious they called him "Lion of the west Transvaal"

  22. Don't worry about your Italian pronunciations. You're British so no one expects you to even be able to speak English. Just ask "Lis-UR." She has all the "dat-UR" from the "DaR-licks." She's busy cooking "fill-eTs" using "hurbs" which elicited the "roth" of her "mum" when she left the "bah-suhl" in her "nis-an" 370Z. She looked in her "Sha-vah" "cam-ree-oh" but they "warnt" there.

  23. What an interesting and informative video! That was quite exciting that you had a direct source! Thank you so much for another great video.

  24. Thank you, the 'golpe borghese' as it is know in Italy, it's a part in italy history that no one talk about, except a really good episode from 'Blu Notte', and this is a good addition!

  25. Not a single Italian name was pronounced correctly … 🤣
    I am not a rightist, and I think that Borghese's anti-communism was a pathology which makes his final chapter of life definetely unpleasant.
    However, he was a war hero, regardless of which front he chose. Therefore, as an Italian, I honor him for his courage and patriotism.

  26. What a surprise! The USA sided with the far right in other countries, installing dictatorships in the process. Latin America knows it well.

  27. Fun facts about this story:

    The Italian frogman under Borghese needed a clear "see in the dark" wristwatch to time their operations underwater. Those watches were commissioned to an engineer called Panerai, the quality of those watches lead to the popular Panerai brand.

    The 10th MAS marines had the emblem written in Roman numerals reading XMAS which lead the Americas to refer to them sometimes as the Christmas soldiers.

  28. The Italians didn't produce many outstanding commanders in ww2,but Borghese was the exception.A brilliant commander,and whose frogmen tactics were revolutionary for their time.

  29. He seems like a weird dude, but good job with it. I like how you were able to talk to someone who knew him!

    Are you ever gonna do George VI? How about Magda Goebbels? You did an episode on Joseph Goebbels.

    Or how about Otto Frank (Anne Frank's father) or Helga Goebbels (Joseph and Magda's eldest daughter). I would enjoy some episodes on lesser known relations of really famous or infamous people.

    Or how about Dietrich Bonhoeffer?

    Or some of the July 20th conspirators? Since the 75th anniversary is coming up.

  30. Guy: No excuse on the many mispronunciations of Italian names. Any Italian restaurant waiter in the UK could have set you strait in minutes. Otherwise, thanks for the interesting episode.

  31. We have the US to thank for many former Nazi & SS war criminals being released following the war. Had the US had its way Western Europe would have become ultra right wing with death squads eliminating anyone with leftist leanings. The US later achieved this in South America where the CIA funded & worked with fascist death squads.

  32. Regarding the "Park Rangers": there are several different police forces in Italy that are belonging to different Ministries and thus practically independent of one another (e.g. Polizia Statale, Carabinieri, Fiamme Gialle – the financial police, etc…) and one such type of Italian police are the Corpo Forestale… Maybe they were the easiest to be persuaded by the conspirators to join the coup…

  33. I'm fairly certain there is a certain English noblemen nicknamed the black Prince,whom this one may be nicknamed after

  34. Could you do a feature of Zawisza the Black of Garbów also known as "the Black Knight" or "First knight of Europe"? A fascinating man who lived an incredible life.

  35. Otto Skorzeny deserves his own biographics. Might even need to be a 2 parter that guy was involved in everything

  36. hey biographics, why did you say the evil spanish communists (backed by the evil foreign USSR) were the "legitimate spanish republic". clearly a biased channel

  37. hey biographics why are saying there was "perceived communist takeover" or "perceived USSR infiltration in italy". the communists and USSR were trying to subvert italy and europe generally. are you a dirty communist sympathizer?

  38. Thanks for making this! Not many documentaries on The Black Prince. The 1992 Alan Francovich Gladio documentary delves into him for a few minutes. But clearly not enough time to explain what a crazy career he had during WW2 with the ‎Decima Flottiglia MAS and his role as death squad leader killing partisans and his post WW2 career as a OSS/CIA asset during gladio. Not to mention him being a notorious neo-fascist. Supposedly he arranged for assassins/Zips to come to America to help with The JFK assassination. Not to mention hes not really good at staging coups! Licio Gelli of the P2 Masonic Lodge is another interesting character of that world.

  39. Ironically another Neo Facsist Licio Gelli was nicknamed "The Prince of Darkness" The Character Don Licio Lucchesi from Godfather 3 was modeled From Gelli who led the P2 (Propaganda due) Masonic Lodge.

  40. My Nono left Italy in 1926 because of Mussolini. The family was bound to Argentina, but the ship made a stop in Nicaragua, and they stayed. During WWII my Nono with his parents and siblings were put in an interment camp among German and Japanese naturals to be deported back to their homelands. Fast forward to 1979 and once again my Nono and his brother and their descendants had to leave a country due to dictators. We now live in the USA. As you said, history one life at a time♥️

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