Bharat Ek Khoj 51: Separatism

Bharat Ek Khoj 51: Separatism

At first Sir Syed’s policy
succeeded in diverting the Muslim mind from the
political movement But early in the twentieth
century the younger generation was
drawn towards nationalism and political activity To abort this movement under
the patronage of British government Loyalty to the British and protecting the Muslim interests But soon, even the League was
forced to demand Self-Rule for India Muslims played a leading role in
the struggle for freedom Yet, Indian nationalism was
dominated by Hindus So, a conflict arose in the
Muslim mind Many accepted it but tried to
influence its direction Others sympathized with it but
remained uncertain Many others began to drift in a
separatist direction Many others began to drift in a
separatist direction Sir Syed’s policy of aloofness
from the national movement may not have lasted very long but his friend Nawab Mohsin ul
Mulk convinced the British to
preserve separate electorates for
Muslims This laid the basis for separatist
ideas later In 1916 the Congress and the
Muslim League came to an understanding on
separate electorates The League lost importance
due to the Khilafat movement The Khilafat Party, the Ahrar
party and Jamiat-ul-Ulema supported the Congress in the
1921 movement To protect their interests, the
British in 1927 sent the Simon Commission but
it was bitterly opposed sent the Simon Commission but
it was bitterly opposed This Simon Commission is Lord
Irwin’s strategy to sow discord among the
Indians and weaken the movement Thank God the Commission is
being opposed all over India As you know there was a big
strike in Bombay There have been protests in
Lahore during which our senior leader Lala Lajpat
Rai has been injured in Madras, Delhi and Calcutta
many people were killed and wounded in
clashes with the police Now the Commission is coming
here to Lucknow I certainly do not want our
young people, particularly students and
political workers, to engage in violent protests Hence I request that the
protests against the Commission be
peaceful and the people keep their emotions
under control Now I request that a Committee
be formed For this Boycott Committee I propose Rajasaheb’s name as
the Convener Thank you! I want to propose a
few more names for the committee The famous landlord Hamid AN
Saheb Thanks ! Chowdhury Saheb, Lala
Makhan Lalji, Pandit ji Ganesh Vidyarathi, Dr. Ehsan
and Majid AN Saheb In my humble opinion, Instead of taking 3 persons
from the same family why not take someone else? Majid Saheb and Dr. Ehsan are
from the same family but each one has been chosen for
his individual merit I have a plan whereby we can convey our feelings without a
confrontation But we want to confront them
with black flags Yes, do Vidyarathi ji! But also
do what I say It will have a double effect What is the plan? The talukdars are giving a party
to the Commission The party will be held at Kaisar
Bagh Babu Vasudev Lai has a house
nearby Kaisar Bagh’s garden can be
seen from the 2nd floor I suggest that we gather on the
second floor and throw balloons and kites on to
the garden This is not the time for jokes Majid Saheb, I am not joking. I am serious Do you think mere pieces of
paper can scare Simon who is not
even scared of people? The aim is not to scare but to
put across our message Simon Commission go back! At the end of 1927 there were
attempts to bring the Muslim League and
Congress closer A report was prepared in the
leadership of Motilal Nehru The Muslim League, Congress
and Hindu Mahasabha had severe differences over
some sections of the report Eventually a few demands of
the League were dropped Once again the League grew
strong and urged Muslims not to Participate in the 1931
movement By then the Khilafat party had
disintegrated but the Jamiat-ul-Ulema and the
Ahrar party continued to support the
freedom movement I have prepared for your
Allahabad trip Thank you: Is Majid asleep? I am awake. Do come Greetings! May God be with you! What’s wrong? It is late! Yes! There was a meeting at
Chowdhury’s house Is everything all right? Gandhiji has been arrested That was inevitable Ever since the breaking of Salt
Law was announced I was sure the government
would not keep quiet I have heard the others may
also be arrested Pandit Motilalji, Jawaharlal Malaviya, Vallabhbhai Warrants have been issued in
their names Bhai jaan, This movement
cannot last for long How long will the masses battle
