Civil Society in Korea – Jeong Jong-ho

Civil Society in Korea – Jeong Jong-ho



first of all I would like to thank how about the Institute for giving me the opportunity to become a member of Habad internal community and also to pass a bit in today's around the table it was actually proposed various academic works on China that inspired me to take interested in China's civil society back in the days when I was a college student so I would especially like to thank focus Perry for being my inspiration in this regard and beyond and I feel greatly honored to be here to discuss our civil society in East Asia as introduced by a purpose very purpose Perry I myself I'm a China expert so but once again since I'm the only Korean panelist in this round the table I feel obliged to speak about civilization Korea although I'm not exact expert on that issue but actually I'm since I'm writing these days our other paper unlike working on paper on comparison between development of Korean civil society and that of Chinese society in China the bumper would civility society in China so I think that I will briefly introduce the development of Korean civil society in this opening intro to remarks civil society in Korea after the Korean War shows great difference between that under authoritarian regimes and that after Korea's democratization in 1987 Korea's civil society under certain regimes until 1987 can be largely into can be largely divided into three groups first our probe through government social groups or government alized social groups such as Federation of Korean trade unions in Korean no Chong and Korean employees Federation in Korea and Hong Kong I come to in Korean and Federation of the Koreans industries Jonghyun Korean but it is very questionable if we can call these groups as civil society as these groups actually see us elect autonomy from the state control as their leaders or not self elected but by appointed by the state government and as their organization and management were closely supervised by the government second other illegal underground organizations and distance groups consist in a mainly consisting of students and laborers these are these were these are the groups which were not recognized by the state error basically illegal groups and lastly are few non-political relatively neutral social groups such as YMCA but these groups were very few in number and play parody to implement shows very little influence so these are basically three important civil society groups on the authoritarian rules or certain regimes however after Korea's democratization and especially after first president's direct presidential election in 1987 great change can be perceived in civil society in Korea of the in Korea civil society in other words this civil society in Korea's civil society experienced explosive growth since the first direct presidential election which was held in 1987 as a result of the 1987 June tenth pro-democracy movement so just as Korea's economy shows a compress the development compressed modernity could one can say that a Korea's civil society also experienced compressible development especially after after 1990s the pro-government two social groups which used to lack the autonomy from the state control slowly gained autonomy from state control at the same time those illegal underground organizations and distance groups which elect legality also slowly gained a legal status and recognition but most of all most importantly new civil social groups or society groups start started to appear for example Citizens Coalition for economic justice Tong Jian in Korean sis established in 1987 89 Korean Federation of environmental movements Han Yong Yong and Yun dong Europe in Korean established in 1993 and people's solidarity for participatory democracy ta'rhonda in korean established in 1994 these are one of the most important labyrinth examples of the civil society groups formed during this period the civil society after Korea's democratization actually shows very significant characteristics when compared to a civil society in European West Western European us USA I also when compared to civil society in Japan and China and Taiwan so I will briefly introduce other some important characteristics the civil society a Korean civil society after democratization in 1987 first is the diversification of the relationships that Korean civil society after democratization has with the state under the a certain rules state society relationships were filled with conflict resistance struggle against the state however after the Koreans democratization state society relationships began to incorporate competition and cooperation as well especially the rapid development of Korea civil society has led to the acceleration of various cooperation mutual assistance competition and complex even within civil society stuff for example the competition and conflict between cities coalition Coalition for economic justice Communion and a people's solidarity for past paid democracy Tamlyn day it's one of the most important example of this complex and competition within civil society second characteristic is the excessive or politicization and ideological fractionalization of the korea civil society after democratization this is especially noticeable in regard to the with regard to the policy toward North Korea where the civil society in Korea was strongly divided into left and right and progressive and conservative over the sunshine policy during Kim dae-jung gun administration so and even this political polarization within civil society groups affected greatly the political environment environment as well for example PS PD the progressive PS PD strongly supported left-wing governments on the Kim dae-jung and know me on a wire the conservative the new right social groups strongly supported the right wing government of Anandi the Saudi captor sixth is the active participation in real politics in other words civil society Korean civil society after democratization have actively participated in real politics directly joining in political to join in political circles this actually I mean the the civil society which receives or that have the term democratization they concentrated on traditional political economical and social issues rather than postmodern issues there has been the focus of the new social movement in the West so they still focusing on traditional political issues so they directly passed between a central politics and even they involved in real politics and sometimes at an individual level adult group level they participated and they become politicians so for example as an individual this is some examples how the civil society could see this career civil society able to democratization directly participate in the real politics became politicians for example as an individual tax sale is a one of the founders of the student Coalition for economic justice as soft as the blue house that perhaps secretary for Social Welfare and is organ is the standing representative the new right group subbed as the minister of the government registration during the union but government while the kingly she is a one of the founders of the PSP D is now the member of the National Assembly and also Parkinson also one of the founders of the PSP D is now the mayor with our city so also as a group the civil society career services have the democratization has greatly involved in the person maintenance of the past administrations for example PSP D supported Kim dae-jung normally and governments while the new right social groups supported among government's so according as you know according to the shemitah finish my talk show argue that the non use of patient in the sense that civil society do not seek to replace the political state agents and to not involved directly in babbling policy this is very essential in the definition of the civil society so in korean case is it becomes very importantly characteristics which contrasts with other services civil society civil suit in other lesions but but at the same time this kind of like a key part within real policies actually led to a hollowing of is be brought about very negative consequence which is hollowing of a civil society which means that as as since many leader important leaders of the civil society groups able to come co s democratization became polity real politicians directly involved in real politics it leaded for drainage of civil leaders this is all the characteristics first characteristics is most of the activities of the Koreans Korea's civil society after democratization previous concentrate on in in Seoul area and focused on politics at the center this is actually characteristics this importa characters is that contrast with Japan Japanese civil society just into spite the pra├ža Korea's civil society as I mentioned still involved in central politics so they deepened his environment in central politics but gave a little attention to regional problems so great gap began to be created between the civil society in the centre and the civil society in regional areas while the civil society at the center performs various functions civil society in regional or local areas actually mostly on the developed so lessening the gap between these two has become an important task for the deepening of democracy in Korea today lastly civil society in Korea after the Korean kamek retaliation has peak has become financially dependent to the state actually was a condition who established NPO assistant act to help our civil society groups which played a who played a significant role in Korea democratization so because of this act the civil society groups were able to resolve their financial problems but they had no choice but to depend upon the state state of funding for survival so it people most of the civil society group became very independent to the state but it is interesting to see that I mean different past administrations actually shows difference in the funding for civic groups based on idols caballos once again comedian domion administration's actually given more fundings to our progressive civic groups while in Hamburg and Park geun-hye administration's given more fundings to conservative civic groups so this this dependence actually not on this not only our deepening of a civil society finance dependency to the state but also doubt but raised a lots of doubts about the neutrality of civil groups in Korea so basically these are five characteristics of the civil society in Korea after Korea's democratization but in as a final note I would like to emphasize new development in Korea civil society functional diverse diversification in the past most of the civil societies in Korea focused on a political campaign and policy advocacy however now we now the new civil systems began to appear which involved in service provision and pulley suggestions such as sink tents so these are an important new diversification of the civil society in Korea I will stop here thank you

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *