French Nationalism

French Nationalism


The French National Anthem is called La Marseillaise. The words and music were written by Claude
Joseph Rouget de Lisle, then an officer in the French army, based in Strasbourg. It urges the French to fight against the Prussian
invasion that followed the French Revolution and was subsequently banned under Napoleon
III for much of the 19th century. It was only permanently adopted after 1879. The song as first sung in April 1792, and
reached Marseille with the troops three months later. Its rousing theme was an immediate success,
and it was a battalion from Marseille that sung the anthem in Paris later that year. Hence the name ‘La Marseillaise’ was adopted. Rise up, you children of the Fatherland! Your day of glory now is here! See the bloody flag of oppression raised against
us. Tyranny’s near! Raised against us, tyranny’s near. O can you hear how in the fields the dread
clamor of soldiers alarm? They’re coming straight into your arms, sworn
to slit the throats of your sons, your friends. To arms, you patriot hearts! Arise, battalions form! March on, march on! Let blood so vile be spilled ’til victory’s
won. March on, march on! Let blood so vile be spilled ’til victory’s
won. Louis Pasteur is perhaps the most influential
French scientist of the 19th century, who made great advances in microbiology and vaccination
that are still applied today. Pasteur is credited with inventing germ theory
as he determined the causes of diseases were various types of germs and microbes and the
vaccinations for rabies and anthrax diseases. In addition, he invented the pasteurization
process in food and beverage preparation to stop bacterial contamination. He had a famous rivalry with German microbiologist
Robert Koch fueled by nationalism, in which he significantly triumphed over the humiliated
Koch who failed to produce a successful TB vaccine, contributing to the French nationalistic
agenda. Therefore, his advances in science not only
benefited France immensely at a public health level but also from a nationalistic standpoint
during a time fraught with competition over technological advancement. Additionally, all of his innovations either
directly translate to many of today’s medical and scientific methods or were used as a foundation
for them. Napoleon Bonaparte was an emperor and military
general of France in the early 19th century. Born in Corsica in 1769, he was sent to military
school in France, eventually becoming a lieutenant by age 16. He then rose in the ranks of the French military,
becoming a general and controlling the entire French army by age 26. In 1799, Napoleon staged a coup d’état and
assumed the position as emperor of France in 1804. Through a series of successful military campaigns,
Napoleon expanded the French empire from Spain to Prussia. He justified these campaigns under the pretense
that France had the right to share their enlightened values that arose from the French Revolution. This significantly increased the influence
and power that France possessed, and France, under Napoleonic reign, changed its policies
and was essentially more stable than it had been in recent years. Napoleonic policies gave equality to all citizens
but reversed some of the more female-child inclusive policies instituted during the French
Revolution. The new policies gave the Frenchmen religious
freedom, and the Napoleonic Code and its policies became the basis for modern French law. Do you experience headaches? Or perhaps you just enjoy drugs… well, you
have France to thank for that magical med we call Asprin. Scientifically known as acetylsalicylic acid,
the first person to buffer it correctly was a French chemist named Charles Frédéric
Gerhardt. In 1853, he neutralized salicylic acid from
the plant spiraea ulmaria by buffering it with sodium salicylate and acetyl chloride
to create the drug we so commonly use to treat fever, pain and inflammation. Rene Laënnec was a French physician who invented
the stethoscope in 1816. Laënnec created a hollow tube of wood, 3.5
cm in diameter and 25 cm long which was fitted with a plug that could be disassembled. Using this new instrument, he investigated
the sounds made by the heart and lungs and determined that his diagnoses were supported
by the observations made during autopsies. The reason the stethoscope was created was
because Laënnec had to perform ‘immediate auscultation’ which is a fancy word for
placing the doctor’s ear on the patient’s chest. However, because of the age, sex, and body
frame of the patient, Laennec was reluctant to do so. For this reason, the wooden tube was created,
making it the first true stethoscope and was used most of the 19th century. Since then, several modifications have been
introduced, such as the diaphragm, the electronic and differential stethoscope, which is the 2 chest piece
stethoscope, and more. To arms, you patriot hearts! Arise, battalions form! March on, march on! Let blood so vile be spilled ’til victory’s
won!

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