the British? Once the leaders are arrested,
they will keep quiet That’s why Dr. Ansari said
whoever is arrested should appoint successors so that the Congress is not left
leaderless After all, how many can they
arrest? How many can the jails
accommodate? I have given your name and
Ehsan’s We’ll be ready whenever
needed But I am going to Allahabad Why? The Muslim League session is
to be held there I am the Secretary of the
organizing committee I wish you would make up your
mind You are with the Congress, the
Khilafat and the Muslim League. It
worries me! Even you are with all three of
them! That’s true but basically I am
with the Khilafat The Khilafat and Congress are
two sides of the same coin Why? Is the League different? What I meant was whatever the
party their fundamental aim is the
same Brother Salim, come Any news of father? When will
he return from Allahabad? No news of uncle but there’s an
interesting item About father? No! about Dr. Allama Iqbal! In his inaugural speech at the
League session he has raised the issue of a
Muslim state says: I see Punjab, Sind,
Baluchisthan and the frontier provinces as one
independent state either within the British empire
or separate The aim of North Indian
Muslims should be an independent state He’s a poet! His job is to play
with ideas Thank God, people did not take
him seriously Or else a new problem would
have started What problem? The Hindus would have also
asked for a state There would be Hindu-Muslim
riots and The British would benefit Staying in Aligarh has made
you wise Maybe the result of staying with
father and uncle Thank you for the compliment But our fathers have nothing to
do with my wisdom They are both very confused How can you say such a thing? I cannot say this to their face;
only behind their back Father is still with the Khilafat when the movement itself is
finished So what? The Committee is
fighting for freedom That’s the problem! The
Muslim has no state because it’s part of a larger
community Others feel Islam is not against
nationalism The nation first, the community
later The Jamiat-ul-Ulema and Iqbal
fought over this Doesn’t religion have any
importance? I think religion is a personal
matter Acceding to the minority
demand means allowing them to practice their
religion in peace Father says we won’t get our
rights after independence We must fight for them from
now! That’s what I regret Religion has been replaced by
communalism A narrow group basing itself on
Religion but in reality it is only concerned
with job reservations and political
power Do you want to say that father
is two-faced? No! But in his emotional
moments he forgets that the fight against poverty and
oppression cannot be fought in a narrow
confine Congratulations Mr. Ehsan! Thank you! You’ve been chosen to edit the
Congress newspaper and you‘ve hosted such a small
party? I would have organized a party
to be remembered! That’s what I told Ehsan but he says the amount to be spent
on the party could be donated to the party Politics has its place and
tradition its own place It is a Congress newspaper! It’ll be printed on Khadi and
distributed by bullock cart It will not be a get together but the day the first issue is out we’ll have a meeting This is the dummy! What do
you think about it? Maulana Mohammad Ali’s
effective speech at the Round Table Conference Ehsan Miyan, Do you know that
the Maulana is no longer a Congressman? Yet, you have given his speech
so much importance? Something terrible has
happened Hamid AN ! Ehsan ! Maulana Mohammed Ali is dead Oh no! May his soul rest in peace! May God accept his soul! What
a tiger he was! What a speech he made two
days ago. He said: I will not return to a colonial
India! I think Death spoke through
him! The memory of the dead can
never be erased! In reality they are never
separated from us! Arise, Brother! This is not the
time to weep! The city should close down to
mourn Maulana’s death Maulana Mohammad AN is
immortal! Today, to mourn the death of
Maulana Mohammad AN the city will remain closed Thank you! Ramlal, Why haven’t you closed your
shop? We must mourn the death of
the late Maulana So, please close your shop Why should we ruin our
business? He was not our leader If he was not your leader in spite of his ill health, he would not have gone to
England Why would he be fighting for
the independence of our country He was a Muslim leader. Let
Muslims close their shops Why this talk of Hindus and
Muslims? Why do you ask questions?
