Early modern period | Wikipedia audio article

Early modern period | Wikipedia audio article


The early modern period of modern history
follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era. Although the chronological limits of the period
are open to debate, the timeframe spans the period after the late portion of the post-classical
age (c. 1500), known as the Middle Ages, through the beginning of the Age of Revolutions (c.
1800) and is variously demarcated by historians as beginning with the Fall of Constantinople
in 1453, with the Renaissance period, and with the Age of Discovery (especially with
the voyages of Christopher Columbus beginning in 1492, but also with Vasco da Gama’s discovery
of the sea route to the East in 1498), and ending around the French Revolution in 1789. Historians in recent decades have argued that
from a worldwide standpoint, the most important feature of the early modern period was its
globalizing character. The period witnessed the exploration and colonization
of the Americas and the rise of sustained contacts between previously isolated parts
of the globe. The historical powers became involved in global
trade, as the exchange of goods, plants, animals, and food crops extended to the Old World and
the New World. The Columbian Exchange greatly affected the
human environment. New economies and institutions emerged, becoming
more sophisticated and globally articulated over the course of the early modern period. This process began in the medieval North Italian
city-states, particularly Genoa, Venice, and Milan. The early modern period also included the
rise of the dominance of the economic theory of mercantilism. The European colonization of the Americas,
Asia, and Africa occurred during the 15th to 19th centuries, and spread Christianity
around the world. The early modern trends in various regions
of the world represented a shift away from medieval modes of organization, politically
and economically. Feudalism declined in Europe, while the period
also included the Protestant Reformation, the disastrous Thirty Years’ War, the Commercial
Revolution, the European colonization of the Americas, and the Golden Age of Piracy. By the 16th century the economy under the
Ming Dynasty was stimulated by trade with the Portuguese, the Spanish, and the Dutch,
while Japan engaged in the Nanban trade after the arrival of the first European Portuguese
during the Azuchi-Momoyama period. Other notable trends of the early modern period
include the development of experimental science, accelerated travel due to improvements in
mapping and ship design, increasingly rapid technological progress, secularized civic
politics, and the emergence of nation states. Historians typically date the end of the early
modern period when the French Revolution of the 1790s began the “late modern” period.==Early modern timeline==Dates are approximate. Consult particular article for details. Early modern themes Other==East Asia=====Chinese dynasties===Around the beginning of the Ming dynasty (1368—1644),
China was leading the world in mathematics as well as science. However, Europe soon caught up to China’s
scientific and mathematical achievements and surpassed them. The reason behind China’s lag in advancement
has speculated by many scholars. A historian named Colin Ronan claims that
though there is no one specific answer, there must be a connection between China’s urgency
for new discoveries being weaker than Europe’s and China’s inability to capitalize on its
early advantages. Ronan believes that China’s Confucian bureaucracy
and traditions led to China not having a scientific revolution, which led China to have fewer
scientists who would break the existing orthodoxies, like Galileo Galilei. Despite inventing gunpowder in the 9th century,
it was in Europe that the classic handheld firearms, matchlocks, were invented, with
evidence of use around the 1480s. China was using the matchlocks by 1540, after
the Portuguese brought their matchlocks to Japan in the early 1500s. China during the Ming Dynasty established
a bureau to maintain its calendar. The bureau was necessary because the calendars
were linked to celestial phenomena and that needs regular maintenance because twelve lunar
months have 344 or 355 days, so occasional leap months have to be added in order to maintain
365 days per year.In the 16th century the Ming dynasty flourished over maritime trade
with the Portuguese, Spanish and Dutch Empires. The trade brought in a massive amount of silver,
which China at the time needed desperately. Prior to China’s global trade, its economy
ran on a paper money. However, in the 14th century, China’s paper
money system suffered a crisis, and by the mid-15th century, crashed. The silver imports helped fill the void left
by the broken paper money system, which helps explain why the value of silver in China was
twice as high as the value of silver in Spain during the end of the 16th century.The Ming
Dynasty suffered an economic collapse in the seventeenth-century because of heavy inflation
of silver, and the European trade depression of the 1620s. The economy sunk to the point where all of
China’s trading partner cut ties with them: Philip IV restricted shipments of exports
from Acapulco, the Japanese cut off all trade with Macau, and the Dutch severed connections
between Gao and Macau.The damage to the economy was compounded by the effects on agriculture
of the incipient Little Ice Age, natural calamities, crop failure and sudden epidemics. The ensuing breakdown of authority and people’s
livelihoods allowed rebel leaders, such as Li Zicheng, to challenge Ming authority. The Ming Dynasty fell around 1644 to the Qing
Dynasty, the last ruling dynasty of China, ruling from 1644 to 1912 (with a brief, abortive
restoration in 1917). During its reign, the Qing Dynasty became
highly integrated with Chinese culture.===Japanese shogunates===
Following contact with the Portuguese on Tanegashima Isle in 1543, the Japanese adopted several
of the technologies and cultural practices of their visitors, whether in the military
area (the arquebus, European-style cuirasses, European ships), religion (Christianity),
decorative art, language (integration to Japanese of a Western vocabulary) and culinary: the
Portuguese introduced tempura and valuable refined sugar. The Azuchi–Momoyama period saw the political
unification that preceded the establishment of the Tokugawa shogunate. Although a start date of 1573 is often given,
in more broad terms, the period begins with Oda Nobunaga’s entry into Kyoto in 1568, when
he led his army to the imperial capital in order to install Ashikaga Yoshiaki as the
15th, and ultimately final, shōgun of the Ashikaga shogunate, and it lasts until the
coming to power of Tokugawa Ieyasu after his victory over supporters of the Toyotomi clan
at the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600.The Edo period from 1600 to 1868 characterized early
modern Japan. The Tokugawa shogunate was a feudalist regime
