Bangladesh Nationalist Party | Wikipedia audio article

Bangladesh Nationalist Party | Wikipedia audio article


The Bangladesh Nationalist Party (Bengali:
বাংলাদেশ জাতীয়তাবাদী দল, transliterated:
Bangladesh Jātīẏatābādī Dôl; abbreviated BNP) is one of the two major contemporary
political parties of Bangladesh. It was founded on 1 September 1978 by former Bangladesh President
Ziaur Rahman after the Presidential election of 1978, with a view to uniting the people
with nationalist ideology of the country. Since then, the BNP won the second, fifth,
sixth and eighth national elections and two Presidential elections in 1978 and 1981. The
party also holds the record of being the largest opposition in the history of parliamentary
elections of the country, with 116 seats in the seventh national election of June 1996.
It does not currently have representation in parliament after its boycotting of the
2014 national election.==Ideology==
The party holds the ideology of Bangladeshi nationalism as its core concept and adopted
a 19-point program which declared that “The sovereignty and independence of Bangladesh,
golden fruits of the historic liberation struggle, is our sacred trust and inviolable right”.
The founding manifesto of the BNP claims that the people of Bangladesh want to “..see that
all-out faith and confidence in the almighty Allah, democracy, nationalism and socialism
of social and economic justice are reflected in all spheres of national life”.
BNP and its student wing was the driving force in the 1990 uprising against the autocratic
Ershad rule that culminated in the fall of the regime and the restoration of democracy
in Bangladesh. Begum Khaleda Zia, who served as the party’s chairperson from 1983, was
elected as the first woman Prime Minister of Bangladesh and the second female Prime
Minister of a Muslim majority country after Pakistan’s Benazir Bhutto .
Begum Khaleda Zia is the chairperson of the party, with Tarique Rahman as the senior vice-chairman
and Mirza Fakhrul Islam Alamgir as the secretary-general.==History=====JAGODAL===
On 22 February 1978, a new party, Jatiyatabadi Ganatantrik Dal (JAGODAL), was formed with
Justice Abdus Sattar as the coordinator. Most of the prominent figures were from the advisory
council that was running the country at that time. Jagadal was the first attempt to create
a platform for the nationalists of the country. Major General (retd) M.Majid ul Haq, Professor
Syed Ali Ahsan, Shamsul Alam Chowdhury, A.Z.M. Enayetullah Khan, M. Hamidullah Khan, Jakaria
Chowdhury, Professor Dr. M. R. Khan, and Saifur Rahman were prominent figures. JAGODAL was
dissolved on 28 August 1978 to consolidate its membership under the newly formed Jatiyatabadi
Front.===Jatiyatabadi Front===
On 1 May 1978 the Jatiyatabadi Front or Nationalist Front was formed with Ziaur Rahman as the
chief of the front, which JAGODAL joined soon after its formation. A major portion of NAP
(Bhashani) joined the front as well with Mashiur Rahman. Shah Azizur Rahman with some of his
colleagues from Muslim League. Kazi Zafar Ahmed and a faction of United Peoples Party,
Maolana Matin with his Labour Party, and minority leader Rashraj Mandal with Tafsili Jati Federation
also joined. Ziaur Rahman was their candidate for the Presidential
Election of 3 June 1978. Ziaur Rahman won the election, defeating M. A. G. Osmani of
Ganatantrik Oikya Jote (United Democratic Alliance) which was backed by the Bangladesh
Awami League.===Formation of BNP===
After the Presidential election of 1978 the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP) was established
on 1 September.The constitution of the party was drafted in 21 days of the formation with
76 members with Ziaur Rahman as the chief convener.
Founding convening committee The BNP formed its first government after
the 1979 Bangladeshi general election. The first session of the parliament was 2 April
1979. It elected Shah Azizur Rahman as Prime Minister and leader of the parliament. Mirza
Ghulam Hafiz was elected as the speaker of the parliament. Asaduzzaman Khan from the
Awami League became the leader of the opposition. During this time it attracted a large pool
of supporters and activists who joined the newly formed students wing and youth wing.
After the formation of the government, the first executive committee of the party was
declared. A national standing committee was formed as the highest decision making forum
of the party with 12 members.Founding National Standing Committee A youth wing was formed in September 1978
which was named Bangladesh Jatiyatabadi Jubo Dal with Abul Kashem as chief convener. The
Dhaka unit convener was Saifur Rahman. Within a couple of months the central executive committee
of Jubo Dal was declared with Abul Kashem and Saifur Rahman as the President and general
secretary respectively. Mirza Abbas became the Dhaka unit President with Kamruzzaman
Ayat Ali as the Secretary General.===1981–1982===
On 30 May 1981 the founder of the party/ President Ziaur Rahman was assassinated in the Chittagong
Circuit House by a small group of military officials. After the assassination of Ziaur
Rahman, large crowds started protesting in major cities like Dhaka and Chittagong. The
funeral of Ziaur Rahman became a huge event with the participation of millions of people
in Dhaka.In the Bangladeshi presidential election, 1981 Abdus Sattar was elected. He formed a
National Security Council to involve the Bangladesh Armed Forces. Meanwhile, Vice-President Mirza
Nurul Huda resigned from his post in March 1982.====Military coup d’état, 1982====
Army Chief Hussain Muhammad Ershad thwarted the elected government of Justice Sattar on
24 March 1982 and replaced him with Justice A. F. M. Ahsanuddin Chowdhury. The BNP was
thrown out of power. Many of its leaders were imprisoned, including former Minister S.A.
Bari, Saifur Rahman, Habibullah Khan, Tanvir Ahmed Siddiqui, Atauddin Khan, Jamal Uddin
Ahmed, K.M. Obaidur Rahman, Abul Hasnat, and Moudud Ahmed. 233 leaders of BNP were arrested
from March to July 1982.====7-Party Alliance====
From 1983, Begum Khaleda Zia became the de facto decision maker of the party. Under her
leadership the BNP formed a new anti-government alliance against the autocratic Ershad regime.
It was named after the number of parties with it, 7-Party Alliance.BNP launched an anti-government
movement after co-ordination with Awami League led 15-Party Alliance from September 1983.
The 7-Party Alliance arranged a mass gathering and called a nationwide strike on 1 November
1983. The strike was very successful. After that the alliance called to surround the Secretariat
on 28 November 1983 along with the 15-Party Alliance. Thousands of BNP activists surrounded
the secretariat building at Paltan. Some agitated supporters from both alliances broke the boundary
walls of the building. The police retaliated with indiscriminate firing of live bullets.
A ban on political activities was imposed that night and Begum Khaleda Zia was kept
under house arrest. On 29 February 1984, Ershad declared that
the ban on politics would be lifted on 26 March and on 27 May both the Presidential
and national election would be held. The 7-Party Alliance asked for the national election prior
to the Presidential election. After the lifting of the ban, Khaleda Zia
attended an extended meeting of the party on 1 April where she was made the acting Chairperson
of the party. In May, the Chairperson Justice Sattar resigned and Khaleda Zia was made the
Chairperson of the party.Under the leadership of Khaleda Zia, the first major step BNP took
was to expel leaders like Shah Azizur Rahman, Moudud Ahmed, AKM Maidul Islam, Abdul Alim,
and Barrister Sultan Ahmed Chowdhury from the party. These leaders formed a committee
with Shah Aziz as the President and AKM Maidul Islam as the general secretary. This faction
later joined the Jatiya Front and Jatiya Party.====Attack on Begum Khaleda Zia====
On 23 September 1984 while addressing a rally in Bogra, 10 or 12 handmade grenades were
charged on the rally while some of them were aimed at the stage where Khaleda Zia was giving
her speech. Khaleda Zia narrowly escaped injury while eleven of her party received severe
injuries. A nationwide strike was called in protest at this attack on 22 and 27 December.
The government imposed a ban on political activities on those days to foil the strike,
but it was largely ignored. Two people including a student leader from Bangladesh, Jatiotabadi
Chatra Dal, died when police fired on a crowd on 22 December.====Upazila election 1985====
The government, amid protests, held upazila elections on 15 May 1985 in 251 upazilas and
on 20 May in 209. The election was marked by rigging, stuffing, snatching of ballots
and electoral fraud. Ershad’s newly formed Janadal got 190 candidates as victors. Though
BNP was in trouble because of government repression, it got 46 of its leader as upazila chairmen
while the Awami League fared worse with 41 upazila chairman.====Formation of student alliance====
In 1985, BNP’s students wing Bangladesh Jatiotabadi Chatra Dal formed Shongrami Chatra Jote with
Chatra League (Awranga), Chatra League (Pradhan) and five other student organisations and started
its resistance against Ershad.===General election 1986===
In March 1986, Ershad declared that a national election would be held on 26 April. Both the
7-Party Alliance led by BNP and the 15-Party Alliance led by the Awami League declared
a boycott of the election on 17 March. Both called a joint rally on 21 March and a nationwide
strike on 22 March as the immediate program to thwart the forthcoming election. The night before the nationwide strike on
22 March, the Awami League called a meeting of the 15-Party Alliance but Sheikh Hasina
refused to take part in the meeting. In the meeting majority of the parties including
the Awami League opined in favour of the election. General Khalilur Rahman of Awami League was
maintaining close contacts with the army headquarters during the meeting that night. Sheikh Hasina
was having discussion with General Khalil periodically.On the final hours of 21 March
1986, Sheikh Hasina announced that the Awami League and her alliance would participate
in the election. Five parties of the alliance parted ways from the Awami League after the
announcement and decided to boycott the election. BNP and the 7-Party Alliance with the newly
formed 5-Party alliance of leftists started campaigning against the election while the
Awami League and Bangladesh Jamaat-e-Islami joined the election.
The election was largely boycotted. BNP Chairperson mobilised a large pool of political parties
and their leaders behind her to boycott the election. Apart from the BNP led 7-Party Alliance
and leftist 5-Party Alliance, 17 more parties including BNP (Shah Aziz), Samajbadi Dal (Nirmal
Sen), Democratic League (Moshtaq), Democratic League (Oli Ahad), Islamic Democratic League,
Islami Andolon (M. A. Jalil), Janata Party, Jatiya Ganatantrik Party, Labour Party (Maolana
Matin), Muslim League (Kamruzzaman), Progatishil Ganatantrik Shakti and so on.Khaleda Zia reiterated
that the BNP would participate only if: The fundamental rights are restored
All political prisoners are released All convictions of politicians by the military
courts are cancelledThe anti-election alliance under BNP called for a nationwide strike on
election day. Unrest, voting fraud and malpractices marked the election day according to the opposition
parties. Both the Awami League and Jamaat-e-Islami conceded humiliating defeat in the election. General Hussain Mohammad Ershad got himself
elected on 15 October 1986. Prior to the election, Khaleda Zia was put under house arrest on
13 October.In a joint declaration, the two alliances called for “Siege Dhaka” program
on 10 November 1987. The government imposed a ban on public gatherings ahead of the program
which was defied on the day, and during the program, the capital of the country virtually
went under the control of the opposition alliances. This incident infuriated the opposition and
a nationwide protest was called on the following day. The government came hard handed and both
Khaleda Zia and Sheikh Hasina was put under house arrest on 11 October. Both the parties
and their partners in the movement declared frequent nationwide strikes for the next days
till the end of the year.====General election 1988====
BNP was determined about not to join poll under Ershad regime and decided to boycott
the general election of 1988 after the abolishment of the previous parliament. The election was
held on 3 March without the participation of any popular party or alliance rather a
combined opposition was made led by ASM Abdur Rab. BNP called a nationwide on the Election
Day and declared they would resist the election.====Organizational reformations====
BNP chief Begum Zia, on 21 June 1988, suspended the national standing committee and executive
committee on the party for various reasons including the failures to strengthening the
party of leaders and the role of former military personnel within the party. On 3 July 1988
Barrister Abdus Salam Talukder, a distinguished lawyer from Lincoln’s Inn, was assigned with
the post of Secretary General of the party instead of KM Obaidur Rahman. Soon after the
removal of Obaidur, he with Jamal Uddin Ahmed and Abul Hasnat formed a new party with the
same name. On 17 July of the same year, Shah Azizur Rahman dissolved the BNP faction with
him and joined the party with his followers on 26 August. Barrister Abdus Salam Talukder
restructured the BNP, making it a stronger political platform that thrived through the
critical time to topple Ershad regime.===1990 Mass Uprising===The movement against Ershad started gaining
momentum from October 1990. The BNP led 7-party alliance, the Awami League led 8-party alliance
and the Leftist 5-party alliance started a movement to usurp Ershad from 10 October 1990
and declared a nationwide strike on that day. The strike claimed 5 lives, including the
three BNP activists who were rallying in front of the central office of the Jatiya Party
when the Jatiya Party cadres opened fire on the crowd.On 28 November, the opposition parties
including BNP and its student wing defied the curfew and state of emergency and came
out with large processions. The curfew and state of emergency was the last resort for
Ershad that became ineffective by the end of November 1990. On 3 December, the protests
became more violent and many died. Bombs were hurled at the Sena Kalyan Sangstha building
at Motijhil. From 27 November to 3 December, more than fifty protesters died. On 4 December,
the mass uprising took place and Ershad declared his resignation.====Students movement====
Dhaka University Central Students Union (DUCSU) which has always been a centre of all popular
movements in the history of Bangladesh came under the control of Bangladesh Jatiotabadi
Chatra Dal after the election of 3 June 1990. The Amanullah Aman-Khairul Kabir Khokan panel
backed by Chatra Dal won all the posts and took the lead of the students’ movement in
the University of Dhaka campus.The Chatra Dal led DUCSU committee forged an alliance
with all existing students group in the campus, Sarbadaliya Chatra Oikya Parishad (All-party
Students Alliance Council) and staged a demonstration on 1 October 1990. The protests turned violent
after the police firing on a rally of Chatra Dal on 10 October that claimed the life of
Naziruddin Jehad, a Chatra Dal leader from Sirajganj who came to Dhaka to join the rally
against Ershad.The series of student protests compelled the Ershad regime to think about
a safe exit.====Solidarity of teachers====
On 7 December 1989, the BNP supported White panel of teachers got the highest number of
Deans elected from their panel including Professor Anwarullah Chowdhury, Professor S M Faiz,
Assistant Professor M. Anwar Hossain and Associate Professor Humayun Ahmed.The pro-BNP White
panel of teachers which dominated the[Dhaka University Teachers Association declared an
all-out movement against the Ershad regime in 1990. All the teachers decided to resign
from their post on 29 November and confirmed their decision of not returning to classes
until the fall of Ershad. The firm reaction from the teachers jeopardised the Ershad regime.After
the fall of Ershad, because of the commitment to the national interest the White panel of
teachers won a decisive victory on 24 December 1990 in the election of Dhaka University Teachers
Association once again with Professor Anwarullah Chowdhury as the President of the association
with Professor M. Anwar Hossain as the general secretary.===Caretaker government (2006–2008)===The military-backed government promised to
tackle the longstanding problems of corruption, filing charges against more than 160 politicians,
civil servants and businessmen in 2007. Among those charged were Khaleda Zia and her two
sons, as well as Sheikh Hasina, leader of the Awami League.The Bangladesh Election Commission
invited Hafizuddin’s faction, rather than Khaleda Zia’s, to participate in talks, effectively
recognising the former as the legitimate BNP. Khaleda Zia challenged this in court, but
her appeal was rejected on 10 April 2008. After her release later that year, Zia was
restored to her position as party leader.In the 2008 Bangladesh general election, the
4-party alliance led by BNP won 33 seats out of 299 constituencies, of which the BNP alone
got 30.===5th National Council, 2009===
After sanctions by the Election Commission, the party held country-wide events in order
for local leaders to play an active role in the national party. The BNP National Council
empowered re-elected party chairperson Khaleda Zia to pick other members for the National
Executive Committee and Standing Committee. It elected her eldest son, Tarique Rahman,
to the powerful post as Senior vice-chairman, in a “move apparently designed to smooth his
path to the party helm.”===
Post-election campaigns (2012 – present)===
After several movements in a period of severe political unrest between 2012 and 2014 to
prevent the ruling party holding the 10th general election in January 2014 without a
neutral caretaker government, Khaleda led BNP and its allies in a boycott of the election.
Incidents of violence were reported on polling day including bombing of election centres,
which the BNP and its allies were accused of. Over 100 people were killed in the 2016
Union Parishad Election in violent clashes between Awami League and BNP supporters. In
2016 the BNP announced its new National Standing Committee, in which Khaleda retained her position
as Chairperson. New members were recruited while some older members were removed, and
various new strategies for party operation were formulated. In May 2017 Khaleda revealed
BNP’s Vision 2030 to gain public support for the next general elections. However the ruling
Awami League government denounced Vision 2030 as an act of plagiarism of Awami League’s
Vision 2021 which they used in the ninth general election, and claimed most of the targets
in the Visions were fulfilled by Awami League, thus declaring BNP’s Vision 2030 as unoriginal.
BNP also announced it will hold processions to hold the 11th general elections under a
neutral government. This renewed tensions between BNP and Awami League.
In 8 February 2018 Khaleda Zia and her son Tarique Rahman as per court verdict, were
jailed for 5 and 10 years respectively due to involvement in the Zia Charitable Trust
corruption case. While Tarique was on exile, Khaleda would be imprisoned on old Dhaka Central
Jail on Nazimuddin Road. In protest BNP held nationwide demonstrations, which were foiled
by well-prepared police force across the nation. A large number of BNP activists were arrested
during clashes with the police during the protests against Khaleda’s imprisonment.===Jatiya Oikya Front===
See More: Jatiya Oikya Front After the jailing of chairperson Begum Khaleda
Zia, BNP expedited the process to forge a national unity with prominent leaders of the
country. In October 2018, the party formally announced its joining of Jatiya Oikya Front
with Dr. Kamal Hossain at its forefront.==Party leaders=====Chairpersons======Current leadership===
Chairperson: Khaleda Zia Senior Vice Chairperson: Tarique Rahman
Secretary General: Mirza Fakhrul Islam Alamgir. List of all Standing Committee (Last Updated:
20 July 2010) [1]==Electoral history=====
Presidential Elections======
Parliamentary Elections=====
See also==Politics of Bangladesh
List of political parties in Bangladesh Hartal in Bangladesh
Economy of Bangladesh

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *