Colonization of Africa – summary from mid-15th century to 1980

Colonization of Africa – summary from mid-15th century to 1980


In the middle of the 15th century, central
and southern Africa is still unknown to Europe. However, for centuries the Arabs operated
trade routes crossing the vast Sahara desert transporting to the Mediterranean gold, ivory
and slaves. Europe is more interested in profitable trade
routes from Asia, especially the import of silk and spices. But the expansion of the Ottoman Empire threatens
these networks. Furthermore, the kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula
set their sights on discovering new sea routes to Asia to corner the lucrative markets. Portugal takes the lead by inventing the Caravelle;
a lightweight, versatile vessel allowing it to accelerate exploration of the African coast. The country establishes maritime trading posts
as an alternative to overland trade routes, especially to capture the highly profitable
slave trade. In 1498, Vasco da Gama reaches India. Portugal rapidly grows in power in the Indian
Ocean and dominates the spice trade. The country grows rich and faces no competition
from the Spanish Empire as the two reach an agreement to define their zones of influence, as per the Treaty of Tordesillas. Spain therefore focuses on the American continent. In 1580, the king of Spain takes control of
Portugal to form the Iberian Union. The new maritime power, the Netherlands, takes advantage of the situation to seize Portuguese colonies. Portugal finally regains its independence
and tries to regain control of businesses in Africa. But the country now faces competition from
new European powers settling along the African coast. The situation then remains relatively stable
for centuries, with each country managing its own trade routes. Slave trade becomes the most profitable business. European ships buy slaves in Africa whom they
exchange in America for gold and local products such as sugar and coffee. From the mid-18th century, anti-slavery movements
gain momentum in Europe and gradually lead to a fall in human trafficking and slavery. In the US, a project to repatriate freed slaves
to Africa gets underway. A colony is established allowing the return
of thousands of former slaves. Although there are conflicts with indigenous
populations, Liberia becomes independent in 1847. A few years later, France and Egypt inaugurate the Suez Canal, opening a new shorter sea route to Asia. In the African colonies, interest turns towards
trying to gain arable land in order to grow agricultural products primarily for European
markets. While exploring the land, colonists discover
the continent is rich in resources, stirring the appetite of European powers in the midst
of industrial development. Tensions flare because of competition between
European nations. In 1884, a conference is held in Berlin to
regulate colonization. King Leopold II of Belgium gets personal possession
of a large, little-known area in the heart of the continent. Germany, Spain and Italy seize territories,
while the UK receives Egypt. Henceforth, countries can stake claim to any
land they physically occupy. European nations, boosted by their superior
military technology, engage in a race for control of the largest possible territory
at the expense of local kingdoms and empires. In most cases, land is stolen and redistributed
to European settlers. Indigenous people are subject to taxes, but
have no money to pay them. So they find themselves working in the fields
or in mines, which become a form of forced labor. Italy, which controls Eritrea and Somalia,
fails to conquer the empire of Abyssinia which gains international recognition as a sovereign
nation. After the discovery of diamonds and gold in
the south of the continent, the British empire expands to take over the states of Transvaal and Orange, both of which were founded by the Boers mainly descendants of Dutch settlers
who fled following the arrival of the British. In 1908, King Leopold II cedes Congo to Belgium. Two years later, after long negotiations,
southern British colonies of the continent gain independence, forming the Union of South
Africa. The new country remains linked to the British
empire by becoming a dominion, ceding certain powers to the British crown. During the World War I, hundreds of thousands
of men from the colonies are sent to European and African frontlines. The United Kingdom, France, Belgium and South
Africa take over the German colonies. At the end of the war, a separatist revolution
breaks out in Egypt. The UK is forced to recognize the end of its
