3.0 The Rise of Nationalism; The Demise of Empire 02 36

3.0 The Rise of Nationalism; The Demise of Empire 02 36


[BLANK_AUDIO] Welcome to our third lesson of our course
on the emergence of the modern beliefs. And our course today is on the rise of
nationalism in the Middle East on the one hand, and the demise, the end of the
Ottoman Empire on the other. [BLANK_AUDIO] Muslims did not traditionally connect
collective identity with territoriality. Connection of identity for Muslims was a
matter of religious belief, and not of
territorial belonging. But under the impact of European ideas
during the 19th century, the idea of territorial nationalism began to become
more acceptable, concepts began to change. And in the generation of Islamic reform in
the late 19th and early 20th century, nationalism became
a much more acceptable idea. And, we are talking about three forms of nationalism in this period: Turkish, Arab,
and Egyptian. [BLANK_AUDIO] These nationalisms were the property, for
the most part, of an intellectual, elitist,
westernizing, urban minority. Nationalism was not the province of the
masses of the citizenry. Nationalists were especially the graduates
of the new schools, those who had been exposed more
intensively to Western ideas. The new schools produced new social
classes, new professions. Teachers for the new schools who were
teaching new subjects, lawyers and judges administering
new European inspired legal systems. These were the people who were the most
supportive of the new nationalist ideas. [BLANK_AUDIO] But for most of the population, the people were still very deeply embedded in Islamic
tradition. Though, what exactly tradition meant was
beginning to change also. But religious leaders still wielded
constant local authority. The Ottoman Sultan at the end of the 19th century, Abdulhamid the Second
claimed to be the Caliph of all Muslims, mobilizing popular
support for the Ottoman Empire on the basis of their
Islamic identity. But nevertheless, nationalist movements
did arise and in response to a variety of different
challenges. Subtitles by the Amara.org community

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *