Bharat Ek Khoj 45: Mahatma Phule

Bharat Ek Khoj 45: Mahatma Phule

An outcome of British rule and
education the majority of the new
bourgeoisie were higher caste Hindus They continued to exploit the depressed classes who
were farm laborers Old superstitions and bad
traditions were preserved by the upper
castes The lower and depressed
classes were kept away from education They were excluded from the common life of the village and made to suffer cruelly and made to suffer cruelly in the new context of British rule
and western liberal ideology there were question raised
against caste system The reform movement began to
take root One of its founders was
Jyotirao Phule of Poona who founded the Satyashodhak
Samaj in 1873 with the object of freeing the individual from the
burden of caste Which one is Dada Bhide’s
house? You are standing in front of it Born in the mali community,
Phule saw the need for education among
non-Brahmins and in 1848 started a school in
Poona for the backward class It’s time! I don’t think anybody
else will come Friends! Children! Before formally inaugurating
this school I would like to thank all those
people who helped us in our objective First of all I thank Mr. Bhide who has allowed us to use this
room I also thank all those missionary
teachers who encouraged us from time
to time Finally I thank my brave
Brahmin friends who, in spite of pressure from
orthodox Brahmins helped us fulfill our objective Now I request Mr. Jyotirao
Phule the moving spirit behind this
school, to inaugurate. Friends! Today is a great
for all of us! Years ago I attended the
marriage of a Brahmin friend His relatives saw me and insulted me by asking me to
leave They said I was of a low caste
and I had no right to mix with
Brahmins They said I was polluting the
auspicious occasion They said many other things
which I do not want to repeat I could not sleep that night I asked myself questions which
had no answers Then I realized that we would
have to struggle for our self-respect We would have to fight this
battle on our own We would have to use a
weapon neither sticks nor swords nor
cannons but knowledge, ideas and words! And all this is derived from
education Will the Brahmins teach us? No because they won’t give us
such a weapon So, we’ll have to educate
ourselves! My wife Savitri is my first
student She’ll now help me to teach you This is how we’ll spread
knowledge because that is a wealth which
should be distributed This is the first school for
low-caste girls We welcome boys but we believe that it is the girls who’ll help mold future
generations There will be opposition but we must carry on bravely because we are on the right
path I wish you luck in your studies All right children! You can
home now! We’ll begin your studies
tomorrow Bring Lakshmi everyday We’ll teach her many good
things to read and write some
grammar, some arithmetic Bring her every day! A fitting punishment to the
polluters of religion! Be brave! This is just the
beginning! Society can only throw mud at
us! What else can it do? A stagnant, rotting society sinking in its own mire! When the lower castes are
educated we’ll overturn this society We’ll wash away its stains The work you have begun is
courageous No married woman can cross
the threshold of her home and teach like you are doing ! Hold your head high with pride Some day we’ll prove that we
were right! What happened? What’s
wrong with Savitri? Nothing father! Then why is she crying? Why is there mud on her sari? When she was returning from
school Some boys threw mud at her What did you expect? Flowers? I told you a hundred times not to defy religion Shudras and women have no
right to read and write You refuse to listen Your school has antagonized
every Brahmin in Poona Not all Brahmins! A few enlightened ones support
us I made a mistake by sending
you to school Those missionary teachers
have spoilt you Had I listened to my people
would not regret this day Do what you want but why drag
your wife into this? Only education can save our
country and religion Who made this rule that a Brahmin has a right to
education, not a Shudra? The Brahmins made this rule,
isn’t it? That is God’s will! Why drag God into all this? no country and in no religion did God write any book They were all written by men and theologians would have us
believe that it is God’s will so that we won’t
question it Shudras and women are being
oppressed in the name of God I don’t want to argue with you I know only one thing: we must
obey the rules made by our
forefather I have also made a rule Follow me now Falter not! Fear not! Discard Manu’s rules! Learn and teach Education is happiness Listen to what Jyoti says Nonsense! The Mission School has given
you stupid ideas Someone must have told you
I’ve accepted Christianity What? Is this true? Conversion is not the solution,
father! Though I agree with some
aspects of Christianity I prefer to remain a Hindu and reform Hinduism I refuse to listen to any excuse You must close down your
school and your wife must stop teaching That’s impossible! Everything is possible I am telling you for the last time If you don’t listen to me and the
people I’ll not keep you and your wife in
this house You must leave! As you wish! I cannot change
my convictions We’ll leave the house Savitri! Pack your belongings! This is just the beginning! You have gone mad, Jyoti! Come Annasaheb Chiplunkar!
Please be seated! I was sorry to hear of your
troubles It was inevitable! However, I regretted closing
down the school We cannot run it from here but we’ll open a new school soon That’s very good We need your help! How can I help you? It concerns the Dakshina Prize.
You’ve heard of it? Yes! The Peshwas allotted a
large sum every year to be given to Brahmins as
donation The British continued the
tradition Now some enlightened
Brahmins feel that this money should be given to
new writers rather than some idle Brahmins Such a petition has even been
sent to the Governor Correct! What do you have to do with it? I got Gopal Hari Deshmukh,
Vishnupant Ranade and Vishnupant Bhide to sign it! Then? The orthodox Brahmins are
opposing the petition They claim that the matter is a
religious one and the Governor should not
interfere The orthodox want to preserve
obsolete traditions What religious pride! What
patriotism! They also want to drive out the
British! They refuse to change but wish
to overthrow the British And they call me a traitor! Forget it! How can I help you? I think if you sign the petition the orthodox dare not attack us I think that will provoke them
even more They are afraid of you If you think including my name
will help you then please go ahead For me, the rise of Marathi is
the progress of Shudras Very true! The orthodox want to proceed
against the petitioners They have to be summoned to answer for their anti-Sanskrit
stance I see! The petitioners are few in
number and the orthodox will collect a large
crowd We fear we will be physically
assaulted Don’t worry about that! I’ll send 200 shudra wrestlers to
protect you Then there’ll be no problem What a sight it will be! Marat hi-loving shudras
protecting reformist Brahmins It is our duty to protect the
common man’s language Don’t worry, Annasaheb We’ll end this practice of
donations We’ll end this practice of
donations What a shame! You let the procession pass
unhindered? No wonder they are claiming
victory How could we tackle the
Shudras? They were all over the place That gardener Phule is behind
all this He has misled the Shudras How dare he! The Brahmins are no better! Running to him for help! Phule’s opening a school Where? At the old Ganj Peth! Vishnupant Thatte, a Brahmin,
teaches there There’s a limit to tolerance Make this Thatte’s
miserable Night or day, harass him! A traitor to his caste! This Phule has exceeded all
limits It is time we put a stop to him
permanently! It is time we put a stop to him
permanently! Don’t you dare scream Who are you? Ramoshis! We want to kill you! Why? What have I done? We don’t know! We have
accepted a contract If my death benefits the
Ramoshis then go ahead We have sworn to teach their
children Remember him and continue
your work after my death What did you say? I told my wife not to discontinue
teaching the children of shudras after my
death It is my good fortune to die
teaching the children of shudras They didn’t say you taught
shudras Why would they tell you? They have always denied you
knowledge and compelled you to kill and
rob for a living They use you to destroy your
own people How long will a thousand
rupees last? Tell me? Will your children be criminals
like you? Illiterate humans? Hiding in jungles all their lives? Do you want Rs. 1000 or the
lives of your children? B for Bakara (Lamb) N for Nagada (Drum) Speak Why have you come here? Did you recognize us? Yes! What do you want? We want to learn, be human! We have brought our children. Will you teach them? And also us? Sit down Repeat what I say! Madam! Mr. Thatte! You were absent for two days!
Are you well? Yes but…it is difficult to go to
the school Why? What happened? A few boys follow me They call me names! Even threaten to assault me! I am afraid that they may abuse my wife while I am at
school It has become a big problem She’s alone at home! Then don’t come to school till matters cool down There was something else What’s it? I have a close friend whose
sister is a widow She is in trouble and she needs
help What’s the problem? Not here! Can you come with
me? I’ve not informed my husband It won’t take long. He stays
nearby I’ll take you back home Let’s go! Keshavrao! Tell Savitribai
everything If anyone can save us from this
hassle then it is Savitribai and her husband