of Japan established by Tokugawa Ieyasu and ruled by the shōguns of the Tokugawa clan. The period gets its name from the capital
city, Edo, now called Tokyo. The Tokugawa shogunate ruled from Edo Castle
from 1603 until 1868, when it was abolished during the Meiji Restoration in the late Edo
period (often called the Late Tokugawa shogunate).===Korean dynasty===
In 1392, General Yi Seong-gye established the Joseon dynasty (1392–1910) with a largely
bloodless coup. Yi Seong-gye moved the capital of Korea to
the location of modern-day Seoul. The dynasty was heavily influenced by Confucianism,
which also played a large role to shaping Korea’s strong cultural identity. King Sejong the Great (1418–1450), one of
the only two kings in Korea’s history to earn the title of great in their posthumous titles,
reclaimed Korean territory to the north and created the Korean alphabet, Hangeul. During the end of the 16th century, Korea
was invaded twice by Japan, first in 1592 and again in 1597. Japan failed both times due to Admiral Yi
Sun-sin, Korea’s revered naval genius, who lead the Korean Navy using advanced metal
clad ships called turtle ships. Because the ships were armed with cannons,
Admiral Yi’s navy was able to demolish the Japanese invading fleets, destroying hundreds
of ships in Japan’s second invasion. During the 17th century, Korea was invaded
again, this time by the Manchurian, who would later take over China as the Qing Dynasty. In 1637, King Injo was forced to surrender
to the Qing forces, and was ordered to send princesses as concubine to the Qing Prince
Dorgon.After invasions from Manchuria, Joseon experienced nearly 200 years of peace. However, whatever power the kingdom recovered
during its isolation further waned as the 18th century came to a close, and Korea was
faced with internal strife, power struggles, international pressure and rebellions at home. The Joseon dynasty declined rapidly in the
late 19th century.==Indian Empires==On the Indian subcontinent, the Lodi dynasty
ruled over the Delhi Sultanate during its last phase. The dynasty founded by Bahlul Lodi ruled from
1451 to 1526. The dynasty’s last ruler, Ibrahim Lodhi, was
defeated and killed by Babur in the first Battle of Panipat. The Vijayanagara Empire was based in the Deccan
Plateau, but its power was diminished after a major military defeat in 1565 by the Deccan
sultanates. The empire is named after its capital city
of Vijayanagara. The rise of the Great Mughal Empire is usually
dated from 1526, around the end of the Middle Ages. It was an Islamic Persianate imperial power
that ruled most of the area as Hindustan by the late 17th and the early 18th centuries. The empire dominated South and Southwestern
Asia.==Southeast Asia==
At the start of the modern era, the Spice Route between India and China crossed Majapahit,
an archipelagic empire based on the island of Java. It was the last of the major Hindu empires
of Maritime Southeast Asia and is considered one of the greatest states in Indonesian history. Its influence extended to states in Sumatra,
the Malay Peninsula, Borneo and eastern Indonesia, but the effectiveness of the influence is
the subject of debate. Majapahit found itself unable to control the
rising power of the Sultanate of Malacca, which grew to stretch from Muslim Malay settlements
of Bukit (Phuket), Setol (Satun), Pantai ni (Pattani) bordering Ayutthaya Kingdom of Siam
(Thailand) in the north to Sumatra in the southwest. The Portuguese invaded its capital in 1511
and in 1528 the Sultanate of Johor was established by a Malaccan prince to succeed Malacca.==Africa and the Near East=====The Ottoman Empire===During the early modern era, the Ottoman state
enjoyed an expansion and consolidation of power, leading to a Pax Ottomana. This was perhaps the golden age of the Ottoman
Empire. The Ottomans expanded southwest into North
Africa while battling with the re-emergent Persian Shi’a Safavid Empire to the east.===North and Northeast Africa===
In the Saracen sphere, the Ottomans seized Egypt in 1517 and established the regencies
of Algeria, Tunisia, and Tripoli (between 1519 and 1551), Morocco remaining an independent
Arabized Berber state under the Sharifan dynasty. In the Ethiopian Highlands, the Solomonic
dynasty established itself in the 13th century. Claiming direct descent from the old Axumite
royal house, the Solomonic ruled the region well into modern history. In the 16th century, Shewa and the rest of
Abyssinia were conquered by the forces of Ahmed Gurey of the Adal Sultanate to the northwest. The conquest of the area by the Oromo ended
in the contraction of both Adal and Abyssinia, changing regional dynamics for centuries to
come. The Ajuran Empire, which was one of the largest
and strongest empires in the Horn of Africa, began to decline in the 17th century, and
several powerful successor states came to prominence. The Geledi Sultanate, established by Ibrahim
Adeer, was a notable successor of the Ajuran Sultanate. The Sultanate reached its apex under the successive
reigns of Sultan Yusuf Mahamud Ibrahim (reigned 1798 to 1848), who successfully consolidated
Geledi power during the Bardera wars, and Sultan Ahmed Yusuf, who forced regional powers
such as the Omani Empire to pay tribute. The Majeerteen Sultanate was a Somali Sultanate
in the Horn of Africa. Ruled by King Osman Mahamuud during its golden
age, it controlled much of northern and central Somalia in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The polity had all of the organs of an integrated
modern state and maintained a robust trading network. Along with the Sultanate of Hobyo ruled by
Sultan Yusuf Ali Kenadid, the Majeerteen Sultanate was eventually annexed into Italian Somaliland
in the early 20th century, following the military Campaign of the Sultanates.===Sub-Saharan Africa===The Songhai Empire took control of the trans-Saharan
trade at the beginning of the modern era. It seized Timbuktu in 1468 and Jenne in 1473,
building the regime on trade revenues and the cooperation of Muslim merchants. The empire eventually made Islam the official
religion, built mosques, and brought Muslim scholars to Gao.Around the beginning of the
modern era, the Benin Kingdom was an independent trading power in the southeastern coastline
of West Africa, blocking the access of other inland nations to the coastal ports. Benin may have housed 100,000 inhabitants
at its height, spreading over twenty-five square kilometres, enclosed by three concentric
rings of earthworks. By the late 15th century Benin was in contact
with Portugal. At its apogee in the 16th and 17th centuries,
Benin encompassed parts of southeastern Yorubaland and the western Igbo.===Safavids===The Safavid Empire was a great Shia Persianate
empire after the Islamic conquest of Persia and established of Islam, marking an important
point in the history of Islam in the east. The Safavid dynasty was founded about 1501. From their base in Ardabil, the Safavids established
control over all of Persia and reasserted the Iranian identity of the region, thus becoming
the first native dynasty since the Sassanids to establish a unified Iranian state. Problematic for the Safavids was the powerful
Ottoman Empire. The Ottomans, a Sunni dynasty, fought several
campaigns against the Safavids. What fueled the growth of Safavid economy
was its position between the burgeoning civilizations of Europe to its west and Islamic Central
Asia to its east and north. The Silk Road, which led from Europe to East
Asia, revived in the 16th century. Leaders also supported direct sea trade with
Europe, particularly England and The Netherlands, which sought Persian carpet, silk, and textiles. Other exports were horses, goat hair, pearls,
and an inedible bitter almond hadam-talka used as a spice in India. The main imports were spice, textiles (woolens
from Europe, cotton from Gujarat), metals, coffee, and sugar. Despite their demise in 1722, the Safavids
left their mark by establishing and spreading Shi’a Islam in major parts of the Caucasus
and West Asia.===Uzbeks and Afghan Pashtuns===In the 16th to early 18th centuries, Central
Asia was under the rule of Uzbeks, and the far eastern portions were ruled by the local
Pashtuns. Between the 15th and 16th centuries, various
nomadic tribes arrived from the steppes, including the Kipchaks, Naymans, Kanglis, Khongirad,
and Manguds. These groups were led by Muhammad Shaybani,
who was the Khan of the Uzbeks. The lineage of the Afghan Pashtuns stretches
back to the Hotaki dynasty. Following Muslim Arab and Turkic conquests,
Pashtun ghazis (warriors for the faith) invaded and conquered much of northern India during
the Lodhi dynasty and Suri dynasty. Pashtun forces also invaded Persia, and the
opposing forces were defeated in the Battle of Gulnabad. The Pashtuns later formed the Durrani Empire.==Europe==This era in Western Europe is referred to
as the early modern European period and includes the Protestant Reformation, the European wars
of religion, the Age of Discovery and the beginning of European colonialism, the rise
of strong centralized governments, the beginnings of recognizable nation-states that are the
direct antecedents of today’s states, the Age of Enlightenment, and from the associated
scientific advances the first phase of the Industrial Revolution. The emergence of cultural and political dominance
of the Western world during this period is known as the Great Divergence. The early modern period is taken to end with
the French Revolution, the Napoleonic Wars, and the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire
at the Congress of Vienna. At the end of the early modern period, the
British and Russian empires had emerged as world powers from the multipolar contest of
colonial empires, while the three great Asian empires of the early modern period, Ottoman
Turkey, Mughal India and Qing China, all entered a period of stagnation or decline.===Renaissance and “early modern”===
The expression “early modern” is at times incorrectly used as a substitute for the term
Renaissance. However, “Renaissance” is properly used in
relation to a diverse series of cultural developments that occurred over several hundred years in
many different parts of Europe — especially central and northern Italy — and it spans
the transition from late medieval civilization to the opening of the early modern period. In the visual arts and architecture, the term
‘early modern’ is not a common designation as the Renaissance period is clearly distinct
from what came later. Only in the study of literature is the early
modern period a standard designation. European music of the period is generally
divided between Renaissance and Baroque. Similarly, philosophy is divided between Renaissance
philosophy and the Enlightenment. In other fields, there is far more continuity
through the period such as warfare and science.====Gunpowder and Firearms====
When gunpowder was introduced to Europe, it was immediately used almost exclusively in
weapons and explosives for warfare. Though it was invented in China, gunpowder
arrived in Europe already formulated for military use and European countries took advantage
of it and were the first to create the classic firearms. The advances made in gunpowder and firearms
was directly tied to the decline in the use of plate armor because of the inability of
the armor to protect one from bullets.===European kingdoms and movements===
In the early modern period, the Holy Roman Empire was a union of territories in Central
Europe under a Holy Roman Emperor the first of which was Otto I. The last was Francis II, who abdicated and
dissolved the Empire in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars. Despite its name, for much of its history
the Empire did not include Rome within its borders. The Renaissance was a cultural movement that
spanned roughly the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the Late Middle Ages
and later spreading to the rest of Europe. The term is also used more loosely to refer
to the historic era, but since the changes of the Renaissance were not uniform across
Europe, this is a general use of the term. As a cultural movement, it encompassed a rebellion
of learning based on classical sources, the development of linear perspective in painting,
and gradual but widespread educational reform.====Notable individuals====Johannes Gutenberg is credited as the first
European to use movable type printing, around 1439, and as the global inventor of the mechanical
printing press. Nicolaus Copernicus formulated a comprehensive
heliocentric cosmology (1543), which displaced the Earth from the center of the universe. His book, De revolutionibus orbium coelestium
(On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres) began modern astronomy and sparked the Scientific
Revolution. Another notable individual was Machiavelli,
an Italian political philosopher, considered a founder of modern political science. Machiavelli is most famous for a short political
treatise, The Prince, a work of realist political theory. Among the notable royalty of the time, Charles
the Bold, known as Charles the Bold (or Rash) to his enemies, he was the last Valois Duke
of Burgundy, and his early death was a pivotal, if under-recognized, moment in European history. Charles has often been regarded as the last
representative of the feudal spirit — a man who possessed no other quality than a
blind bravery. Upon his death, Charles left an unmarried
nineteen-year-old daughter, Mary of Burgundy, as his heir. Her marriage would have enormous implications
for the political balance of Europe. The Habsburg Emperor secured the match for
his son, the future Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, with the aid of Mary’s stepmother,
Margaret. In 1477, the territory of the Duchy of Burgundy
was annexed by France. In the same year, Mary married Maximilian,
Archduke of Austria, giving the Habsburgs control of the remainder of the Burgundian
Inheritance. Claude de Lorraine was the first Duke of Guise,
from 1528 to his death. Claude distinguished himself at the battle
of Marignano (1515), and was long in recovering from the twenty-two wounds he received in
the battle. In 1521, he fought at Fuenterrabia, and Louise
of Savoy ascribed the capture of the place to his efforts. In 1523 he became governor of Champagne and
Burgundy, after defeating at Neufchâteau the imperial troops who had invaded this province. In 1525 he destroyed the Anabaptist peasant
army, which was overrunning Lorraine, at Lupstein, near Saverne (Zabern). On the return of Francis I from captivity
in 1528, Claude was made Duke of Guise in the peerage of France, though up to this time
only princes of the royal house had held the title of duke and peer of France. The Guises, as cadets of the sovereign house
of Lorraine and descendants of the house of Anjou, claimed precedence of the Bourbon princes
of Condé and Conti. The 3rd Duke of Alba was a nobleman of importance
in the early modern period, nicknamed the “Iron Duke” by the Protestants of the Low
Countries because of his harsh rule and cruelty. Tales of atrocities committed during his military
operations in Flanders became part of Dutch and English folklore, forming a central component
of the Black Legend. In England, Henry VIII was the King of England
and a significant figure in the history of the English monarchy. Although in the greater part of his reign
he brutally suppressed the influence of the Protestant Reformation in England, a movement
having some roots with John Wycliffe in the 14th century, he is more popularly known for
his political struggles with Rome. These struggles ultimately led to the separation
of the Church of England from papal authority, the Dissolution of the Monasteries, and establishing
himself as the Supreme Head of the Church of England. Though Henry reportedly became a Protestant
on his death-bed, he advocated Catholic ceremony and doctrine throughout his life. Royal support for the English Reformation
began with his heirs, the devout Edward VI and the renowned Elizabeth I, whilst daughter
Mary I temporarily reinstated papal authority over England. Henry also oversaw the legal union of England
and Wales with the Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542. He is also noted for his six wives, two of
whom were beheaded.===Christians and Christendom===Christianity was challenged at the beginning
of the modern period with the fall of Constantinople in 1453 and later by various movements to
reform the church (including Lutheran, Zwinglian, and Calvinist), followed by the Counter Reformation.====End of the Crusades and Unity====The Hussite Crusades involved the military
actions against and amongst the followers of Jan Hus in Bohemia ending ultimately with
the Battle of Grotniki. Also known as the Hussite Wars, they were
arguably the first European war in which hand-held gunpowder weapons such as muskets made a decisive
contribution. The Taborite faction of the Hussite warriors
were basically infantry, and their many defeats of larger armies with heavily armored knights
helped effect the infantry revolution. In totality, the Hussite Crusades were inconclusive. The last crusade, the Crusade of 1456, was
organized to counter the expanding Ottoman Empire and lift the Siege of Belgrade, and
was led by John Hunyadi and Giovanni da Capistrano. The siege eventually escalated into a major
battle, during which Hunyadi led a sudden counterattack that overran the Turkish camp,
ultimately compelling the wounded Sultan Mehmet II to lift the siege and retreat. The siege of Belgrade has been characterized
as having “decided the fate of Christendom”. The noon bell ordered by Pope Callixtus III
commemorates the victory throughout the Christian world to this day. Nearly a hundred years later, the Peace of
Augsburg officially ended the idea that all Christians could be united under one church. The principle of cuius regio, eius religio
(“whose the region is, [it shall have] his religion”) established the religious, political
and geographic divisions of Christianity, and this was established in international
law with the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648, which legally ended the concept of a single
Christian hegemony, i.e. the “One, Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic Church” of the Nicene Creed. Each government determined the religion of
their own state. Christians living in states where their denomination
was not the established church were guaranteed the right to practice their faith in public
during allotted hours and in private at their will. With the Treaty of Westphalia, the Wars of
Religion came to an end, and in the Treaty of Utrecht of 1713 the concept of the sovereign
national state was born. The Corpus Christianum has since existed with
the modern idea of a tolerant and diverse society consisting of many different communities.====Inquisitions and Reformations====The modern Inquisition refers to any one of
several institutions charged with trying and convicting heretics (or other offenders against
canon law) within the Catholic Church. In the modern era, the first manifestation
was the Spanish Inquisition of 1478 to 1834. The Inquisition prosecuted individuals accused
of a wide array of crimes related to heresy, including sorcery, blasphemy, Judaizing and
witchcraft, as well for censorship of printed literature. Because of its objective — combating heresy
— the Inquisition had jurisdiction only over baptized members of the Church (which,
however, encompassed the vast majority of the population in Catholic countries). Secular courts could still try non-Christians
for blasphemy (most of the witch trials went through secular courts). The Protestant Reformation and rise of modernity
in the early 16th century entailed the start of a series of changes in the Corpus Christianum. Martin Luther challenged the Catholic Church
with his Ninety-Five Theses, generally accepted as the beginning of the Reformation, a Christian
reform movement in Europe, though precursors such as Jan Hus predate him. The Protestant movement of the 16th century
occurred under the protection of the Electorate of Saxony, an independent hereditary electorate
of the Holy Roman Empire. The Elector Frederick III established a university
at Wittenberg in 1502. The Augustinian monk Martin Luther became
professor of philosophy there in 1508. At the same time, he became one of the preachers
at the castle church of Wittenberg. On 31 October 1517, Luther posted his Ninety-Five
Theses on the door of the All Saints’ Church, which served as a notice board for university-related
announcements. These were points for debate that criticized
the Church and the Pope. The most controversial points centered on
the practice of selling indulgences (especially by Johann Tetzel) and the Church’s policy
on purgatory. The reform movement soon split along certain
doctrinal lines. Religious disagreements between various leading
figures led to the emergence of rival Protestant churches. The most important denominations to emerge
directly from the Reformation were the Lutherans, and the Reformed/Calvinists/Presbyterians. The process of reform had decidedly different
causes and effects in other countries. In England, where it gave rise to Anglicanism,
the period became known as the English Reformation. Subsequent Protestant denominations generally
trace their roots back to the initial reforming movements. The Diet of Worms in 1521, presided by Emperor
Charles V, declared Martin Luther a heretic and an outlaw (although Charles V was more
preoccupied with maintaining his vast empire than with arresting Luther). As a result of Charles V’s distractions in
East Europe and in Spain, he agreed through the Diet of Speyer in 1526 to allow German
princes to effectively decide themselves whether to enforce the Edict of Worms or not, for
the time being. After returning to the empire, Charles V attended
the Diet of Augsburg in 1530 to order all Protestants in the empire to revert to Catholicism. In response, the Protestant territories in
and around Germany formed the Schmalkaldic League to fight against the Catholic Holy
Roman Empire. Charles V left again to handle the advance
of the Ottoman Turks. He returned in 1547 to launch a military campaign
against the Schmalkaldic League and to issue an imperial law requiring all Protestants
to return to Catholic practices (with a few superficial concessions to Protestant practices). Warfare ended when Charles V relented in the
Peace of Passau (1552) and in the Peace of Augsburg (1555), which formalized the law
that the rulers of a land decide its religion. Of the late Inquisitions in the modern era,
there were two different manifestations: the Portuguese Inquisition (1536–1821)
the Roman Inquisition (1542 – c.1860)This Portuguese inquisition was a local analogue
of the more famous Spanish Inquisition. The Roman Inquisition covered most of the
Italian peninsula as well as Malta and also existed in isolated pockets of papal jurisdiction
in other parts of Europe, including Avignon. The Catholic Reformation began in 1545 when
the Council of Trent was called in reaction to the Protestant Rebellion. The idea was to reform the state of worldliness
and disarray that had befallen some of the clergy of the Church, while reaffirming the
spiritual authority of the Catholic Church and its position as the sole true Church of
Christ on Earth. The effort sought to prevent further damage
to the Church and her faithful at the hands of the newly formed Protestant denominations.====Tsardom of Russia====In development of the Third Rome ideas, the
Grand Duke Ivan IV (the “Awesome” or “the Terrible”) was officially crowned the first
Tsar (“Caesar”) of Russia in 1547. The Tsar promulgated a new code of laws (Sudebnik
of 1550), established the first Russian feudal representative body (Zemsky Sobor) and introduced
local self-management into the rural regions. During his long reign, Ivan IV nearly doubled
the already large Russian territory by annexing the three Tatar khanates (parts of disintegrated
Golden Horde): Kazan and Astrakhan along the Volga River, and Sibirean Khanate in South
Western Siberia. Thus by the end of the 16th century Russia
was transformed into a multiethnic, multiconfessional and transcontinental state.===Discovery and trade===The Age of Discovery was a period from the
early 15th century and continuing into the early 17th century, during which European
ships traveled around the world to search for new trading routes and partners to feed
burgeoning capitalism in Europe. They also were in search of trading goods
such as gold, silver and spices. In the process, Europeans encountered peoples
and mapped lands previously unknown to them. This factor in the early European modern period
was a globalizing character; the ‘discovery’ of the Americas and the rise of sustained
contacts between previously isolated parts of the globe was an important historical event. The search for new routes was based on the
fact that the Silk Road was controlled by the Ottoman Empire, which was an impediment
to European commercial interests, and other Eastern trade routes were not available to
the Europeans due to Muslim control. The ability to outflank the Muslim states
of North Africa was seen as crucial to European survival. At the same time, the Iberians learnt much
from their Arab neighbors. The northwestern region of Eurasia has a very
long coastline, and has arguably been more influenced by its maritime history than any
other continent. Europe is uniquely situated between several
navigable seas, and intersected by navigable rivers running into them in a way that greatly
facilitated the influence of maritime traffic and commerce. In the maritime history of Europe, the carrack
and caravel both incorporated the lateen sail that made ships far more maneuverable. By translating the Arab versions of lost ancient
Greek geographical works into Latin, European navigators acquired a deeper knowledge of
the shape of Africa and Asia.====Mercantile capitalism====Mercantilism was the dominant school of economic
thought throughout the early modern period (from the 16th to the 18th century). This led to some of the first instances of
significant government intervention and control over the economy, and it was during this period
that much of the modern capitalist system was established. Internationally, mercantilism encouraged the
many European wars of the period and fueled European imperialism. Belief in mercantilism began to fade in the
late 18th century, as the arguments of Adam Smith and the other classical economists won
out. The Commercial Revolution was a period of
economic expansion, colonialism, and mercantilism that lasted from approximately the 16th century
until the early 18th century. Beginning with the Crusades, Europeans rediscovered
spices, silks, and other commodities rare in Europe. This development created a new desire for
trade, which expanded in the second half of the Middle Ages. European nations, through voyages of discovery,
were looking for new trade routes in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, which allowed the
European powers to build vast, new international trade networks. Nations also sought new sources of wealth. To deal with this new-found wealth, new economic
theories and practices were created. Because of competing national interest, nations
had the desire for increased world power through their colonial empires. The Commercial Revolution is marked by an
increase in general commerce, and in the growth of non-manufacturing pursuits, such as banking,
insurance, and investing.=====Trade and the New Economy=====
In the Old World, the most desired trading goods were gold, silver, and spices. Western Europeans used the compass, new sailing
ship technologies, new maps, and advances in astronomy to seek a viable trade route
to Asia for valuable spices that Mediterranean powers could not contest. In terms of shipping advances, the most important
developments were the creation of the carrack and caravel designs in Portugal. These vessels evolved from medieval European
designs from the North Sea and both the Christian and Islamic Mediterranean. They were the first ships that could leave
the relatively placid and calm Mediterranean, Baltic or North Sea and sail safely on the
open Atlantic. When the carrack and then the caravel were
developed in Iberia, European thoughts returned to the fabled East. These explorations have a number of causes. Monetarists believe the main reason the Age
of Exploration began was because of a severe shortage of bullion in Europe. The European economy was dependent on gold
and silver currency, but low domestic supplies had plunged much of Europe into a recession. Another factor was the centuries-long conflict
between the Iberians and the Muslims to the south.=====Piracy’s Golden Age=====The Golden Age of Piracy is a designation
given to one or more outbursts of piracy in the early modern period, spanning from the
mid-17th century to the mid-18th century. The buccaneering period covers approximately
the late 17th century. The period is characterized by Anglo-French
seamen based on Jamaica and Tortuga attacking Spanish colonies and shipping in the Caribbean
and eastern Pacific. A sailing route known as the Pirate Round
was followed by certain Anglo-American pirates at the turn of the 18th century, associated
with long-distance voyages from Bermuda and the Americas to rob Muslim and East India
Company targets in the Indian Ocean and Red Sea. The post-Spanish Succession period extending
into the early 18th century, when Anglo-American sailors and privateers left unemployed by
the end of the War of the Spanish Succession turned en masse to piracy in the Caribbean,
the American eastern seaboard, the West African coast, and the Indian Ocean.====European states and politics====
The 15th to 18th century period is marked by the first European colonies, the rise of
strong centralized governments, and the beginnings of recognizable European nation states that
are the direct antecedents of today’s states. Although the Renaissance included revolutions
in many intellectual pursuits, as well as social and political upheaval, it is perhaps
best known for European artistic developments and the contributions of such polymaths as
Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo, who inspired the term “Renaissance man”.During the Baroque
period the Thirty Years’ War in Central Europe decimated the population by up to 20%. In 1648, the Peace of Westphalia, consisting
of the treaties of Osnabrück and Münster, signed on May 15 and October 24, respectively,
ended several wars in Europe and established the beginning of sovereign states. The treaties involved the Holy Roman Emperor,
Ferdinand III (Habsburg), the Kingdoms of Spain, France and Sweden, the Netherlands
and their respective allies among the princes and the Republican Imperial States of the
Holy Roman Empire. The Peace of Westphalia resulted from the
first modern diplomatic congress. Until 1806, the regulations became part of
the constitutional laws of the Holy Roman Empire. The Treaty of the Pyrenees, signed in 1659,
ended the war between France and Spain and is often considered part of the overall accord.=====Absolutism=====
The Age of Absolutism describes the monarchical power that was unrestrained by any other institutions,
such as churches, legislatures, or social elites of the European monarchs during the
transition from feudalism to capitalism. Monarchs described as absolute can especially
be found in the 17th century through the 19th century. Nations that adopted Absolutism include France,
Prussia, and Russia. Nobles tended to trade privileges for allegiance
throughout the eighteenth century, so that the interests of the nobility aligned with
that of the crown. Absolutism is characterized by the ending
of feudal partitioning, consolidation of power with the monarch, rise of state power, unification
of the state laws, drastic increase in tax revenue collected by the monarch, and a decrease
in the influence of nobility.=====French power=====
For much of the reign of Louis XIV, who was known as the Sun King (French: le Roi Soleil),
France stood as the leading power in Europe, engaging in three major wars—the Franco-Dutch
War, the War of the League of Augsburg, and the War of the Spanish Succession—and two
minor conflicts—the War of Devolution, and the War of the Reunions. Louis believed in the Divine Right of Kings,
the theory that the King was crowned by God and accountable to him alone. Consequently, he has long been considered
the archetypal absolute monarch. Louis XIV continued the work of his predecessor
to create a centralized state, governed from the capital to sweep away the remnants of
feudalism that persisted in parts of France. He succeeded in breaking the power of the
provincial nobility, much of which had risen in revolt during his minority called the Fronde,
and forced many leading nobles to live with him in his lavish Palace of Versailles. Men who featured prominently in the political
and military life of France during this period include Mazarin, Jean-Baptiste Colbert, Turenne,
Vauban. French culture likewise flourished during
this era, producing a number of figures of great renown, including Molière, Racine,
Boileau, La Fontaine, Lully, Le Brun, Rigaud, Louis Le Vau, Jules Hardouin Mansart, Claude
Perrault and Le Nôtre.=====Early English revolutions=====
Before the Age of Revolution, the English Civil War was a series of armed conflicts
and political machinations between Parliamentarians and Royalists. The first and second civil wars pitted the
supporters of King Charles I against the supporters of the Long Parliament, while the third war
saw fighting between supporters of King Charles II and supporters of the Rump Parliament. The Civil War ended with the Parliamentary
victory at the Battle of Worcester. The monopoly of the Church of England on Christian
worship in England ended with the victors consolidating the established Protestant Ascendancy
in Ireland. Constitutionally, the wars established the
precedent that an English monarch cannot govern without Parliament’s consent. The English Restoration, or simply put as
the Restoration, began in 1660 when the English, Scottish and Irish monarchies were all restored
under Charles II after the Commonwealth of England that followed the English Civil War. The Glorious Revolution of 1688 establishes
modern parliamentary democracy in England.=====International balance of power=====
The War of the Spanish Succession was a war fought between 1701 and 1714, in which several
European powers combined to stop a possible unification of the Kingdoms of Spain and France
under a single Bourbon monarch, upsetting the European balance of power. It was fought mostly in Europe, but it included
Queen Anne’s War in North America. The war was marked by the military leadership
of notable generals like the duc de Villars, the Jacobite Duke of Berwick, the Duke of
Marlborough and Prince Eugene of Savoy. The Peace of Utrecht established after a series
of individual peace treaties signed in the Dutch city of Utrecht concluded between various
European states helped end the War of the Spanish Succession. The representatives who met were Louis XIV
of France and Philip V of Spain on the one hand, and representatives of Queen Anne of
Great Britain, the Duke of Savoy, and the United Provinces on the other. The treaty enregistred the defeat of French
ambitions expressed in the wars of Louis XIV and preserved the European system based on
the balance of power. The Treaty of Utrecht marked the change from
Spanish to British naval supremacy.==New World and Americas==The term colonialism is normally used with
reference to discontiguous overseas empires rather than contiguous land-based empires,
European or otherwise. European colonisation during the 15th to 19th
centuries resulted in the spread of Christianity to Sub-Saharan Africa, the Americas, Australia
and the Philippines.===Conquest and Americas exploration===Christopher Columbus discovered the Americas
in 1492. Subsequently, the major sea powers in Europe
sent expeditions to the New World to build trade networks and colonies and to convert
the native peoples to Christianity. Pope Alexander VI divided newly discovered
lands outside Europe between Spain and Portugal along a north-south meridian 370 leagues west
of the Cape Verde islands (off the west coast of Africa). The division was never accepted by the rulers
of England or France. (See also the Treaty of Tordesillas, which
followed the papal decree.)===Colonial Latin America===What is now called Latin America, a designation
first used in the late 19th century, was claimed by Spain and Portugal. The Western Hemisphere, the New World, was
divided between the two Iberian powers by the Treaty of Tordesillas in what until the
late 16th-century, was an area that could be called “Ibero-America.” Spain called its overseas empire there “The
Indies,” with Portugal calling its territory in South America Brazil, after the dyewood
found there. Spain concentrated building its empire where
there were large indigenous populations, “Indians,” who could be compelled to work and large deposits
of precious metals, mainly silver. Both New Spain (colonial Mexico) and Peru
fit those criteria and the Spanish crown established viceroyalties to rule those two large areas. As Spanish settlements and the economy grew
in size and complexity, the Spanish established viceroyalties in the eighteenth century during
administrative reforms Rio de la Plata (southeastern South America) and New Granada (northern South
America). Initially, Portuguese settlements (Brazil)
in the coastal northeast were of lesser importance in the larger Portuguese overseas empire,
where lucrative commerce and small settlements devoted to trade were established in coastal
Africa, India and China. With sparse indigenous populations that could
not be coerced to work and no known deposits of precious metals, Portugal sought a high-value,
low-bulk export product and found it in sugarcane. Black African slave labour from Portugal’s
West African possessions was imported to do the grueling agricultural work. As the wealth of the Ibero-America increased,
some Western European powers (Dutch, French, British, Danish) sought to duplicate the model
in areas that the Iberians had not settled in numbers. They seized Caribbean islands from the Spanish
and transferred the model of sugar production on plantations with slave labour and settled
in northern areas of North America in what are now the Eastern Seaboard of the United
States and Canada.===Colonial North America===North America outside the zone of Spanish
settlement was a contested area in the 17th century. Spain had founded small settlements in Florida
and Georgia but nowhere near the size of those in New Spain or the Caribbean islands. France, The Netherlands, and Great Britain
held several colonies in North America and the West Indies from the 17th century, 100
years after the Spanish and Portuguese established permanent colonies. The British colonies in North America were
founded between 1607 (Virginia) and 1733 (Georgia). The Dutch explored the east coast of North
America and began founding settlements in what they called New Netherland (now New York
State.). France colonized what is now Eastern Canada,
founding Quebec City in 1608. France’s loss in the Seven Years’ War resulted
in the transfer of New France to Great Britain. The Thirteen Colonies, in lower British North
America, rebelled against British rule in 1775, largely due to the taxation that Great
Britain was imposing on the colonies. The British colonies in Canada remained loyal
to the crown, and a provisional government formed by the Thirteen Colonies proclaimed
their independence on July 4, 1776 and subsequently became the original 13 United States of America. With the 1783 Treaty of Paris ending the American
Revolutionary War, Britain recognised the former Thirteen Colonies’ independence.==Atlantic World==A recent development in early modern history
is the creation of Atlantic World as a category. The term generally encompasses western Europe,
West Africa, North and South and America and the Caribbean islands. It seeks to show both local and regional development
and the connections between the various geographical regions.==Religious trends and philosophy=====Eastern philosophies===
Concerning the development of Eastern philosophies, much of Eastern philosophy had been in an
advanced state of development from study in the previous centuries. The various philosophies include Indian philosophy,
Chinese philosophy, Iranian philosophy, Japanese philosophy, and Korean philosophy.===Muslim world===
The Islamic Golden Age reached its peak in the High Middle Ages, stopped short by the
Mongol invasions of the 13th century. The re-establishment of three major Muslim
empires by the 16th century (the aforementioned Ottoman Safavid and Mughal Empires) gave rise
to a Muslim cultural revival. The Safavids established Twelver Shi’a Islam
as Iran’s official religion, thus giving Iran a separate identity from its Sunni neighbors.===Protestant Reformation===The early modern period was initiated by the
Protestant Reformation and the collapse of the unity of the medieval Western Church. The theology of Calvinism in particular has
been argued as instrumental to the rise of capitalism (The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit
of Capitalism).===Counter-Reformation and Jesuits===The Counter-Reformation was a period of Catholic
revival in response to the Protestant Reformation during the mid-16th to mid-17th centuries. The Counter-Reformation was a comprehensive
effort, involving ecclesiastical or structural reforms as well as a political dimension and
spiritual movements. Such reforms included the foundation of seminaries
for the proper training of priests in the spiritual life and the theological traditions
of the Church, the reform of religious life by returning orders to their spiritual foundations
and new spiritual movements focusing on the devotional life and a personal relationship
with Christ, including the Spanish mystics and the French school of spirituality. It also involved political activities that
included the Roman Inquisition. New religious orders were a fundamental part
of this trend. Orders such as the Capuchins, Ursulines, Theatines,
Discalced Carmelites, the Barnabites, and especially the Jesuits strengthened rural
parishes, improved popular piety, helped to curb corruption within the church and set
examples that would be a strong impetus for Catholic renewal.===Humanism===With the adoption of large-scale printing
after 1500, Italian Renaissance Humanism spread northward to France, Germany, Holland and
England, where it became associated with the Protestant Reformation. In France, pre-eminent Humanist Guillaume
Budé (1467–1540) applied the philological methods of Italian Humanism to the study of
antique coinage and to legal history, composing a detailed commentary on Justinian’s Code. Although a royal absolutist (and not a republican
like the early Italian umanisti), Budé was active in civic life, serving as a diplomat
for Francis I and helping to found the Collège des Lecteurs Royaux (later the Collège de
France). Meanwhile, Marguerite de Navarre, the sister
of Francis I, herself a poet, novelist and religious mystic, gathered around her and
protected a circle of vernacular poets and writers, including Clément Marot, Pierre
de Ronsard and François Rabelais.===17th-century philosophy===The philosophy of 17th-century Europe marks
the departure from medieval scholasticism and the often occultist approach of Renaissance
philosophy. The period was typified in Europe by the great
system-builders, philosophers who presented unified systems of epistemology, metaphysics,
logic, and ethics and often politics and the physical sciences as well. Immanuel Kant classified his predecessors
into two schools: the rationalists and the empiricists, The three main rationalists are
normally taken to have been René Descartes, Baruch Spinoza, and Gottfried Leibniz. The first great advances towards modern science
were made in the mid-17th century, most notably the theory of gravity by Isaac Newton (1643–1727). Newton, Spinoza, John Locke (1632–1704)
and Pierre Bayle (1647–1706) were philosophers sparking the Age of Enlightenment in the following
century.===Age of Reason and the scientific revolution
===The Great Divergence is epitomized by the
Age of Enlightenment (or Age of Reason). The Enlightenment, starting in the 1750s,
flourished until about 1790–1800, after which the emphasis on reason gave way to Romanticism’s
emphasis on emotion and a Counter-Enlightenment gained force. The centre of the Enlightenment was France,
where it was based in the salons and culminated in the great Encyclopédie (1751–1772),
edited by Denis Diderot (1713–1784) with contributions by hundreds of leading philosophes
(intellectuals) such as Voltaire (1694–1778) and Montesquieu (1689–1755). The French Enlightenment was received in Germany,
notably fostered by Frederick the Great, the king of Prussia, and gave rise to a flowering
of German philosophy, represented foremost by Immanuel Kant. The French and German developments were further
influential in Scottish, Russian, Spanish and Polish philosophy.==End of early period==In modern history, the end of the early period
falls in the late 18th century, as an Age of Revolutions dawns, beginning with those
in North America and France. Subsequent important political changes occurred
throughout Europe, including upheavals following the Napoleonic Wars, the redrawing of the
map of Europe through the Second Treaty of Paris, the rise of new concepts of nationalism
and the reorganization in military forces. The end of the early modern period is usually
also associated with the Industrial Revolution, which began in Britain in the mid-18th century.==See also==
Economic concepts Price revolution, Proto-globalizationGeneral
concepts Renaissance, Early Modern English, Early Modern
warfare, Periodization, Atlantic history, Timeline of early modern historyPolitical
powers Habsburg Spain, Habsburg Monarchy, Portuguese
Empire, Dutch Republic, Early Modern Britain, Early Modern France, Early Modern Italy, Ming
Dynasty, Russian Empire, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Ottoman Empire, Mughal Empire,
Safavid Empire==References====Further reading==
Cavallo, Sandra, and Silvia Evangelisti, eds. A Cultural History of Childhood and Family
in the Early Modern Age (2014) De Vries, Jan. “The limits of globalization in the early
modern world.” Economic History Review (2010) 63#3 pp: 710–733.
online Duara, Prasenjit et al. eds. A Companion to Global Historical Thought (Wiley
Blackwell 2014) Goldstone, Jack A. “Early Modern World.” in Sociological Worlds: Comparative and Historical
Readings on Society (2013) pp: 249+ Goldstone, Jack A. Revolution and Rebellion
in the Early Modern World (1993) Goldstone, Jack A. “The Rise of the West–or
not? A revision to socio-economic history,” Sociological
Theory (2000). 18#2 pp 173–194
Lockyer, Roger. Tudor and Stuart Britain: 1485-1714 (3rd ed.
2004), 576 pp excerpt Knoll, Martin, and Reinhold Reith, eds. An Environmental History of the Early Modern
Period (2014) Kümin, Beat A. A cultural history of food
in the early modern age (1600–1800) (Berg, 2011)
Newman, Gerald, ed. (1997). Britain in the Hanoverian Age, 1714-1837:
An Encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis.CS1 maint: Multiple names:
authors list (link) CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) online review; 904pp;
short articles on Britain by experts Parker, Charles H. Global Interactions in
the Early Modern Age, 1400–1800 (2010) Pomeranz, Kenneth. The great divergence: China, Europe, and the
making of the modern world economy (Princeton University Press, 2000), a highly influential
statement Wong, R. Bin. China Transformed; Historical Change and the
Limits of European Experience (Cornell U.P., 1997)==External links==
Internet Modern History Sourcebook, fordham.eduWebsitesDiscussion of the medieval/modern transition from the
introduction to the pioneering Cambridge Modern History (1902–1912)
Society for Renaissance Studies Early Modern Culture
Early Modern ResourcesVideo filmsInt’l Commerce, Snorkeling Camels, and The Indian Ocean Trade
on YouTube: Crash Course World History #18 – YouTube
Venice and the Ottoman Empire on YouTube: Crash Course World History #19 – YouTube
Columbus, de Gama, and Zheng He! 15th Century Mariners on YouTube. Crash Course : World History #21 – YouTube
The Columbian Exchange on YouTube: Crash Course World History #23 – YouTube
The Atlantic Slave Trade on YouTube: Crash Course World History #24 – YouTube
The Spanish Empire, Silver, & Runaway Inflation on YouTube: Crash Course World History #25
– YouTube The Seven Years War on YouTube: Crash Course
World History #26 – YouTube Tea, Taxes, and The American Revolution on
YouTube: Crash Course World History #28 – YouTube

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