How the British failed India and Pakistan

How the British failed India and Pakistan


Every evening, a dramatic show takes place
at the border between Pakistan and India. It’s an over the top display of strength
and nationalism from both sides. But while this show-down is mostly ceremonial,
the animosity between these two nuclear-armed countries is very real. A lot of this bitter rivalry can be traced
back to when Pakistan and India were still united under British rule. Back to this moment. For nearly 200 years, the people of India
lived under British rule. At the time, dominant religious groups in
the country included Hindus, Muslims, and Sikhs. The British colonized this large nation through
a policy of “divide and rule” that pitted these religious groups against each other.
The strategy was that Indians would be busy fighting each other — instead of British
imperial rule. But after decades of violence and oppression
by the British, people found a reason to come together: a movement for independence. The British responded with brutality and violence.
But eventually, the movement for independence led to a decision that would create a political
rift between Hindus and Muslims. Britain passed the Government of India Act
of 1935. It gave Indian provinces a new political structure, while still under the authority
of the British crown. The act set up local governments with dedicated
seats for representatives from religious groups including: Hindus who got “general seats”,
along with Sikhs, and Muslims – or “Muhammadan”. Hindus and Muslims in particular had been
at odds at other points in British India’s history — but the act created even more
division through assigned seats for religious groups. It was all part of the British divide-and-rule
strategy. In the resulting elections, a Hindu-majority
party called the Indian National Congress, was led by Jawaharlal Nehru. Another party,
the All-India Muslim League, was led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Nehru and Congress won over 700 legislative
seats, while Jinnah and the Muslim League only won 106. The majority of Muslims voted for other, smaller
parties, rather than aligning with a national political identity. Without majority representation in the new
governments, Jinnah worried the Muslim population was increasingly vulnerable to oppression
by Hindu leadership. And his fears weren’t entirely unfounded.
Violence against Muslims had broken out in some parts of the country. Jinnah expressed his concerns in a speech
to the Muslim League: “We are now, therefore, very apprehensive and can trust nobody.” This was a striking turn for a man who had
once been an ambassador for Hindu-Muslim unity. Just 20 years earlier, Jinnah dismissed the
concern that “Muslims could become a minority in what might become a Hindu state” as a
“bogey put before you by your enemies to frighten you from cooperation with Hindus” But by 1945, especially after the defeat in
elections, he shifted focus. Jinnah called for an independent nation of Pakistan in which
Muslims would be in the majority. He warned: A United India “meant slavery
for Mussulmans.” “Muslims insisted on their demand for their
own separate state and complete independence from the Hindu majority.” This time, Muslims rallied around Jinnah’s
new focus on Pakistan and his call for “direct action,” where he asked Muslims to strike and show unity in their demand for an independent state. But a rally in Calcutta, which was home to
both Hindus and Muslims, turned violent. Thousands of people died in what is known
as the Great Calcutta Killings of 1946. In this atmosphere of civil unrest, Britain
announced their withdrawal from India. And it fell to this man, Lord Mountbatten,
the Viceroy of India, to broker a deal between Nehru and Jinnah and to organize Britain’s
exit from India. It was at this moment that these men agreed
to the partition of India along religious lines Jinnah would get Pakistan, the new nation
that he believed would protect Muslims from oppression. Nehru, fearing more religious violence in
India, agreed to the plan. “He agrees to the partition of colonial
India into two separate religious states — Pakistan with 100 million Muslims is created
as a counterpart to India with 300 million Hindus.” A British lawyer named Cyril Radcliffe, who
had never been to India was given less than 40 days to draw up the new borders based on
outdated maps and census data. Radcliffe kept the region with the Muslim
League’s political base in India, instead of including it within Pakistan’s borders. And his borders also left most economic centers
like Delhi, Bombay and Calcutta within India, leaving the future Pakistan at an economic
disadvantage. To make matters worse, the British  unexpectedly
moved the date of their exit up by ten months. They said it was important to get the two
countries “launched and on their way,” because “the longer you keep them hanging
about, the greater the difficulties that arise.” But behind the scenes, Britain had been battered
in the second world war, and no longer had the resources to continue its control over
India. And so Britain rushed out of India, and finally
gave them independence. Which meant that this moment — one that was supposed to ease
tensions between Muslims and Hindus — was actually a botched handover of power. “Millions of Indians, led by Prime Minister
Nehru, celebrated the independence of this great nation. Led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah,
the new dominion of Pakistan also celebrated its independence on August 15, 1947.” It marked the origins of India and Pakistan,
with horrific bloodshed. The partition of India led to violent riots
and mass migration along the newly created borders. Fearing religious persecution, many Muslims
fled to Pakistan, while Hindus and Sikhs moved across the border to India. But many never made it to their destinations. “In the trail of murder and arson come the
refugees. Their suffering is the new tragedy of India. Carrying their few possessions,
they flee savagery and butchery that has never been exceeded even in India’s stormy history.” About 1 million people died and over 14 million
were displaced. Most of the bloodshed happened here in Punjab
and Bengal, where the new border cut through provinces that were home to Muslims, Hindus
and Sikhs. And another province, Kashmir, which fell
on the border, became the center of a different conflict — a dispute over ownership that
would define the rivalry between the two nations for decades to come. “Already the province of Kashmir is in dispute.” “India is trying to hold down by force what
she managed to take by fraud” “The present hostilities originated with
large-scale infiltrations from armed personnel originating from Pakistan” “If they have any idea of taking a chunk
of my territory in East Pakistan, this will mean war!” “ “Indians gunned down a plane which had no
capability of doing anything in self-defense. It’s a barbaric act.” “This is an India that will return the damage
done by terrorists with interest.” The rivalry between India and Pakistan has
persisted for over 70 years. But it’s important to remember where it all began — a British
strategy that was designed to create a religious divide between people of one nation. So this was an incredibly complex story for us to try and cover in 9 minutes. The animosity between Hindus and Muslims actually predates the British empire. But for this story, we really wanted to cover how religious divisions became politically defined under British rule. And also in this video, I mention Kashmir as being a major point of conflict that came out of the partition of India We didn’t go very in-depth into it in this video at all, but my colleague Sam Ellis made a great episode of Vox Atlas that dives deep into Kashmir specifically, so be sure to check that out

100 thoughts on “How the British failed India and Pakistan

  1. im dissapointed india has an older society than the british and still manage to be left behind techologically and politically. no other they got conquored.

  2. If the Subcontinent had United, it would have become a superpower.
    India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and even Nepal and Bhutan have more similarities than differences.
    Every Politician wants power to themselves, but forget the power of Unity.

  3. The thing is
    British was done looting indian treasurer and resources. There were people too fighting them for independence and ww2 too.
    Britishers would have been begging by now but indian treasures.

  4. Imran khan is great leader, He offered india to make good realtions but indian's politician spread hate about Pak, and refuse to make good realtionship.although Imran khan open kartarpur border for sikh brothers to promote peace.

  5. India and Pakistan fail because
    Pakistan promote Terrorism
    And India promote Rape and Scam
    Don't blame British because of these looser's

  6. I wonder what if Pakistan never got independent lol

    I've been to india many times and Muslims are not exactly oppressed,india in fact seems like one of more secular countries ive been too, could've saved Pakistan from all the economic trouble they are in now too tbh

  7. If it was not for Pakistan/India Independence I would not be born as my father was on death row India,
    From death row to the British fleeing army to Britain within a week, my dad pretended to be a translator
    Hollywood could not have dreamed of a script

  8. I just wish humans go extinct soon. They've charred the earth.
    P.S. I know I am a human too but yeah we deserve it

  9. British sowed the seed of this weed hard to uproot. Now, both sides are suffering.
    Basically, British and related are the origins of all problems in modern world.

  10. It was Jinnah’s direct action day to strike war against Hindus and not some great killings what so ever where people in general died.

  11. Why is it always just the Muslims as victims? Why did you say ‘Jinnah’s worries weren’t entirely unfounded as there was increasing persecution of Muslims’. That makes me so angry. Do you not think that Hindus are also victims? Do you think the Muslim community is completely innocent?

  12. 6:30 listen Pakistan gats independent (born) on 15 August 1947 . Later then they changed to 14 August so that they don't wanted to celebrate Independence Day With India on date of
    15 August . And now look those pakistani are saying that we get independence first before India😂 that much of fool pakistani govt is making to it's people to just justified the division.

  13. British brought this divide and rule idea and the politicians from both the country exploited it to great extent.

  14. Everywhere racist white folks go it’s a disaster. They are the ones with the advance weapons while these countries are trying to live their lives. Divide and conquer.. civilization was a mistake. It really was ….. just sad. No one belongs on this beautiful earth, if we can’t get alone and love each other. Yes there will be different cultures but we can learn from each other rather than forcing the loser to adapt to the oppressor’s make. Believe culture.

  15. The Video says that Hindus and Muslims are Rivals.. AGREED.
    But the Video doesn't talk about the 80 Million+ Hindus Massacred by Muslims in the span of 800 Years..

    I Honestly still don't understand why Muslims killed Hindus with so much Passion!

  16. The irony is the British divided India and Pakistan in just 4 month's time and by a person who knew nothing of India…… And they take three years and still can't finalise brexit

  17. The irony is the British divided India and Pakistan in just 4 month's time and by a person who knew nothing of India…… And they take three years and still can't finalise brexit

  18. Always blaming the west. Sure Britain didn’t help but how about some accountability among the Muslims and Hindus? How about they fix it? 70 years has passed and it’s still the British fault?