protectorate status, but the country retains control of the Suez Canal by maintaining a military presence. In 1935, fascist Italy again tries to conquer Abyssinia. This time the Italian army is successful in
gradually seizing territories, but Abyssinia would never sign an armistice. World War II breaks out in Europe, and again, hundreds of thousands of Africans are involved in fighting on different fronts. Italy, allied with Nazi Germany, loses its
colonies on the continent. At the end of WWII, Abyssinia becomes Ethiopia
and regains its sovereignty. Talks are held at the United Nations to discuss
the future of other Italian colonies. With European nations weakened by war, the
United States leans in. Fearing the rise of the Soviet Union and communism
in the world, the country supports the independence of colonies and their admission to the United
Nation. When an insurrection breaks out in Madagascar
against French occupiers, it is brutally suppressed. Italy eventually gets control of Somalia for
another 10 years, while Libya becomes independent. Kenya also begins an anti-colonial uprising that would last 8 years and result in many civilian victims. In 1952, the Egyptian army overthrows the
monarchy and begins anti-colonial policies. On the one hand, the country makes contact
with the Soviet Union to provide arms. On the other, it provides military support to aid Algerian nationalists against the French occupation. Egypt also claims control of Sudan, and nationalizes the Suez Canal, chasing away the French and the British. In response, they combine with Israel to organize
a surprise attack on Egypt. The offensive is a success, but is stopped
after the USSR’s threat of nuclear war. The US then steps in and orders an end to
the offensive. The event marks the end of the British and French
domination on the continent. Aware of losing their grip on power, France
and the UK try to moderate their policy and maintain influence on the continent. Britain supports the independence of Sudan
to prevent the country coming under Egyptian control. The same year, France, which is mired in war
in Algeria, recognizes the independence of Morocco and Tunisia to avoid the spread of violence. The UK is ready to recognize the independence
of its colonies, in some cases if the new governments join the Commonwealth, an intergovernmental
organization headed by the British crown. France for its part tries to set up a Franco-African
community. All colonies accept the proposal with the
exception of Guinea, which then gains independence. In 1960, a new wave of colonies gaining independence
ends this project. France withdraws but maintains economic control
over the region with the CFA franc currencies. The same year, the Belgian Congo also gets
independence and becomes the Congo-Leopoldville. France tries to maintain control over Algeria
at all costs. But violent repression and massacres of local
populations makes them lose support of the French people and the international community. Despite violence committed by some of its
own forces, Algerian separatists take the advantage by playing the diplomatic card and gaining debates at the UN. France, defensive at first, tries the empty-chair policy, and in 1962 finds itself forced to recognize the independence of Algeria. South of the continent, while the British
lose their last colonies, Portugal also finds itself in trouble. Despite large investments and significant
migration of Portuguese to Angola, war breaks out and spreads into other colonies, causing
the country to invest heavily in military efforts. Finally, a revolution in Portugal overthrows
the regime. The new government recognizes the independence of the colonies and organizes emergency repatriation of its settlers. To the north, Morocco pressures Spain to quit
the Western Sahara. When the Spanish finally depart, it captures
two thirds of the liberated country. While European nations are no longer present
in Africa, Southern Rhodesia is the only country whose independence was obtained by British
colonists who hope to themselves found a country ruled by white people. The country is not recognized in the UN and
comes under great international pressure. In 1980, it yields and a transitional government
is set up to form Zimbabwe. Despite the end of European presence in Africa, the continent will still have to face various forms of neo-colonialism. World powers and multinationals influence
and sometimes destabilize African countries with the aim of gaining its wealth and generating
huge profits at the expense of local populations.

100 thoughts on “Colonization of Africa – summary from mid-15th century to 1980

  1. Some important notes:

    This particular video begins in the mid 15th century and ends in 1980.
    Namibia got independence in 1990
    South Sudan got independence in 2011
    Upper Volta became Burkina Faso in 1984
    Zaire became DRC in 1997
    Eritrea got independence in 1993
    Djibouti got independence in 1977 in the video at 9:42 when France disappears. Djibouti was its last colony on the continent.

  2. Idea which says Ethiopia was not colonized is fake.

    Because eastern region( Ogaden) of Ethiopia was colonized by Britain.

    Do more research.

  3. let me correct you . eritrea was under colonial of British for 10 years after defeat of Italy from 1942 to 1952

  4. I honestly would’ve loved to see the Netherland Denmark and the Astro Hungarian empire make gains in Africa

  5. A summary of the most sinister and hostile interruption of humble people's whom are exploited by the so-called dominate race. Where they land grab scheme conflicts pitting one group against another while creating disloyal alliances too which they have no honest intent to uphold a sincere genuine relationships with.or engage people they've once had primary formed mutually beneficial free trade between. Where they've created a cycle of exploitation of exploration too crush the sovereign will of those they've always intended to colonize. Upon weakening the resistance through trickery lies and deception.

  6. Before leaving, wicked, racist Masonic Europe completely destroyed Africa, to be sure Africa never becomes independent and strong again! But, it'll soon pay for its crimes against humanity, in Africa and elsewhere.

  7. 'Buy' Slaves…. you do realize most slaves were taken. A very minority of Slaves were bought or coerce tribute to stop foreigners from killing more of them. If it was such a big trade why do you never hear of any major expanses of these african traders? Why because like the India, Chinese, and middle-east these were Forced 'trade' of one sided business transactions a type of join or die. If you said no,or get out we don't wanna trade with you, You got invaded, wiped off the map and smeared, your people forgotten and anyone who knew you terrified. China tried resisting and had it's entire Dynasty destroyed by foreigners. via the Opium wars which each European nation proceeded to rape her after her defeat. Alot of people don't realize how dirty Colonial period were, fucking dark times.

  8. ⭕️Since 1830 , Algeria has been the paradise of france and the covetous colonialist european countries to the extent that france granted independence to Morocco and Tunisia to be able to control Algeria and unite the colonial forces on people of Algeria the revolutionary hero , To date , total, anadarko and british petroleum continue to loot and plunder Algerias oil and gaz with rudeness and compliciti with our traitors rulers french Algeria did not exist its just a dirty colonial slogan, long live Algeria ✌️✌️🇩🇿🇩🇿🇩🇿🇩🇿🇩🇿⭕️

  9. I'll be glad when Africa becomes one nation and kicks every pale face out of it for good. Sorry, not sorry.

  10. Quick side note: At 9:47, you did mention Zimbabwe but however, you forgot to mention that South Africa was also ruled by white people ( The Afrikaans or British people, I guess? ) after independence in ( You're maybe right about that 1910 independence thing. ) in 1961.

  11. The people of Africa have disproportionately suffered from racism, inequality and all sorts of discrimination. They deserve show of empathy, respect and solidarity, which is not reflected here, in this comment section.

  12. Why isn`t the Ottoman Empire part of this video? The muslims and Ottomans were also a big part of the colonization of Africa.

  13. And today the Leftist still rave on about European Colinisation and havent got a single good word , not one good single word , well wait till the Chinese and their own corrupt governments have fucked them over well and truly and then look back and compare .

  14. I thought afros were the First ppl on earth? they had much more Time to invent medicine and civilazations

  15. sayyid Muhammad abdullahi Hassan a Somali nationalist fought british italian and abyssinian more than 20 years ( 1896 to 1922 ). If you don't know the history of people don't talk, just shut your mouth and learn. And his fellow Barsaneh too.

  16. And europeans get angry at african migrants lol.
    You didnt mind them when you forcibly stole them for forced labor. As well as robbing the continent of its riches.

    You reap what you sow !

  17. Funny you ONLY show the European Colony of Africa. WHERE ARE THE OTTOMAN! They controlled VAST areas of North AFRICA UNTIL 1800s!!! Your history SUCKS RACISM!!!!

  18. Europeans think they got rich because they are smart and intelligent but in fact they are brutal and despicable people who plundered Africa and India and ruined the culture, freedom and lives of million of people to be there where they are now.
    And now they look at Africa and India as third world countries and absurdly Europeans people think why people in these region don't develop and progress economically. In reality these morons took the chance from them to grow by oppressing and killing them for centuries just for their lust and hunger for power and resources.

  19. Amhara people dominated the horn of AFRICA Since Atse Yikuna Amlak. Amhara is the only imperialist tribe in Africa. All tribes of Africa speak or influenced too much by the Arab or Western Language and culture. Tigres, Somalis and Oromos tribes hated us so much and rebelled against the only imperialist force of Africa and because we built empires out of > 85 ethnic and tribes. Our next target will be again Asmara, Mogadishu all the way to Senegal west coast unto the Caribbeans. The dark COLORED PEOPLE lead by the Amhara's leader will revolt against the white/pink race

  20. The Colonize are still there up till today my friend. Africa are Controlled by European and all of them.
    So the truth please.

  21. Quick lesson: Africa is not a country but a continent, north africans are not arabs it's arabophone but most of them are not arabs but berbers.

  22. Eurocentric history and lies, always painting Africa weak.

    What about all the great civilizations the satanic invaders met in God's own land and her people that were destroyed and stolen by the invaders, what about how we resisted you boars for centuries? You think that you beast that kept violating human rights across the world and stealing Africans wealth are going to get away with it forever? nemesis will catch up with you very soon.

    Why is it that Asian continent that was also colonized is not being talk about?

  23. So, does this mean if this never happened Africa would just be as rich as any other continent, or maybe the richest?

  24. Everyone in this comment section are those weird kids that correct and argue with the history teacher.😂

  25. Land is not stolen – it is conquered! If black Africans could have conquered Europe and the Arabs, they would have done so. History is conquer or be conquered.

  26. These African countries wouldn't be no where near as big as they are today had it not been for European Colonization. Algiers was a very very small tribe in North West Africa, now Algeria is one of the biggest countries in Africa, simply because they got French land that NOBODY owned before the French took it, same with just about every other African country

  27. This days,africans conquer France,Spain,Italy,UK and all this countrys….I love africans and i feel bad for that people who was slave…Fuk me,i kill myself,then to be an slave,but i kill few of this motherfukers before i die…

  28. African American reparations are aggressively contested because the rapist and the judge are one in the same. This is what justice looks like when the aggressor wins, with Germany the aggressor lost and was forced to do the decent thing.

    Anyone against any form of African reparations is a c**t

    #BritainMustPayReparations
    #PortugalMustPayReparations
    #FranceMustPayReparations
    #USAMustPayReparations

    These reparations must be paid to independently established African owned development banks to develop Africans globally for the role these nations played in stagnating our development and progress

  29. U didnt think it was important to mention that, Somalia fought for more than 25 years against colonisers? Bombing of the resistance forces in the north destroyed them. And also became the first place in Africa to get bombed. Somalia overall was only colonised for 35 years and not the 80 years u are claiming!

  30. I still hear stories about how disgusting the Italians were in Somalia 😪😪😪 they're our enemies till the end of days

  31. England and France have done nothing but exploit!
    Moreover, France receives colonial taxes from 15 African countries

  32. I think instead of Africa, it is Eastern Europe that should have been colonized. They deserve it. It is never too late though. Colonize them now and enslave them eastern europeans

  33. THE WHITE MAN KILLED THE: indians,blacks,jews,aborigines,gypsies,viets,japs,latinos,commis,and now muslims…WHY DO THE WHITE MAN ALWAYS NEED AN ENEMY

    TO FEEL GOOD?the white man doesn't understand humanity, he thinks it is about killing, plundering and raping. He cannot make anything worth trading,

    unless he first destroys or puts down others.

    There is no white excellence, just white brutality. There is no white power, just white insecurity. Because throughout history, white people don’t

    compete. Instead, they murder their competition. They enslave them. They take the useful parts of everyone’s culture, viciously rip out our excellence

    and stuff white mediocrity in its carcass. Then they sell the message of being the best while they rot inside the corpse they made, slowly suffocating

    themselves and everyone around them.

  34. All Europeans have bought is war and destruction. Now the same murderers are claiming to be torch bearers of peace.

  35. europe in 19th century; "we can't take collect and enslave africans anymore!"
    also europe in 19th century: "lets enslave them in their own lands!"

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