Close your shop The question exists because
Hindus and Muslims exist Let’s go! Why talk to such an
ignoramus The Hindu Muslim questions
were never raised earlier It is not good to raise such
questions Maulana who was Gandhiji’s
right hand is no longer their leader They have forgotten his
sacrifices Maulana Mohammed AN is
immortal Jumman wishes to speak to you
about the tax How are you Jumman? Well! With your blessings! What’s the excuse this time? The harvest was not good.
Kindly reduce the tax You said the same thing last
year. Poor monsoon! So I reduced my share. The
year before that there was flood, so I had given you a concession This year there were no floods
nor a famine Why should I reduce my share? The crop was ruined by insects what could I do ? Insects? Or you spent more on
your daughter’s wedding That’s why you are making
excuses Listen to him uncle or else like
the other tenants he too will not pay tax this year Why won’t he pay? Speak! They tell me that Gandhiji has
forbidden us to pay taxes What Gandhiji said, has nothing
to do with it These are political matters!
How are you concerned with them? Shouldn’t we fight even for our
rights? Jumman, send me your share
by next Friday. Understood? or else I’ll complain to my elder
brother. Now go! You are being unjust, Uncle! You forget what Allama Iqbal
had said: The field that does not yield
enough for the peasant Each ear of corn of that field
should be destroyed Jawaharlal and the other
socialists have spoilt them and given
them ideas Now they want to abolish the
zamindari system If the farmers and workers
prosper what’s the harm? Will you hand over the
government to the likes of Jumman? Have you forgotten what Iqbal
had said? If the government is handed
over to the people then their culture will have to be
adopted By siding with the poor,
Jawaharlal is merely toeing the Hindu Mahasabha
ideology Why should the Mahasabha
want to abolish zamindari? It is a party of rich people They want to abolish zamindari
because most of the peasants are Hindu
and the zamindars are Muslims That’s not so all over India. For
example, Bengal In 1921 Malabar’s Muslim
peasants revolted against Hindu zamindars That’s why they want to end it in
U.P. alone! They oppose the move in the
Malabar and Bengal All these plans are against the
Muslims particularly U.P.Muslims who are the saviours of the
other Muslims First we lost our power and now
the zamindari What shall we have left then? Islam seems threatened in this
land The same blood does not flow
in our veins The same desires do not propel
us The prayer, the fast, the
sacrifices continue but God himself is no longer
there You yourself do not believe in
what you are saying Salim! Begum !why did you come out
into the hall? Why not call me? Others are there Is it something to be told in
private? Yes and no Don’t adopt the English policy.
Speak openly What have you thought about
your son? Salim ? What’s there to think
about him? He’s young! He can think for himself Shaheen says Salim has been
composing poetry So what’s wrong with that? This
is childish Urdu in itself is a musical
language Why don’t you try to take me
seriously? I have seen Salim’s poetry not conventional poetry,
revolutionary poetry! He’s also reading about the
Russian revolution So! He’s influenced by the
Aligarh Communists! My God! What if the news
spreads? Salim could be in trouble Don’t worry I’ll speak to him today Speaking to him will get you
nowhere Get him married! Find a girl who will divert his
attention That’s not a bad idea! I’ll talk to
Ehsan about Nazma She’s too mild. She’ll not be
able to handle Salim Then do you have anyone else
in mind? What about Shaheen? She’s educated! She is mature and from our
own family Excellent! It’ll be in the family.
Majid will be happy What’s it Najma ! Chowdhury saheb is here! Go inside. Now send him in! Please come ! Hamid saheb! Put on your coat
and come with me Everything okay? They are closing the market to
mourn for Bhagat Singh Some Muslims have refused to
close their shops That’s a stupid thing to do! It was all decided at the meeting They say two months ago the
Hindus did not close their shops to mourn for
Maulana Mohammed AN They say this is their retaliation God forbid! Where are Majid and Ehsan? Ehsan is organizing the
meeting. Majid is sulking. Sulking? Why? We had a fight. He says the
Muslims are right This has aggravated the matter Silly fellow! Says anything
under emotion Let’s go! I’ll get the market
closed Long live the Revolution! Long live Bhagat Singh, the
Martyr! Long live Mother India! Brothers! My dear friends! The great revolutionary B hag at
Singh was hanged by the British
government for demanding what was his
right: Freedom for this country! Bhagat Singh’s martyrdom is
not the death of a Hindu, Muslim or Sikh It is the death of a brave
revolutionary son of India It is the death of a brother, a
companion! If we do not express our anger
and grief on this occasion what will the English and the
world say? they will think that our unity is
destroyed and our brotherhood has ended Friends! Please close down
your businesses today! Prove to them that we are
united I appeal to all the Hindus,
Muslims of the city to make this strike a symbol of Hindu-Muslim friendship Where was this friendship
when Maulana died? This friendship existed even
then! But the market was open! Ask
Ramlal His shop was open. So, we’ll
also keep our shops open If you don’t close your shop I
will break your head! Greetings Lalaji Please sit down Greetings Panditji All right! I returned today and heard you
were not well. So I came How’s the wound? The wound will heal, Panditji But the scars of this riot will
remain forever A good man like Ganesh
Vidyarthi was killed He was a great friend! Our city had never seen riots! It has seen them now! Did you
read Gandhiji’s statement? was very sad Jawaharlalji is to visit us! I heard Jawaharlal has become
a Bolshevik He wants to start a struggle like
in Russia He’s not Bolshevik. He wants a
democratic India That’s not possible Why not? The Muslims will not side with
him How can you say that? Am
not a Muslim? You are a different kind of
Muslim The Muslims do not understand
that while in India they cannot live in isolation What do you mean ‘live in
India’? This is our country. We live
here and we’ll stay here! That’s what you say Ask your brother-in-law Majid
what he thinks He has publicly said that the
Muslims won’t do what the Hindus expect of them Majid said this? Yes, he did! Greetings, brother! Greetings! How’s your health ? Sister-in-law said you had not
eaten since yesterday You seem upset and angry You know why and with whom
am angry Brother ! I do not have your
tolerance I can tolerate up to a point Not
beyond that ! There are many more like me
who won’t tolerate insults Who has insulted you ? The Hindus ! At every
opportunity Take yesterday’s incident They did not close their shops
to mourn for Maulana We swallowed the insult When we did the same thing
they rioted and the Muslims were given a bad
name childish, The world is not
blind to the situation Hindus cannot give Muslims a
bad name If the Muslims are getting a bad
name it is because of their emotional
decisions How can you blame all the
Hindus just because a few shopkeepers did not
participate ? Examining one grain of rice is
enough No one examines the entire pot Are you saying that all of a
sudden the Hindus have begun to hate the Muslims ? Not all, but a majority of the
Hindus do not treat Muslims as equals Which traitor told you that
Hindus and Muslims are no longer equals? I would like to meet him, I will
tell him Hindus and Muslims are still
united Our quarrel is not with fellow
countrymen but with those who seek to
subjugate the country You are a traditional Khilafati The Congress and Khilafat are
close to one another But now the times have
changed Freedom is not the only issue
before the Muslims They must also think of their
status in India They could become second
class citizens Had an Englishmen said this I
would have understood because their every effort is to undermine our brotherhood but I regret to say that it is my own
brother who says this Stop being emotional and think There’s nothing in common
between us ! Neither language nor culture
nor lifestyle nor tradition ! You are talking like a fool The traditions of the Indian
Muslim their dress and their lifestyle is a gift of this very country It is neither bought from outside
nor borrowed And this beautiful Urdu
language is a gift of this land: The Hindus use it more than
the Muslims do! This air that you breathe this grain that you eat this water that you drink this sky under which you rest
peacefully belongs to neither Hindu nor
Muslim These are common divine gifts
and cannot be divided You do not understand anything What you are trying to explain I do not even want to
understand The British introduced the
Communal Award in 1932 which increased the number of
electoral areas and provided for provincial
governments in which Indians would have a
say But the British were not keen on
a Central Government There were separate
electorates for each region Under this Award, elections
were to be held in 1936-37 Under this Award, elections
were to be held in 1936-37 Raja saheb, if it is true This news is very alarming
indeed! I’ve just met Pantji Rati Ahmed Kidwai was also
there; they were both upset Elections are at hand.
Everything will change Greetings! Greetings to you! Sorry to disturb you. There is
an important news Tell him, Raja saheb! The British have made a tricky
move The Governor Sir Malcolm
Hailey has got the landlords of U.P. to form
a party called the National Agriculturist
Party It will fight the election against
the Congress It has the landlords’ power and
government backing Will Muslim landlords also join
the party? Muslim landlords will contest
the Muslim seats The party will not put up a
candidate Obviously, the Muslim landlords
will win They’ll be the landlords backed
by the Muslim League Muslim League? But that’s a
party in name only The League is being revived Mohammad AN Jinnah has
returned from London and is meeting the League
leaders The point is: what will happen
to those Muslims who are neither landlords nor
are they with the League We’ll know about that only
when we find out what Mohammad AN Jinnah has
in his mind It must have been very cold in
Delhi I did not notice it because of
hectic political activity The day I reached there, Qaid-e
Azam called me Everybody was present when
reached there Munshi Kifayatullah Maulana Hussain Ahmad and
Maulana Shaukat AN But they are not with the
League They are members of the
Muslim Unity Board Jinnah had called them for talks
because he wants to unite Muslims
under one flag What was the decision? Jinnah did not like the League
leadership It was in the hands of the
landlords who thought of only their benefit They did not care for either
Religion or Community Jinnah even said that they were
English stooges Oh sad ! Didn’t anyone say
anything ! There’s going to be a session in
Bombay on May10 when a Parliamentary Board will be
selected Jinnah said our party would get
a majority only if every Muslim candidate a League member Did members of the Muslim
Unity Board agree with Jinnah? No, Maulana Hussain Ahmed
and Maulana Shaukat AN objected They said they were fighting for
complete freedom and were working in that direction The League does not want full
freedom. That’s the problem Jinnah said they could have a
majority on the Parliamentary Board and their decision would be
binding With this decision, the meeting
ended Let’s hope the election results
are good The Congress accepts that
there are misunderstandings between the
Hindus and Muslims What are their
misunderstandings? Only a matter of seeing things
differently If a Muslim wants his legitimate
demands fulfilled what’s wrong with that? If he wants to govern then that’s
his fundamental right This misunderstanding is not
due to religion It is a misunderstanding
between citizens Those who use religion in
politics and benefit from it they are enemies of the true
believers of religion they are communalists who use
religion for the benefit of one
community We all know what the Congress
policy is! The Congress policy is that of
its master: The English Make the Muslims fight one
another and weaken them! Do not be taken in by them! These are difficult times! The Qaid-e-Azam is right If the Muslims are not united they cannot be saved from ruin If you do not agree with us. If
you think we are wrong, join us and improve us We should work as a family Today, we need to stand united Allama Iqbal says: The losses and gains of this
community are one One prophet, one religion, one
faith One Kaba, One God, One
Koran How wonderful it would be if
Muslims were also one ! There are different castes,
faiths and nationalities Is this what we should
encourage? Friends, I request you to
remember one thing We need to be united at this
moment That’s all I wanted to say If we want to be rulers of this
land if we want to decide our destiny
ourselves then we’ll have to become
Hindus We must establish our own
ethnic identity just as the Muslims have done Their culture and tradition is not
of this land If they want to be a part of this
sacred land they must accept our traditions adopt Hindu names celebrate Hindu festivals and revere Hindu religion and
Gods! Only then is Hindu-Muslim unity
possible That is Mahasabha’s aim! This is not the meeting of a
political party This is a meeting for a common
man who wants to know whether
those who ask for votes in the name of religion and faith are his representatives or not Friends! The rich only look
after their wealth This is an election of the rich Only he can vote who has Rs
10,000 or property equivalent to that If this was an election of the
people then, along with the nawabs
and zamindars, the common man would have
the same right to vote those who have nothing but
hunger and hope Therefore, my friends,
whichever the party they are all exploiters, not our
representatives The Muslim League fared badly
in the 1937 election The Congress won in many
provinces though it had very few
candidates for Muslim seats Of these, it won in less than
half the seats After that, the League leader
Mohammad AN Jinnah once again tried for a pact with
the Congress The condition was that the
Muslim League be accepted as the sole representative of the
Indian Muslim The Congress rejected this
condition After this, in a by-election in
Jhansi, the League used the slogan of ‘Islam In
Danger’ for the first time to achieve success This increased the differences Then the ‘Divide And Rule’
policy which the English had used in
Ireland was brought into practice Soon demands for Partition
grew! Soon demands for Partition
grew! In the 1930 Election there were 70 lakh voters In this election, there are 3.6
crore voters Of these 1585 will be chosen
as representatives The Congress contested 1161
seats and won 716 of them Congress has a majority of
out of eleven provinces ress is the largest party
three provinces Congress has 133 out of 288
seats in U.P there were 482 Muslim seats in
British India of which Congress contested
56 seats and won 28 seats The Muslim League has not
been successful even in Muslim dominated
areas There were 117 Muslim seats
in Bengal of which the League won There were 84 Muslim seats in
Punjab of which the League contested
7 and won 2 seats The League won only 3 seats
out of 33 In Sind In Muslim dominated areas the
League won 43 out of the 272 seats Thus the Muslim League’s
success rate is 4.8 per cent The Hindu Mahasabha had
contested in U.P and Punjab and lost all but one to the
Congress In the Muslim dominated North
West Frontier area the Congress has won This is all due to your blessings Greetings brother! How are you
Miyan? May Allah bless you! Please sit
down! No! It is due to your services,
your honesty and patriotism May God bless you with more
successes! Please stop him ! Stop whom? What happened? Majid is leaving. He refuses to
listen to his wife What madness is this? Help me to rise! Majid! Brother, don’t interfere in this! I have already reached a
decision. I won’t stay here What do politics have to do with
family life? I cannot stay where the
enemies of Muslims live You speak as if you are their
only spokesman No! A Congress Muslim like
you is their spokesman None of us is the sole
spokesman of all Muslims We are mere straws in the flood who do not know what their
destination is First, let the floods of hatred,
mistrust and communalism subside Only then we will know what the
Muslims really want I don’t think these floods will
ever subside I think this is the background from which came the demand
for Partition of India There were many reasons for
this Many mistakes, many arrogant
acts and above all the English policy of
Divide and Rule But behind all this, was the
psychological background apart from historical conditions which resulted in the late
development of middle class Muslims This created fear in the Muslim
mind Pakistan, the proposal to divide
India though emotionally appealing is not the solution for this
backwardness It is more likely to strengthen the hold of feudal elements and further delay the economic
progress of the Muslims

20 thoughts on “Bharat Ek Khoj 51: Separatism

  1. Ye program phir se govt ke madhyam se India ke logo ko dikhana chahiye…but actually problem ye Hai ki globalization nd privatisation ke jyda hone se logo Tak ye batein access nhi ho payengi…but ye hum sab ki duty Hai ki ""Bharat ke khoj""jaise program Jo real me us situation ko bayan krte Hain use jaroor logo ko dekhna chahiye…

  2. Discivery of India in 1900s? 😃😂😂
    Millennia before it Bharat remain and flourished. Better keep, my discovery of India

  3. mujhe lagta tha ki angejo ne zehear filahi hai hindu muslam ki lekin is episod ko dekh kar lag raha rhaa hai ki je zehear pehle.hi loko ke gahr kar gai thii

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