  19. The only terrorists are the white ppl .brown race zindabaad .india Pakistan plz be friends and unite Ur hearts against the white bastards in UK USA and everywhere . brown race zindabaad

  20. "Oh I know we should give muslims 2 parts in opposite ends of India to make it a fair and stable region" said the British before leaving

  21. This also create terrorists first jiihadis made by Pak for India to grab Kashmir from India …
    Now we see it affected all the world

  22. Pakistan was never united with India during british rule. It NEVER existed. Todays Pakistani land is Indias. Even they got a part of Indias land they cant be in peace. They should be banished with their religion from wherever they came into Hindukush, Sindhu, punjab etc.

  23. Well 99% of the world disputes are because of that time of British colonial rule. Ones Greed is others suffering that's how you become rich

  24. British never underestimated Indians (especially you can see how many of them are in NASA, Google, Microsoft) and was afraid that one day after becoming superpower this country could be a threat to them, so they decided to permanently divide them into two nations and led them to fight for decades within themselves, thus halting their growth after they completely looted India.

  25. The war of this complex political matter is just going to be escalated and framed in favours of those who lie in its benefits.
    For short dont mistake ,that the British wanted to bring peace while leaving, they created this caos cos they had their own intention.

  26. British are the real blight on this planet acting all high and mighty thinking others as insignificant major crimes against humanity if you think about it major problems like racism and slavery etc are the seeds down by British

  27. Millions of Indian dies cause of starvation in Bengal .and all stored Indian food was exported to Britain . millions of Indian dies in freedom struggle ,my one generation suffer so much .so much painful story of evry freedom fighter of that period . at least now we are free .

  28. Though it's hard of the divide…yet all is planed by God…else terrorists would be in Indian people's yards. Working against us in the name of religion.we Hindu christians jains Sikhs Buddhists..and good Indian Muslim…would be on our toes..never knowing what will happen …thank God he saved India yet United yet diversified…we stay yet strong strong…from a rogue neighbour….Jinnah self thought and welcomed states to join Pak on the promise of secular state but now all minorities of Hindu and Sikhs christians are suffering for them…after it declared as Islamic state…happy for INDIANS…

  29. Seriously if God really exists in ANY religious form, he would DEFINITELY removed that small subcontinent called UK from the face of earth.

  30. Sometimes I feel that half of the world should held Brithish accountable for their wrong doings around the world, but then I realize that people were too foolish to let foriegners invade us.

  31. Yeah, depredations dont end there. They have not apologized for jalianwala bagh massacre. The death of millions in famines.

  32. Most of the problems of the 21 century has their genesis on religious line created by earlier British and now same policy being followed by USA..devide and rule.. Muslim vs hindu.. Shia vs Sunni..you just name it

  33. It's not Muslim country or Hindu country those leaders wanted..its power that they wanted after being boss of that devided country

  34. Why you showed Kashmir in Green color as a part of Pakistan, the papers were signed by Kashmir to be with India, either you show them neutral in grey color or with India, why green, there is no sense for it.

  35. The fire of hate and division that Brits had lit is still burning in the subcontinent. People of India, Bangladesh and Pakistan must unite to defeat the evil influences of Brits and other cunning Western powers. Subcontinent and China together can build the greatest civilization that the world will ever see.

  36. british did not just leave india due to rising unrest in hindu muslim

    but they feared INA
    THE MAN THE MYSTRY SUBHASH CHANDRA BOSE

  37. And the Britishers call themselves gentlemen… So, is strategically killing billions of people worldwide a part of being gentle?

  38. U can divide a nation into two,,,but can't divide the unity and humanity of us!!!😔Shame on u Britishers on dividing it in the name of religion!

  39. Time has come for Russia-China group to defeat n wipe out completely British-American sponsored division, hate, killings n mis-governance in whole of Indian sub-continent. A disintegration of radical Islamists Jehadis Army garrison country Pakistan z the first requirement.

  40. India was apparently the richest country in the world before the Brit looted India for 200 yrs that's y India is very poor in some areas

  41. The reason they rushed out is they knew the war that was gonna that was gonna take place they literally started the war and said " ok u can start

  42. Where was India before 1947?
    Pakistan and Indian were untied / semi united only under British.

  43. It just clearer stated that they wanted it. Not the British it was BOTH OF THEM WHICH WANTED AN INDEPENDENT RELIGIOUS STATES….

  44. Hey brothers n sisters of both countries: Pakistan n India,,, I m requesting you to please unite again as a one nation free from religion, caste, colour and become a fastest developing country. Hope we'll be able to unite again some day

  45. It's so funny that the British people still think that they did good for the people. It's the moment when I don't know how to react.

  46. @vox You purposely showing wrong map of india. Trying to show Kashmir as part of pakistan. Very cleverly tried to hide facts. Talked about muslims only.

  47. We all know HITLER is a psychopath and treated as a villain in history but i belive what he did to the british was right they diserv that….British looted and exploited india.and divided us .. india was one of most rich countries both in culture and wealth…….after the british rule indians become poor…the main problems now india facing . poverty radication and pakistan both are gifted by british.. the british empire builded with the looted wealth.. they developed theyr country by making other' poor..dont worry we believe in karma

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