Fossils 101 | National Geographic

Fossils 101 | National Geographic


(gentle music) – [Narrator] Like buried treasure, they lie hidden from sight. Echoes of an ancient
past, they whisper secrets and tell tales once lost to time. Fossils are remnants or
impressions of ancient organisms that are naturally preserved in stone. While there are hundreds of fossil types, they are often grouped
into two major categories, body fossils, which are
the preserved remains of plants and animals, and trace fossils, which are records of an animal’s behavior, such as footprints. Together, they form the fossil record, a primary account that tells the story of life on Earth through stone. Fossilization or the process of preserving organisms in stone, can
occur in countless ways. These methods are largely grouped depending on whether the organisms are altered during the
fossilization process. Fossilization that does
not alter a specimen can help to preserve its
original form and texture. Among many methods, this
group includes organisms that have been frozen, preserved in tar pits, and mummified. One special case involves
trapping organisms, oftentimes insects, in amber. This process begins when
an organism is covered in tree sap. The sap or resin forms a protective seal around the entrapped organism. Over time, the soft resin hardens and turns into amber with the organism suspended within. This process creates a
biologically inert tomb for the organism,
allowing its soft tissues to be remarkably preserved. Other fossilization
methods change the specimen as it is being preserved. For instance, carbonization
transforms soft tissues into thin black films of carbon. In fact, countless layers
of carbonized plant material create a well known fossil fuel, coal. But one of the most common
types of fossilization that changes a specimen is
called permineralization. Permineralization begins
when minerals from water or the ground enter
the pores of dead plant or animal material. Over time, the minerals attach themselves, clinging onto cellular walls and building a crystalline
network in the empty cavities. This mineralization hardens the bone and turns it into stone, thereby preserving its original
structure in fossil form. When conditions are right, fossilization can preserve
crucial information about an organism. Permineralized wood often
contains enough information to identify its tree genus and sometimes its species. Insects encased in amber
have been so well preserved that their genetic material was extracted and partially sequenced. And footprints left
behind by ancient hominids help paint a picture of what life was like for early human ancestors
millions of years ago. With every fossil uncovered, the planet’s ancient past becomes clearer, helping shape our understanding
of our world today. (gentle music)

100 thoughts on “Fossils 101 | National Geographic

  1. The fossil record is a primary account that tells the story of life on Earth through stone. What intrigues you the most about the fossilization process?

  2. Mudfossil University (on Youtube and FB has DNA certified soft tissue fossils of very large Humans. These are cat scanned and anatomist verified and DNA certified….the process recreated and it leads to body parts in exquiste detail of veins and arteries skin and lungs…hearts and more but no bones because of bone reactivity in salty wet soils. However salt preserves flesh.

  3. I love the science behind fossils and dinosaurs. I'd like to see more serious media about dinosaurs but they are often just used to attract children. Like common dinosaur books in the store or a real life dinosaur show. Only for children

  4. I wish they had spent a small amount of time talking about the fossilization that Dr. Mary Schweitzer discovered with soft tissues. So much misconceptions are out there on what it is because people only read headlines. And her discovery is one of the biggest in her field in a long time.

  5. I used to watch this but I came across a channel on YouTube called Muddfosil university, by Roger Spurr. One video and I was hooked.

  6. Here's an interesting fact… they have never found an intermediary fossil of any living species and they never will! You know why? Bc evolution is a lie! The religion of atheism has been indoctrinating us from childhood and sadly we aren't taught to think critically just memorize and accept whatever is presented in front of us as facts. Every fairy tale begins with… a long long time ago.. like millions and billions of years ago? Lol. Please watch Walter Veith's GENESIS CONFLICT series and weigh the facts for yourself. God bless!

  7. And to think, there are people that want to Illuminate the past!
    To have No past all because they think it is EVIL!
    Maybe they are the Evil ones?!

  8. I think you should tell your audience that radiocarbon dating is not as accurate as scientist point out to be; therefore the age of these fossils might be totally inaccurate.

  9. Honestly this is the first time I can know & can learn about this fossils video because I'm not finish my studies. I think this is include for the science subject

  10. I seriously love this video. I am a biology student and I am studying all this in EVOLUTION Chapter. Please provide us more information about these things. 😙😙😙😗😁😁

  11. This video left out a lot of important information about how the fossils get I trapped in the rock. It is done by a fast process of sediment burying the victim quickly. The same is true with track fossils, if this didn’t happen it would be like walking near the beach as having the ocean wash it away. They mentioned millions of years, the problem they face is that they don’t know the conditions of that time and a lot of the fossils that are supposed to be millions of years old still have traces of Carbon-14. That should be gone after about 60 thousand years.

  12. I love history and these reminds me that we won’t last forever also. We are gonna be next to extinct maybe thousand years

  13. This piece need to be longer Nat Geo..we need to learn more about this subject.. lot of those footage you showed here i never seen them anywhere else before

  14. This video was very helpful for me to elaborate on the type and process of fossils and I was surprised to learn that the fossils trapped in the ice were so well preserved that they could not be compared to other fossils.

  15. Why did you guys flash dino bird on the screen @00:20 that was one that you all found out was a hoax just weeks after you released it. Very sad practices. Be careful little eyes are watching.

  16. This video makes me remember the movie Jurassic Park.
    The story was begun with a mosquito, which contains the blood of a dinosaur in the amber.
    It is just a imagine story, but I expect that one day I could see the real dinosaurs in my life.

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  18. The remains or traces of plants and animals deposited with the sediment inside the sedimentary rocks of the geologic era are called fossils. The majority of fossils are hard because they have been buried underground for many years. I want to be a geologist and dig up fossils.

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