(AV17396) Emerging from Obsurity: The Ioway Nation in the New Millennium

(AV17396) Emerging from Obsurity: The Ioway Nation in the New Millennium


good evening I am David grad well on
behalf of the Richard Thompson Memorial Lecture Committee I want to welcome you
to the 2008 Richard Thompson memorial lecture the presentation this evening is
the 35th in a series of annual lectures dedicated to the memory of Richard W
Thompson the Richard Thompson memorial lecture committee wants to gratefully
acknowledge the Thompson family’s continuing interest in contributions to
Iowa State University and their concern for the well-being of American Indian
students on campus we express condolences to the Thompson family for
the unexpected passing of Rick’s mother Marg in January this evenings
presentation honors her life also let us reflect a moment on the man and whose
honor we gather this evening Rick Thompson was born at Glen Falls New York
on April 19th 1949 he grew up in Kansas City and came to Ames to attend Iowa
State University during his residence in Ames Rick served as the clerk of the
Ames friends meeting as a twenty-year-old Rick was respected as a
leader of both the young and the old while at ISU Rick was a member of the
cyclone aides cardinal key and the University lectures committee he
graduated in 1971 with majors in anthropology and geology Rick was on the
National Affairs Institute committee and chaired the first American Indian
symposium in 1971 outcomes of that symposium included the formation of U
NASA the United Native American Student Association and several years later the
American Indian studies program at Iowa State University
after graduation Rick worked in Washington DC with the friends Committee
on national legislation in Indian Affairs as a Quaker Rick was opposed to
the war in Vietnam but he went to Vietnam is a volunteer civilian worker
at the Quang Ngai hospital in pursuit of his duties there he met a tragic and
untimely death in an airplane crash on November 17th 1973
Rick Thompson’s life was dedicated to the attainment of human rights for
American Indians and all human beings his example epitomizes the dedication to
purpose and action necessary to attain those goals his exemplary spirit
continues to inspire and motivate us today as we continue the struggle to
recognize and maintain human diversity on campus in our nation and throughout
the world this evening is a special occasion for
me personally Rick Thompson was an advisee
and student early in my career at Iowa State University
our speaker this evening was one of my last students before my retirement I am
very proud of both of these young men this evening speaker joins a long list
of distinguished men and women listed on the insert in your program introducing
the 2006-2008 Richard Thompson memorial lecturer is Alexander Volker alex is a
member of the Cherokee tribe Eastern Band she grew up in Detroit Michigan a
senior at ISU Alex is majoring in biology and history she is president of
the United Native American Student Association please join me in welcoming
Alex to the podium I’d like to take a moment to recognize
tonight’s sponsors this event was organized and sponsored by the Native
student groups on campus you NASA the United Native American Student
Association aces the American Indian Science and Engineering Society and Aero
the American Indian rights organization and I’d like to let everyone know that
if you’re interested in these groups we have a sign-up sheet over on the table
so once we’re done you can put down your contact info and we’ll be able to get in
touch with you and let you know what we’re up to I’d also like to thank the
following groups for their funding and assistance the Committee on lectures
which is funded by the GSB the department’s of anthropology and
landscape architecture the American Indian studies program the College of
Design David and Hanna grad wall and the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences
through the Miller lecturer fund now it is my pleasure to introduce tonight’s
speaker a member of the Iowa Nation of Kansas in Nebraska
he’s a traditional storyteller artist teacher and scholar and is involved in
the cultural preservation and management of the Iowa culture and language Lance
graduated from ISU with an MA in anthropology and a master’s in landscape
architecture since his graduation he has held cultural resource management
specialist positions with the National Park Service in New Mexico and Alaska
he has also managed the Department of Hawaiian homelands in Honolulu under the
office of Hawaiian Affairs he’s also managed the content for the
IOA website and is a contributor to the world’s between two rivers perspectives
on American Indians in Iowa Native Americans in the 20th century and
encyclopedia and ancient muses archeology and the arts he currently
lives with his family in Helena Montana so please help me welcome Lance Foster
the 2008 Richard Thompson Memorial Lecture for his talk on emerging from
obscurity the iowa nation in the new millennium it it’s really so weird you know to be
here I was you know in your shoes about 15 years ago and I think about all those
people that came before and would like to people you know just to do a stand
for a minute because I was you know I’ll tell you why we’ve just risked I have an
uncle who Cheyenne her and bear comes out and he said when he was young he
used to do what he wanted to do he’d run everywhere do what he wanted to do get
in trouble and the old people used to say you know sit with us
listen what we’re doing someday you’re gonna be here someday you’re gonna be
sitting here where we are and we won’t be here to help you and he said oh
you’ll be here you know I got time and all of a sudden he woke up and he’s 60
something years old and they’re gone and he thinks about the things he should
have listened to the things he could have listened to and you know we’re so
impoverished from where we were before all of us from what people did and knew
and so I I I know in the traditional way I should try to open with the prayer a
small prayer as imperfect and and small as I’m able to do I would like to try to
do that with you tonight into Wakanda your Cunha minor I mean we not da da da
gay me not ha I like is to pray for this man and for
his family who suffered another loss this year we’re here gathered in his
memory we gathered for all the people that can’t be here
I’m glad you’re all here and maybe everyone drives safely back home tonight
be careful it’s a dark night as I see and please God watch over us and give
those wisdom that we need to live each day in the beginning the son had a son an
outrageous son this son of a son this boy’s name was his chinky his boy was
very naughty and liked nothing better than to make trouble but his father the
son loved him and always backed him up one morning his Jinky woke up before his
father did impatiently is chinky took a stick and poked at his father to wake
him up the old man still slept on then instinct he lifted his father’s covers
and saw his nakedness and laughed and then the son will come when the sauce
son saw his son get stinky sitting there laughing at him he grew very angry and
he grabbed this boy by his arm and kicked him hard so hard
the youth fell down down down emergence from under the ground digging upwards
the black bear came and he brought a sacred pipe the wolf came and brought
the use of the bow and arrow the oak came and brought the sacred fire the
eagle and the pigeon came from the sky world and flying down they perched on a
cedar tree they brought a war club and they could
bring rain they sang on what tree have I alighted to what land have I come the
buffalo also came from above they say and brought the corn and when these
clans met they fought at first many of them died and each clan believed the
land to be theirs but after me and II mean II died they saw this was wrong the
Eagle said you’ve killed one another to your satisfaction let there be an end to
this and then they learned each had a gift that the others did not possess
while they all shared what they had each clan had its own sacred right
the bear clan served this tribal policemen and civil government leaders
only the elk could light and care for the sacred fire
no one could plant the corn until the buffalo clan had done so the wolf clan
led the tribal buffalo hunt and scouted the enemy the Eagle clan led in time of
war and could bring the rain thus each clan had a special role that was needed
by all and could be done by no other clamp this formed the interdependence of
the tribe so they adopted each other as brothers and his sisters they gave each
other special names to mark this new relationship they agreed the earth clans
would lead the people for half the year fall and summer fall in winter I’m sorry
while the sky clans would lead the people for the other half of the year
spring in summer at a place called red banks the clans built a great palisaded
village and though each was strong together they were even stronger and
they smoked the pipe and became brothers and sisters and the animals they were
became human beings the first I always well Claudia Pagano now as a tribe the
Iowa came into being in Iowa ancestral stories agree we were always moving
about from place to place as commanded by the Creator as long as we would move
we would live we would be healthy and when we stopped moving we would die some
clans stories say they originally came from the Great Lakes at a place called
ma huge a red banks a red earth other stories say some of the clans always
lived here we may never know archaeologists identified the
pre-contact Iowa with an archaeological culture called the Oni Oda
identified by certain kinds of pottery at sites dating from about eighty nine
hundred to 1750 scattered along the major rivers of Iowa but that was during
the time that the Iowa had already become
formed a tribal identity as the IOA what about before that before ad 900
when the clans were different people’s entirely some like the wolf speaking
different languages the others could not understand these clans were different
enough to see each other as a threat and they wore it among themselves until
death had warned them out and finally they made peace this was a time when
only the wolf clan had a bow and only the buffalo clan had corn not the others
corn agriculture and the bow were introduced in the Midwest during the
woodland period a thousand BC to 80 thousand so these clans stories date
from at least the woodland period 3,000 to a thousand years ago and in some
aspects of the legends perhaps even earlier in any case the Iowa’s were
known as a distinct tribe living in Iowa from before the time of the earliest
French explorers of the Mississippi River in the early 1600s until they were
ejected from their Iowa homelands through a series of forest treaties with
the United States between 1815 and 1836 in contrast the better-known tribes of
Iowa that Dakota and Meskwaki had occupied Iowa starting in the early
1700s the Dakota push from the Malak area of Minnesota by the Ojibwe and the
Meskwaki seeking refuge in Eastern Iowa from their persecution across the
Mississippi the Iowa’s were exiled from their Iowa homelands since before the
coming of the first settlers to Iowa by the time of the opening two I of Iowa
two American settlers the IOI’s as a tribe had been removed to a new
reservation across the Missouri River along the border of Kansas and Nebraska
the only Indians then that the white newcomers till Iowa knew about were the
Dakota the Sioux who lived to the northwest and were part of the
hostilities of 1856 in 1862 and the Meskwaki returned to buy lands near Tama
in 1857 no one had any idea who the Iowa and so stories began to spring up as to
the meaning of the word beautiful land this is the place the IOA lived in
Kansas until the Civil War and new demands for land by white settlers in
Kansas frustrated about half the tribe decided to go live in Indian Territory
down by the old friends the Sokka Black Hawks band and the ohto in less than one
generation those lands down there were divided up as well from after the
division of the Iowa’s into the northern group of Kansas and Nebraska and the
southern group of Oklahoma it was a time of gradual loss of the old culture the
language and out marriage into non-indian and other tribes it always
amazes me when people expect as I ways to look and live like the iOS of two
hundred years ago two people from this culture still look like George
Washington or drive a wagon culture is not a static thing its survival depends
on active practice and the usefulness of the old ways people can’t even make the
old bum bark lodges because dawn bark was flexible because we can’t find
enough gnomes left because of the Dutch elm disease the old ways of the Iowa
depended on cycles of hunting destroyed by loss of the Buffalo and a restriction
to a small piece of land farming destroyed by switched to cash crops and
to men’s control rather than women’s the complex network of hereditary clan
rights and responsibilities destroyed by the new imposed governmental systems of
agents and incorporation style governments a tribal chairman and the
like beliefs destroyed by the new religions government policies and the
ridicule of materialistic worldview and language each a is tied into all these
the school systems punished the students were speaking the language and so at
home the parents who had been students had been punished did not teach the act
of view of the language because all that did was
bring pain and shame in school our language is currently on life support
with only a couple of very dedicated and very exhausted nurses at the bedside
unfortunately it seems that many tribal governments have other priorities uh-huh
caching then language and culture the things that are the lifeblood of tribal
identity there’s a little good I can say there so I will reserve comment pain
people say that acknowledging and expressing pain will help it heal maybe
sometimes it works that way but not always we know there is pain but
replaying pain over and over does not seem to heal anything all you do is keep
picking out your scab that never seems to heal it keeps an infection going it
never becomes a scar that you can look at and remember and be per pop very
proud that you survived what made this car you really have to
clean out the wound once and for all and then you have to let it be you will
always have a scar there a memory at mark but the sickness the sickness will
be gone with the return of the Iowas into the life of Iowa over the last 20
years people begin to wonder what it means for the Iowa’s yes but also for
Iowans when the Iowa film premiered in Des Moines in the fall of 2007 and
during the public discussion other afterwards one question came out to made
all of us I always look at each other we did not know what to answer the question
was next what what do the I always want now what is the next step in this
reconnection I don’t have the answers but I do offer the following what do we
want we want to visit us Oggy our ancestors nameless they were evicted
from the earth that merged with them after their deaths
like an M&M popped out of a cookie but the red stain and the dough is still
there and now the soggy are hidden away by strangers and their own children
cannot visit them and yet the strangers know where they are
this Auggie are lonely and they cry we hear that cries well we cannot find them
they’re hidden from us we hear their cries hungry ghosts to the strangers
hear their cries of hunger and loneliness at night in their beds as
they sleep let us know where the graves are so we can feed our soggy
what do we want when Sun pushes on the trickster from the above world because
trickster laughed at his father’s nakedness trickster landed on the banks
of Netanya Mississippi and he fell so hard on a great rock he left the
impression of his buttocks we say Shinji there’s a word for you in Iowa Shinji
and his hands and feet where he landed where is this rock with his imprints
when a herd of buffalo went up to the above world they left a pile of the
manure like a tower of stone behind them to mark the spot of their departure
where is this tower of stone when a herd of buffalo
traveled a deep and narrow canyon so narrow it was scraped her sides and left
the canyon walls red streaked with their blood where is this Canyon there are
many such places in our stories we would like to find and visit but it has been
so long we do not know where they are can they be found remember review your covenants with this
land what is your relationship with the place do you live on the place that
gives you water water new food Auto J air do you breathe it gives you life you
think about that you’re alive renew your covenants with the land the
Covenant is a two-way obligation a promised relationship indigenous people
have this in common your ancestors from ancient times ours from recent times all
indigenous people have this a way of life that rests on three things
covenant with the Creator covenant with one’s ancestors covenant with the land
review your covenants and renew them and if you have no covenants ask yourself
why you did not and correct that situation with the coming changes to our
mother earth you know Maya we will not all survive we are not going to all
survive when we get sick we have a fever and the fever burns of sickness the
earth is developing a fever whether this is humanity’s doing a natural cycle or a
combination of human and Nature doesn’t matter changes are not only coming
changes are already here it is all connected food fuel transportation
growing seasons business jobs the basics so many focus their attention and energy
more oil biofuel alternative energy on going green that’s good but there’s
another side there’s a social side not just the technological side remember
when there is change there is stress people don’t like change
people get ugly we may not be able to prepare for all these changes because we
don’t know what they will all be we do need to prepare our relationships
with each other our ability to deal with the social stress that is coming the I
always came into being after a period of such great stress Awards between clans
when many people died and the as the clans learned how to come together we
will too in the future world of our making we are the ancestors of the
future or we will fight and there will be death until we are forced to come
together in the end anyway whoever of us is left we are going to be forced to
change now it is a matter of how we are going to survive it the I always had to
change perhaps through degree we would be unrecognizable to our ancestors like
speckled corn on the same cob the tribe we have a few red kernels a few blue
ones some yellow ones and many many pale ones but it is still the same corn cob
but then the story say we were always changing we change from the clan animals
to human beings we changed from the people of red banks to the i/os
Winnebagos and others we changed from a free people to prisoners from buffalo
hunters to computer jockeys in this race-conscious world are we red where
are we white whatever we are bear or human red or white we are still Iowa
creation was never an event that just happened once and the long ago past
creation didn’t happen just once creation even now is still unfolding
time is just another dimension of the material world like breath width and
height the spirit has no time because the Spirit is not material in nature and
the Iowa spirit is not restricted by time it lives on forever Wed to this
land between two river my talk a little bit about some of these
drawings they are you can go to manual just kind of signal it started anyway it doesn’t matter this is a piece called only stories and
they’re telling the story inside their Lodge that’s a key word and in they’re telling stories we only tell
stories in the winter I told you a beginning of a story about the Sun and
his chinky luckily it’s still winter but confuse me because I heard thunder so I
thought it was safe but anyway these folks you can see down there one of the
pots that the onio two people made and some of the hide work and these people
are talking about a story of prophecy of people coming who will be different from
the past and the clans and then becoming human beings at the top to the people
the Long Knives mahealani a and in the airplanes and then who knows how it all
connects at the end but people are just amazed at these stories about what’s
supposed to happen and indeed are they only stories well we found out they’re
not only stories there’s a buffalo hunt and traditionally people wore the wolf
skins to come up we had a story one of my ancestors my Husker had a white wolf
skin then when he wore it and sang certain songs he could become invisible
well you know with the Buffalo like that coming at you which is also one of our
names makanga which is bristling with arrows one of
our ancestor names you definitely have to worry about becoming invisible but
there’s some other symbols and things in there you probably recognize but go
ahead I’m in the middle of actually I’ve done a book about the tribes of Iowa and
some of these are illustrations for that people often forget how important women
were you know to continue the tribe to make sure that the heart and the men
were kind of somewhat expendable as the women who were important because the
women carried the tribe and so this is just Hina Hina means mother and that’s
one of the old-time scapular holes that they used um I did this for for David grad roll
thing he was doing and this was our one of the seasons during the flood season
during the summer and there’s some of the animals that live under the water
and yunkai up there the Forktail kite that you don’t see
here anymore but the men used to travel in huge dugouts made from cottonwoods
and other trees that sometimes were up to 50 feet long and it would have been
amazing to see those this is in the wintertime the men would go out and they
use these sticks to pry open the beaver lodges to get to the beaver the beaver
symbol is they actually have found a Pipestone object that was carved like
that and you can see even though it’s snow and moon Titan way is the word for
February when the Bears jumped from the trees and he’s got this mesh bag and
everything is going out in the snow shoes and you see the little snow plow
up there kind of going around it so it’s kind of connects past in in future my FP
he making peace that means peace Mya is is the earth ma is like soil yah
is to lay out flat to be distributed flatly P is good to make the earth good
he is causative it means to cause something so by making the earth good
that is how we talked about making peace and this was someone the people the
woodlands met the people of the plains sometimes they would argue and fight
over resources and this is one of the times when they came together under the
Sycamore no you noticed you’ve heard that saying burying the hatchet well
they actually did do that sometimes and red symbol of war and and white the
symbol of peace that’s why the Sycamore was known as the
tree of peace this is a area of one of the one of the
villages that Sheena she is uh what we call the lodges you may have heard
teepee well TP is a plural for T is that it’s the lodge itself in in Dakota and
Lakota and so you can see the root word the similar is between T and Chi and the
waterways they usually put the villages down by the waterways when you see those
kind of wavy lines that’s like a connection of power between the place
and whatever it’s connecting you’ll see how about people’s heads when they’re
holy in old-time ledger drawings and underneath our word for the underwater
beings the underwater Panther was east Chiqui the the mouth that is dangerous doctoring waswe he to make someone well
is what that means and people would go out into the woods
the women were a big part of the herb doctoring they kind of led that and
Montcalm k the owl there were different kinds of owls Hinda was the horned owl
and that was the one that could be something bad in that form but monk okay
was one of our clan owls spotted owl and this is a woman going out there I’m
getting roots for what she needs to do to help somebody and the bear of course
her paws are about the herbs because the bear a lot of time was the one who knew
what what herbs would heal you you may have seen this one quite a bit a color
version was on Lyn Alex’s archeological past of Iowa muck Gagne means to dig the
earth and this was the summer work the spring work to dig the earth to make the
corn in the Hills Grove and the mountains also being like human beings
the mother earth and and the growth that comes out of that and you just like you
saw the snowplow well those are John Deere tractors you know and and the
triangles being representative of the corn seeds you know so this one’s called Iowa fall powwow and
today people address with more like on the left the women than men but it’s the
people from a long ago leading it that they’re really following in their
footsteps that’s what they call a straight dancer that’s more southern
style since the folks kept more of the ways traditional down there and the one
leading that flag that’s the Iowa flag made a crow feathers and Swan feathers and we still have our fall powers both
the ones in the south they usually do in the summer we have it in the fall north
this is trickster its Jinky the the one who’s the clown who can cure madness who
can who’s good who’s bad who’s shows the limit of behavior that’s acceptable but
we had other forms of trickster the one that’s around that’s his chinky with the
raccoon tails on his robe but also a machine yeah the rabbit was another one
like Brer Rabbit you may have heard that and manicotti the one who goes around on
foot coyote was another one they all kind of had different flavors to them as
far as their behaviors tricksters well Conda Watty good okie thank you God
it’s a man encountering the Thunder encountering that connection between the
sky and there and all the stones are living people and you can see the power
the earth the for the corners of the earth connecting to the man so he’s kind
of connecting the sky in the above blow world to this one’s called da new way
well well Anita which is the sacred pipe and this is like like a stained-glass
window kind of format that since the pipe was really the expression of how we
prayed and the smoke connected our breath our praying to God there rose to
the sky the pipe was that instrument some some folks
looked at the bowl we looked at the stem as being the most sacred part of the
pipes that’s what we decorated it in different ways and of course the
war-club there were different forms some were connected with one clan or the
other the ball headed war club this one was more with the bear clan you can see
the claws on it as well it got elaborated later on when they got
metal blades and things so this is an interesting story and this is going to
be one those kind of little strange things that sounds like it may not be
true but it really is back in 1980 and 81 I went to Indian art school down in
Santa Fe ia ia is to institute of American Indian arts and that place was
very haunted the place had a lot of things that were memories and things
that were disturbances it had been an Indian hospital at one time and a lot of
sickness and death had been there in an old North dorm and I lived in a room
with a kid who was gone a lot and people would come up to me and say why didn’t
you open the door I came up knocked on the door and I saw
the doorknob kind of rattle but you never answered it well I heard somebody
get up off your bed and walk over to the door and no one answered it and I wasn’t
sleeping too well in that room so I thought about it and you know instead of
being scared and whatever I know that in the old way is not just Indian but
across the world people would often paint protectors and this one here is we
called him the Guardian and he’s kind of based upon a Lakota warrior called he
dog or a low dog and when I painted that is real big like this I put it in that
room and there was there was no more problems and in fact my father who has
this painting now he took it with him when he worked on the cheyenne
reservation and he said he’s a lot of times he’d see people sitting out in the
car looking cuz it was hanging on the wall you could see out from the to the
street and people were watching and some bad people in their house they would
leave when when this person was there and I don’t know about you but I know
sometimes it seems like we believe that everything has a spirit you know not
just creative things but sometimes things that people make and this
definitely has somebody who visits it and lives in it this is a piece I did
here in Iowa when I was going to school here it’s called tilth which is of
course the composition of soil and new K which is the ice of course being the
first part of how Iowa came to be and knee the water then again rerouted the
valleys and Maya and a son created all the vegetation and finally we our story
is the final seven feet of soil is our old people that’s who they are you can’t
see it too well in this way you can kind of see faces and you and that was made
up of our flesh and bones and what people eat from this land they’re eating
really our old people that’s in you when you eat from Iowa and I’m just wondering
sometimes if that person was going across the land remembers that and
realizes that now this is a another interesting one extinct events atado do
jaywalk okay which means is Genki Vincent his friend an ear of corn he
gave him and it’s you know it’s he’s it’s Vincent van Gogh and everybody
talks about nurse our society the the artist being a madman or a liminal kind
of on the edge the periphery crazy well you know that’s messed up because in
indigenous societies the artist was part of society was important was the person
who kept the visuals kept the people going through a ritual ceremony the
whole thing and I always thought you know if Vincent had been lucky enough to
be born in indigenous society he would never have gone crazy he would have just
kept doing his art and of course ear since he cut off his ear that’s kind of
a meta you know I’ll play on words but see Vincent’s doing good he’s happy he’s
not mad he’s saying stop teasing me trickster and he’s got his rabbit ears
behind his head teasing him back because teasing goes back and forth
that’s health that’s mental balance that’s good and he would never went
crazy and see I know I remember that I heard when people talked about
Vincent’s paintings of the Blackbirds in the field that represented his madness
well the black words are excluded they’re going away you see they’re going
far away and in the lodge structure which also represents the world in the
mind everything’s good everything’s happy and even today clowns clowns in
our societies are different societies are the ones when things get real
desperate when things get real hard and there’s nobody left who can try to heal
somebody from things are happening to them mental problems or or witchcraft
things like that the clowns the tricksters are the ones who have the
best shot at helping people this one is an interesting story – I started
painting this one was originally called the promise of spring and it was about
you know the spring and and as a young girl as a and Postini era which is what
we called the Meadowlark always told us when someone was coming and Pristina
always told you their true name they couldn’t fool you
there were a lot transformers and tricksters and good or bad a lot of bad
ones that would come but took Placita always told you their true name so you
could never be fooled so this year this young woman I was painting her this is
like 20 years I started painting this woman and but I couldn’t she was never
done she was never finished and then and then my friend David and his wife Hannah
they had been after me to paint them painting for some time because Maria
Pearson had had given a name and and they wanted me to do a painting of a
woman standing – flowers woman and and you know I was thinking my friend Norma
she had done paintings from when she was a kid from a young person down in the
southwest 50 years later because we always think finished things are
finished but things are always unfolding creations unfold and you never know
people say how long did this painting take you to do it took me 24 years to do
because I finally added the sunflowers and that made it work that brought it
together and I was able to take release her to where she needed to go
next so that’s how we think and then God is like that in our and our beliefs God
is like that God is is like the artist and the painting is like creation and so
yes God is about creation God is the one who made creation but at the same time
there’s something of God in creation at the same time that painting is me but
it’s not me if you know what I mean and this is on one of the hand-woven sash’s
from from the Iowa tribe are there’s a lot of symbolism there too about which
side you wear it on and and whether you wear it as a as a turban and and things
like that but I just like looking at I like the the beauty in it so I thought I
didn’t flicked it on you – one of the common things you’ll see as I always and
Oto’s did is one of their traditional art forms was a horse head mirror they
call the ardent stallion motif because when stallions are really going after
the mayors their necks count arch and they’re really proud and they’re just
doing their thing and the heart line that goes into it it talks about the
life and the power of the animal as well and of course the mirror that’s a
basically a mirror board you know men use that during that dances to look good
so for their ladies and everything so I don’t know that’s that’s one of the when
you see this dance mirror that’s a very typical Iowan ohto art piece when I was here we’re in landscape
architecture we took a trip on the Upper Iowa River and this is one of the places
in the cliffs the Upper Iowa River being the place that was first known as the
river of Iowa’s and that’s how the the state got its name was the Upper Iowa
River which later became the onio de river
which was named after doing Aitu people who lived there briefly and then it
became the Upper Iowa River again so names are very important but I just this
was a place there was sacred to our old people so I took a picture long time ago
this is no heart you may have heard about the no heart map of 1837 when he
this is one of my great great uncle’s and he drew the map of all the rivers of
all the places because they were trying to make us sell our land and he said how
can we sell the place where all our burials all our old people from times
past we can’t do that this is the proof of here’s that we were here we went over
here here were the trails and it didn’t do him any good
but that map you can still see and they actually used that map to link it with
certain archaeological sites and not mentioning you nice J’s is Hart you’ll
see it nut Jim ingot and other things the nastya is your heart and yungay
means none like no heart of fear there’s no no fear and this was a young woman
that was I think it was his either his daughter or his niece and you never see
the the women you see this kind of mark between her eyebrows or like a Hindu
kind of a mark that so she was of a higher status family it was a tattoo
that they would put there sometimes they had to put two marks there and what I
like about this is her very early photograph 1840s 1850s daguerreotype
actually of you never see women these photographs was always Chiefs it’s
always men and I thought was important to show a woman from that time period –
oh so I just I’m I’m really happy that we’re here to to talk a little bit and
now I’m done talking one direction and I’d like to to talk with you instead of
talking at you and so if anybody has any questions or things aren’t clear to them
please ask me what you want to know about the I always thank you he asked if I thought about
publishing the artwork to keep the stories alive there is a book that’s
University of Iowa press that about the different tribes Iowa and it’s going to
be using some of these drawings but I’m also working on on the stories in a
traditional sense there’s a man named Jim good tracks who’s really kind of
been the core of helping to record and preserve our language for a long long
time his efforts and he’s working on some of the traditional stories
interlinear translations things like that and that’s really important and I
think you know learning the language is is really the core but the reality is
some people aren’t going to learn the language but stories have to live on
somehow so I I’m also working on one that actually tells the stories sort of
like the Grimm’s fairy tales you know you read them in English instead of in
German but there’s a lot of there’s lot conceptions there’s there’s a
translation that says this is the moon that crackles your clothes that makes no
sense in English but if you look at it b3k daily it means that it is so cold
the frostbite burns your clothes black and it crackles them and they fall apart
like ice and so I mean how do you say that the moon that crackles the clothes
literally just doesn’t make sense so we’re working on that kind of thing and
some of the illustrations that would go with that the the question was about the status of
the Iowa language currently the last fluent speakers who spoke it as children
and were raised with it and spoke at what we call fluently in other words at
ease back and forth with each other that gender last generation died pretty much
starting well kind of ending in the late 70s there were a few people like our
Lightfoot and they lasted until the early 90s there are some people who can
hear some of it myself I speak maybe a five year old level Jim good tracks can
speak better than I and there’s there’s this very few maybe half a dozen to 20
or so that know some of it we are trying hard keep going
I put some things on YouTube for example to kind of introduce people to what it
sounds like and things and Jim good tracks is doing a dictionary camera
encyclopedia but that’s a different thing than actually using the language
then making it alive and daily you know here Here I am I was when I was learning
it I take long walks and I had nobody to talk to no anyways so I talked to the
cloud so I my kool-aid AOL okay that means though the dark thought the clouds
are coming he knew how going to kid it’s going to rain I want it to rain so we I
could only talk to to nature I’d look at a deer and I go ho ho ho he took uh da
Rica how are you a grandfather and the deer would stop I talk in English that
year ago did your stop one of the neatest things and strangest
things that happened to me with the languages I was doing some archaeology
in Montana was working for the Forest Service I was walking I smell a smell
was very strong I thought maybe is a cow I kept going
and all of a sudden here crashing through a brush and there’s two little
bear cubs running at me and I and there’s the mother and she sees and
she’s not happy and so I slowly began to back up and she slowly comes forward and
I started singing a song to her one of the few songs I knew and she stops and
she listens to me and she lets me go she let’s me go
I walked backward respectfully say I’m sorry we not doing that time what are
you what are you okey thank you yeah a song goes something like hey Kanye say hey and the song goes it means
what kinda God da Goulet whatever you say is doc hey that’s the way it’s gonna
be so you’re accepting your faith whatever
you’re testing for Petey we not do that time we not know that time means turn
your heart toward me nice Jay is your heart turn your heart toward me I accept
whatever you have now all the whole new way my two hands I do say Kay they’re
open whatever you want to give me I’m ready if you want to kill me I’m ready
for that if you want to let me go I’m happy I bless you and she let me go but
the language is if there’s no way you talk to where does
it go where does it go there are people trying and that’s that’s where we that’s
all we can say now well this been said only American
Indians and only people legally required to keep pedigree you know so we actually
record its recorder for at least from the time of the agents that set down the
the first roles and said who was who and who’s part whatever and everything so
the genealogy a lot of it is the Indian part of it’s pretty clear at least to
that time before that there are some families who know like for example
before white cloud they Noma hanga was bristling arrow was his father but it
only goes back so far a lot of things people’s memories you have to realize
this part of your reason people in Iowa are are more grounded in some ways than
people say in New York or LA is because you still live where your ancestors are
you still have extended family living nearby you know you have a Grandma and
Grandpa they will tell you stories if way you want to hear them or not so so
you have access and in the land itself I mean currently there’s a lot of interest
on TV about ghosts haunted places things like that but the land itself holds
memory just like as human beings two things help hold memory and so when we
were sent away from this place 150 years ago our memories began to fade and we
didn’t know who we were in a lot of ways we didn’t know and so even though the
genealogies there a lot of the facts this is taking time and that’s why we
need to go back to some of these places because I truly believe that by spending
time with some of these places and sleep being there that what we need to know
will will learn to we will learn the places will teach us and what they don’t
teach us that’s okay this it’s not time for that yes those kind of projects are very tied to
the personalities and the funding that is given to them when I was here
previously I think I met a couple people before but I remember Ramon’s Cruz is
one of the people that I had interacted with when I was here before and he had
worked real hard trying to do some things there so I david grad was one of
the people who actually worked with the IOI’s in oklahoma to come up with you i
have the idea of doing that and solomon can’t and i’m nelson white and some of
the other guys came up and and they they were really happy that’s really kind of
where the connection with the aiwei’s and stuff began in the early 70s was
those folks and also Pete Fee coming back after the service and living with
his family before he moved back and then he moved back again but anyway those
those connections are very personally driven people don’t really have you know
Indian people as a priority sometimes in those sites they have to fight for that
sometimes currently I know that that there the the personnel are really doing
really good and and and Melissa can really um can really talk about that but
she’s doing really really great job now I know that since probably Oh early six
early 90s is when I started coming since I was going to school here and really
interacting with people and going down there and helping once a while giving
some feedback or whatever but I live way far away especially since I moved back
in 97 I moved far away I know that there are individuals like Jim good tracks and
and Pat Murphy and somewhat of the folks who live closer who to kind of go back
and forth and there are certain incidences of celebrations like last
fall when the I always go there and stuff but that continuing connection
really needs just like language that needs continuing active participation
and I think Pete Pete’s the only one who still really lives in Iowa and he’s way
up by new album so it’s kind of people try and they’re doing a really good job
doing some things but it’s always a struggle and
and it’s you know it is a struggle well oh yeah
the gorge ‘it’s the symbolism men were there were two kind of tutelary
connections with the men with women it was a lot of the earth one minute was
the Sun and and the Thunder now that represents the Sun they say and it
represents that that as an adult man the warrior status as part of the Sun and
the the woodpecker also the red you know on the pipe the red represents also the
Sun as well so that’s that’s from ancient time Mississippian times well
thank you everybody and um I think there’s some refreshments back there and
and please drive safely and be be well and thank you for coming what okay okay so thank you everyone for coming and
we’d like to invite you to take part and some cookies and refreshments back there
and also don’t forget if you’re interested in receiving information from
the Native American student groups there’s a sign-up sheet over on that
back table alright and we would like to thank Lance once again for being here
with us and presenting this lecture and so we like to present you with this
blanket very traditional things so thank you once again

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