Jyotirao It is a matter of great shame Forget it! Tell Savitribai What can I say? My sister was widowed two
years back Then…one of our relatives in this very house Now she is pregnant. I don’t
know what to do! Everyone at home is disturbed Sometimes I wonder why she
doesn’t die! Don’t say that! We must help
Kashibai How? We don’t have any
relatives outside Poona so that she can give birth quietly I’ll talk to my husband. He’ll
find a way out Please help us! We’ll never
forget the favour! Can I meet Kashibai? Would you like to meet her? Yes! Nothing can be done
without meeting her Any objections? None whatsoever! Go in and
meet her! How are you, Kashibai? I have spoken to your brother I have told him that I shall help
you and your child Understand onething, Kashibai I am not doing this to save your
family from dishonour Nor to save the man who did
this to you! Whatever I do, it will be for you I want to help you! Saw that Bapusaheb! North
India is in turmoil but he sits there calmly writing
his book What are you writing,
Tatyasaheb? The book is not yet complete
but I’ve finalized the title. ‘Slavery’.
How’s it? Good, but a little strong! I want a strong title What’s this about north India? There’s a major revolt in Kanpur
and Delhi The Indian regiments have
revolted Both Hindus and Muslims are
opposing British rule I see! What! No other comment? It doesn’t deserve any further
comment The British will crush this revolt
like the others There were several revolts in
Maharashtra between 1822 and 1846 All of them were crushed This one may succeed Even if it is so, who will replace
the British? The same people who gave
away India on a silver platter to the British What use are rebellions if
society does not change? There’ll be thousands of
martyrs, what else! Do you think till caste
differences are eliminated and society changes itself the British should rule? No! I don’t say we should
confront the British after we have removed all ills of
society but our thick skinned society must show some signs of
change Something must change
somewhere! There should be some effort to
get out of the swamp! Till that happens, what’s the
point of any struggle? I cannot support a nationalism which says all is well with our
society British rule has brought new
winds to our country Take education Would the orthodox Brahmins
ever allow us to open schools for the
backward castes? We all know that the British are
not going to rule this country for ever! Even then Is it a meeting? The very
people we wanted to meet! No, Mr. Thatte! We are leaving We came here to give news,
became a discussion Jyotirao’s another name is
discussion rao Is everything all right, Mr.
Thatte. You’re not to be seen My troubles continue as before
but we’ve something else to tell you Mr. Thatte took me to a friend’s
house He has a widowed sister Some relative tricked her. Now
she’s pregnant. Can we help her? What can we do? They are
Brahmins I’ve given them my word It is not an unusual problem Orthodox Brahmins do not allow
widow re-marriage The needs of the body cannot
be denied It is a self-created problem She’s in a state of shock She’s terribly frightened There’s no safe place where
she can deliver What help do they expect from
us? Can we bring her here for her
delivery? Here? Haven’t we provoked the
Brahmins enough? Only you can do it, Tatyasaheb You said women are treated
badly in our society So what if she is a Brahmin? She, too, will be humiliated! Very good! Heard that,
Thatte? I did not know my wife was
such a firebrand What can I say but ‘yes’? I didn’t want to lecture But you could! I am proud of
you! Please arrange to bring
Kashibai here I ll fetch her tomorrow prepare the inner room If we find the place, can we not
open a shelter or an orphanage for women like
these? After all, where can such
women go? There can be no greater service
than this! By doing this we could save
many widows from committing suicide or foeticide First bring Kashibai here Then let’s see what can be
done What will you name your son? Yeshwant! That’s a nice name Yeashwant is a nice name Why not adopt him? He needs a family. We need a
child Of course! Why not? Who’s it? Jamdade? I didn’t
call for you I don’t need a shave I had come for Kashibai the widow who is staying with
you What for? O I see! To shave
her head! Yes! She sent a message How dare you! You know I am against shaving
a widow’s head You know I am against it and you are here to shave her head.
In my house? Don’t be angry! I myself don’t
like this work but she called for me I am not angry with you. It’s not
your fault If you and your people don’t like
this work why don’t you refuse to do it? Tell the Brahmins to pick up the
razor themselves if they want to continue this
barbaric custom In fact, till they give up this
horrible custom you all should refuse to shave
them You are right! Show some courage. Only then
will it stop That’s the only way ahead 1873 is a crucial year in the
Dalit movement This was the year Jyotirao
Phule published ‘Slavery’ The contents of the book
angered orthodox Brahmins Jyotirao! This time you have
bitten off more than you can chew or
digest I’ll see to that What is it this time? This book! How dare you say Manu
imposed slavery on shudras? The caste system is sanctioned
by the Vedas Do you deny that the Vedas
were written by God? I am convinced that no book in
this world is written by God If some people like to believe
that the Vedas were written by God then they can do so but the Shudras should not believe
it because the Scriptures enslave
them You are teaching them to hate
Brahmins No! The Brahmins are my
brothers and hence I am ashamed of
their black deeds I have no enemity with
Brahmins My fight is against
Brahmanism! You better understand that the
shudras are this country’s strength Now we must take advice from
you Look here! You cannot serve
society with these idiotic and
defamatory books Nor can you, by saying the
Vedas are divine or that I publish idiotic and
defamatory books or that I should learn Marathi
grammar before writing anything Not one of you so-called
intellectuals can answer any of my
questions That’s why this pretence of
superiority Poona is said to be a city of
intellectuals but with people like you even
that is in decline By opposing us, you are
betraying the country You cannot stop the
reformation of society If you try to do that you’ll be
swallowed You can then curse but no one
will pay any attention Encouraged by the success of
the book ‘Slavery’ Jyotirao Phule founded the Satyashodhak Samaj in
1873 Both the Brahmo Samaj and the
Prarthana Samaj were founded by very learned
people However, both concentrate on
upper caste reforms All the talkative reformers have
collected there No one is interested in understanding and ending the
caste system There are many who praise
them! Theirs is a mutual admiration
society Please clarify, Tatyasaheb Of course! You all know
Mahadevrao Ranade He is a noted reformist Once I spoke to him I wanted to congratulate you on
your second marriage but did not feel like it You are a leader among the
reformers in Maharashtra! Forgive me for my frankness but if a groom of 32 years
marries a girl of 11 years how can we bring about social
reform? People honour and respect you So, no one said anything I am a Kunbi farmer. I’ve no
fear and so, I can say this! You probably don’t know I had
to remarry on my father’s insistence I know my wife is very young Your marriage is in accordance
with neither your status nor your
social ideology When reformers like you don’t
practise what you preach the movement regresses by ten
years I don’t think this is right! This happened two years ago! A similar event took place
recently With the exception of Vishnu
Shastri Pandit there isn’t a single high caste
reformer who practises what he
preaches Do you know what Ranade did when his sister became a
widow? I am familiar with your
arguments but the truth is everyone is opposed
to this remarriage As it is I am called a heretic all
over Poona I didn’t allow my sister’s head to
be shaved for this the Brahmins are
already annoyed with me Now if I allow her remarriage
the Brahmins will swoop upon me like a
swarm of bees And you are so scared of it that you are prepared to ruin
your sister’s life You are compelling her to
spend her best years reciting Scriptures in a dark
room! Condemned to a life of
loneliness If you insist on doing this then there isn’t a greater fraud
than you Your tongue moves but not your
feet You merely hunger for titles and
honours You merely want to be
felicitated and known as a leader of the
society you want to be known as pseudo reformer with modern
outlook Has orthodoxy and ritualism
eroded your soul? If so, we Kunbis are better than
you! We have no social prestige or
status but we practise what we preach I am disappointed and
saddened I had not expected you to
surrender to obnoxious social customs What I mean is high caste
reformers behave as if they are members of a
social club People will praise them, write
books on them but society will not progress Shudras will have to take
society ahead That’s why the Satyashodhak
Samaj is being founded Friends! I pray to you to accept
that there is one God and we are his
children I call upon you to reject any
middleman between you and God! We don’t need priests They cheat us in the name of
birth, death and marriage Let’s get rid of them forever A day will come when historians
will say the Satyashodhak Samaj was
the first institution to bring about true reform Please become members of the
Satyashodhak Samaj Give me workers who will go to
villages and fight against the caste
system If they can sing then so much
the better They’ll propagate our message
through songs The Sun gives its light equally
to all The moon for all is the same
and so is the rain! Why are not all humans equal? Humanity is a gift of God! Given equally to all! The pride of Brahmanism is
hollow! False is the creed of
untouchability! Says Jyotiba: Recognise the
Truth! Good of you to come so
promptly, Dr. Ghole! I heard Vishnupant Chiplunkar
is very ill I want you to examine him! Vishnu Shastri is the leader of
the orthodox He has indulged in mud-slinging He calls himself the Shivaji of
Marathi language! He defames you at every
opportunity Aren’t there Brahmin doctors in
Poona? Why call me? There are! But none of them is
your equal! Vishnupant is a good man His patriotism is praiseworthy He is not a mere talker He practises what he preaches We must oppose such orthodox
Brahmins but we must not hate them or be angry with them on a
personal level Please go and attend to him! Vishnu Shastri’s stomach is
burning The vaidya’s medicine has had
no effect He is writhing and screaming
with pain The doctor has come! Was there only a kunbi doctor
in the whole of Poona? I have to die then why at the
hands of a shudra? It is better to drink poison than
your medicine You hate all Brahmins the
religion of the Aryas The missionaries are better
than you! Your minds have already
become Christian Go away doctor! I don’t want to
see your face! I won’t be treated by a Brahmin
hater Forgive me, Dr. Ghole!
should have known that Vishnu Shastri may insult
you Vishnu Shastri is no more! It is rumoured he took poison The police want a doctor’s
certificate saying the death was a natural
one They’ll not release the body till
they get the certificate I must trouble you once again,
doctor You may not like it True, Vishnu Shastri was a
narrow-minded man but he was undoubtedly sincere Such a man should not face
such indignity Dr. Ghole you visited him
yesterday Certify that Vishnu Shastri died
of natural causes Your tolerance and generosity
is boundless Ill write such a certificate Shastriji would not have
accepted my certificate but his death has solved that
problem I had heard that Death ends all
enmity Today, I’ve experienced it! Today, I’ve experienced it! Victory to Mahatma Jyotiba
Phule! Friends! to an illiterate man like
me the love and devotion you have
shown I have no words to thank you for
that Recently, at the residence of
Hari Raoji the Duke and Duchess of
Connaught were honoured I was also invited but I was barred from attending
because I went in the ordinary clothes of
a farmer Later when I was introduced to
the Duke I told him that what he was seeing was
not the real India Expensive clothes, jewels,
grandeur This is not India! All this is like moss on stagnant
water India over which your mother
Queen Victoria rules is in the villages where lakhs of starving, naked people
stay There is ignorance, misery and exploitation in the name of
religion and caste Where man is compelled to live
like an animal That is real India! I asked the Duke if he would
like to see the real India Victory to Mahatma Phule! It is to fight for the rights of
these people that we have established the
Satyashodhak Samaj Our work is not yet done We must fight till we have won
all rights The upper castes, through the
Sarvajanik Sabha and the Indian National Congress in the name of Hindutva have
started an agitation demanding more
rights That is good! Thirty years after his death in
1890 Jyotirao Phule’s desire for a
broad-based political movement for rights
was fulfilled when the Indian National
Congress became a mass organization under
Mahatma Gandhi In 1932 when he was in the
Yerawada Jail Gandhiji recognized Phule’s
vision and said: Jyotirao Phule was a true
Mahatma That’s why I say: stand by the
Satyashodhak Samaj and see that it progresses If we are united, we can reform
the society Victory to Mahatma Phule! If the Shudras toil together The truth is, they’ll never starve! If children of Shudras become
literate their lives will be prosperous Do not give alms to the evi Nor refuge to the gambler or
drunkard The exploiters cannot be called
just! Those who teach hate are not
religious! Be he Muslim, Christian or
Shudra They are all brothers and
children of God! It is bad to talk of high and low
castes This will not bring prosperity God resides where Truth is
spoken Happiness abounds where God
resides! There can be no Truth without
knowledge! Education leads to Knowledge! In the past the caste system
has not only led to the oppression of certain
groups but also to the separation of scholastic
learning from craftsmanship and the divorce of philosophy from
actual life This outlook has to change
completely because it is opposed to modern
conditions and the democratic idea The spirit of the age is in favour
of equality In India, we must aim at

100 thoughts on “Bharat Ek Khoj 45: Mahatma Phule

  1. वास्तविक एवं सही सही शिक्षक दिवस के उत्तरदायी एवं हकदार।बाकी किसी ने एक स्कूल भी नही खोला।जिनको तमगा दिया जाता है।

  2. Salute To My Ancestors Mahatma Jyotiba Phule and Savitribai Phule ! Especially on Birth Anniversary of Mother GyanJyoti Savitribai Phule ! Mahatma Jyotiba Phule was Truly a Mahatma in Real Sense ! Most Ideal Couple of India !

  3. Mahaars braves where the game game changer in 1818 against peshwa brahman they fought against the inhuman culture of peshwa brahman here in this picture again they are brain washing mulnivasi because our mulnivasi has been brain washed by fascist manuwadi aryans brahman videshi scavengers breed who enslaved mulnivasi

  4. Fatima saikh Ka barnan kiun Nahi ,jo is pathsala ko apna ghar Dan Kiya tha..
    Brahman humesa sudron se sudron ko marne Ka kam Kiya hai is episode main dikh raha hai …

  5. Bharat ki pahali mahila shikshika savitri bai fule aur mahatma jyotiba fule ke Andolan ne hi shudro ke andolano ne janma diya h

  6. 👍👍👍👍👍👍👍👍👍👍👍👍👍👍👍👍👍👍👍👍👍👍👍👍👍👍👍👍👍👍👍👍👍👌👌👌👌👌👌👌👌👌👌👌

  7. राष्ट्रपिता महात्मा ज्योतिबा फुले और माता सावित्रीबाई फुले ने शुद्रो(obc,sc,st) के हक़, अधिकारो के लिए जो संघर्ष किये है उनका वर्णन में सब्दो में नहीं कर सकता क्योकि उनके संघर्ष को अगर सब्दो में लिखने जाऊंगा तो सारी जिंदगी निकल जाएँगी।ब्राह्मणो के अन्याय अत्याचारो के बावजूद भी राष्ट्रपिता महात्मा ज्योतिबा फुले और माता सावित्रीबाई फुले ने शुद्रो(obc,sc,st) को शिक्षा दी और उनको अपने हक़ और अधिकार के लिए संघर्ष करने के काबिल बनाया।
    भारत देश के राष्ट्रपिता महात्मा ज्योतिबा फुले और माता सावित्री बाई फुले को में सलाम करता हु।

  8. राष्ट्रपिता महात्मा ज्योति राव फुले को भारत रत्न पदक से सम्मानित किया जाना चाहिए ।

  9. दलितों के मसीहा थे ऐसे संत। आप का बहुत बहुत आभार।

  10. pandito ne desh ko barwad kr diya or bahut shosan kiya h apni lalach ki baje se desh ko galat raste pr le gye…

  11. राष्ट्रीय पिता जोतिबा फूले जी जय हो कोटि कोटि नमन 🙏🙏🙏🙏🙏🇮🇳🇮🇳🇮🇳✍✍✍☝☝☝जागो बहुजन जागो इस को देख कर

  12. सावित्रीबाई फुले गोबर वह कीचड़ उछालना मनु वादियों की ओछी मानसिकता को दर्शाता है सावित्रीबाई फुले वह ज्योतिबा फुले को कोटि-कोटि नमन जागो ओबीसी जागो जय ज्योतिबा फुले जय सावित्रीबाई फुले जय फूलन देवी की जय भीम नमो बुद्धाय

  13. राष्ट्रपिता महात्मा जोतिबा फुले great हैं

  14. क्या देश में जोतिभाई फुले और सवित्री बाई फुले जैसे कोई हम सब मे क्या नही है

  15. क्रांतिसूर्य शिक्षण सम्राट महात्मा फुले जय ज्योती जय क्रांति

  16. Right video हम सभी आप के विडीयो से सहमत है।हम आप को बार बार प्रणाम करता हूँ

  17. आई सावित्री आणि बाप ज्योती,म्हणूनच महाराष्ट्र धर्म जीवंत आहे,या भूमीला आणि तिने दिलेल्या या ओजस्वी हिऱ्यांना शतशः नमन.सावित्री आईची धेययनिष्ठा पाहून डोळे भरून येतात.

  18. इस बराहमणवादी गद्दार नेहरू ने हिन्दू शब्द का बडी ही चालाकी से इस्तेमाल किया है ।

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *